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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by mucus hyper-production. This pathology, together with other inflammatory contributions, leads to airway obstruction and breathing complications. Newer therapeutic approaches are of increased interest, including the use of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors. Retrospective studies have shown that statins are effective in reducing patient mortality and blood cytokines levels. These findings suggest statins may also provide a new therapeutic approach in COPD treatment.
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Patients under lipid lowering therapy and managed by general practitioners were included. LDL-cholesterol therapeutic objective was defined according to the number of cardiovascular risk factors associated with dyslipidemia (AFSSAPS-2005 guidelines).
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Simvastatin (SIM), a widely used anti-lipidemic drug, has been identified as a bone anabolic agent. Its poor water solubility and the lack of distribution to the skeleton, however, have limited its application in the treatment of bone metabolic diseases. In this study, an amphiphilic macromolecular prodrug of SIM was designed and synthesized to overcome these limitations. The polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based prodrug can spontaneously self-assemble to form micelles. The use of SIM trimer as the prodrug's hydrophobic segment allows easy encapsulation of additional free SIM. The in vitro studies showed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles were internalized by MC3T3 cells via lysosomal trafficking and consistently induced expression of both BMP2 and DKK1 mRNA, suggesting that the prodrug micelle retains the biological functions of SIM. After systemic administration, optical imaging suggests that the micelles would passively target to bone fracture sites associated with hematoma and inflammation. Furthermore, flow cytometry study revealed that SIM/SIM-mPEG micelles had preferred cellular uptake by inflammatory and resident cells within the fracture callus tissue. The treatment study using a mouse osteotomy model validated the micelles' therapeutic efficacy in promoting bone fracture healing as demonstrated by micro-CT and histological analyses. Collectively, these data suggest that the macromolecular prodrug-based micelle formulation of SIM may have great potential for clinical management of impaired fracture healing.
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Hepatic uptake carriers of the organic anion-transporting peptide (OATP) family of solute carriers are more and more recognized as being involved in hepatic elimination of many drugs and potentially associated drug-drug interactions. The gemfibrozil-statin interaction was studied at the level of active hepatic uptake as a model for such drug-drug interactions. Active, temperature-dependent uptake of fluvastatin into primary human hepatocytes was shown. Multiple transporters are involved in this uptake as Chinese hamster ovary or HEK293 cells expressing either OATP1B1 (K(m) = 1.4-3.5 microM), OATP2B1 (K(m) = 0.7-0.8 microM), or OATP1B3 showed significant fluvastatin uptake relative to control cells. For OATP1B1 the inhibition by gemfibrozil was substrate-dependent as the transport of fluvastatin (IC(50) of 63 microM), pravastatin, simvastatin, and taurocholate was inhibited by gemfibrozil, whereas the transport of estrone-3-sulfate and troglitazone sulfate (both used at 3 microM) was not affected. The OATP1B1- but not OATP2B1-mediated transport of estrone-3-sulfate displayed biphasic saturation kinetics, with two distinct affinity components for estrone-3-sulfate (0.23 and 45 microM). Only the high-affinity component was inhibited by gemfibrozil. Recombinant OATP1B1-, OATP2B1-, and OATP1B3-mediated fluvastatin transport was inhibited to 97, 70, and 62% by gemfibrozil (200 microM), respectively, whereas only a small inhibitory effect by gemfibrozil (200 microM) on fluvastatin uptake into primary human hepatocytes was observed (27% inhibition). The results indicate that the in vitro engineered systems can not always predict the behavior in more complex systems such as freshly isolated primary hepatocytes. Therefore, selection of substrate, substrate concentration, and in vitro transport system are critical for the conduct of in vitro interaction studies involving individual liver OATP carriers.
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Compared with controls, patients with EH had increased IL-1beta [992+/-151 pg/ml, 912+/-102 pg/ml vs. 599+/-93 pg/ml; P<0.05] secretion by PBMCs after stimulated by angiotensin II. Simvastatin treatment had a significant effect of decreasing IL-1beta [668+/-98 vs. 923+/-67 pg/ml; P<0.05] secretion in PBMCs. The reductions were not correlated to changes in plasma lipids.
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A case of spontaneous biceps tendon rupture in a physician during therapy with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe (Vytorin) is reported. Rechallenge produced tendinopathy in the contralateral biceps tendon that abated with drug discontinuation. Tendon rupture generally occurs in injured tendons. Physiological repair of an injured tendon requires degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix through matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Statins are known to inhibit MMPs. It was hypothesized that statins may increase the risk of tendon rupture by altering MMP activity. In conclusion, statins may increase the risk of tendon rupture by altering MMP activity.
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After 8 weeks of treatment, LDL-C concentrations were reduced by 42.5% from baseline in patients receiving atorvastatin and 34.8% in those receiving simvastatin (p = 0.0006). Patients treated with atorvastatin also had a significantly greater reduction in very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), TG, and total cholesterol (TC) after 8 weeks of treatment. The significantly greater reductions in LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, and TC from baseline achieved with atorvastatin were still observed after an additional 8 weeks of treatment with 20 mg study medication. Both drugs increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations after 16 weeks of treatment, with no significant difference between the two treatments. After 16 weeks of treatment, 93% of atorvastatin and 85% of simvastatin patients had achieved their National Cholesterol Education Program LDL-C goals. No deaths occurred in the study population and the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was the same in the two groups (28%). Only one patient who was treated with simvastatin had a transaminase or creatine phosphokinase concentration that was more than three-fold the upper limit of normal.
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Patients who switched from atorvastatin to simvastatin between July 2006 and January 2008 were retrospectively identified from a US medical and pharmacy claims database, and matched with controls remaining on atorvastatin. Outcomes measured were the number of switched patients receiving a simvastatin milligram dose>or=2 times their previous atorvastatin dose, changes in LDL-C levels, and percentage of patients achieving recommended LDL-C targets. All study variables were analyzed descriptively.
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In this phase 2 study, 61 patients received treatment with irinotecan (65 mg/m(2) ) and cisplatin (30 mg/m(2) ) on Days 1 and 8 every 3 weeks until either death or disease progression occurred. Patients also received oral simvastatin (40 mg daily) during the course of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was 1-year survival. Secondary endpoints included the response rate (RR), progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity.
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The lipid-lowering drugs, statins, induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. Here we investigated the apoptotic effect of the lipophilic statin, simvastatin, in C6 glioma cells and the underlying effects on intracellular signal transduction. Simvastatin inhibited cell proliferation totally after 20h of treatment as shown by the decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression in the nucleus. Subsequently, simvastatin caused apoptotic cell death by shrinkage of cytoplasm and condensation of chromatin, and DNA fragmentation. The features of apoptosis were visible only after 48 h of treatment, possibly reflecting a requirement for cell commitment to growth arrest. In immunocytochemical and immunoblotting experiments we have shown that simvastatin markedly increased the phosphorylation of ATF-2 and c-jun in the nucleus of the C6 glioma cells at early time points which was preserved even 24 h after treatment. In contrast, activities of protein kinases Erk1/2 and AKT in the cell survival pathway remained unchanged throughout the treatment. Selective inhibitor of JNK, but not p38 kinase, reduced simvastatin-induced cell death and ATF-2 and c-jun phosphorylation suggesting that JNK-dependent activation of ATF-2 and c-jun may play an important role in simvastatin-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis in C6 glioma cells. These observations suggest that statins may have clinical significance in the prevention of glial tumors beyond their cholesterol-lowering effect and JNK may be a rational target for sensitizing glioma cells to chemotherapeutic agents.
A Simon two-stage, single-arm, phase II study was performed to test the efficacy and safety of the addition of simvastatin to cetuximab in patients with a KRAS mutation in their CRC tumour who were previously treated with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan based regimens. The primary endpoint was to test the percentage of patients alive and free from progression 12.5 weeks after the first administration of cetuximab. Our hypothesis was that at least 40% was free from progression, comparable to, though slightly lower than in KRAS wild-type patients.
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Ubiquinone (Ub) is the only known endogenously synthesized lipid soluble antioxidant. It is synthesized from intermediates in the cholesterol metabolic pathway. Our goal was to identify the Ubs and determine the concentration and distribution of Ubs in the rat lens and the effect of treatment with simvastatin, a cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, on lens levels.
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This case demonstrates a possible association between acute pancreatitis and nilotinib use. Although a rare phenomenon, clinicians should be alert for signs and symptoms of pancreatitis, as treatment with nilotinib for CML is becoming more common.
The study is a prospective, randomised, open label trial with blinded end point assessment and balanced randomisation (1:1) conducted in 10 outpatient clinics in Denmark. The primary end point after 5 years of follow-up is a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke and cardiac revascularisation. Secondary outcomes are: the proportion of patients achieving low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.5 mmol/L, glycated haemoglobin <48 mmol/mol, blood pressure <140/90 mm Hg for patients without diabetes and <130/80 mm Hg for patients with diabetes and normoalbuminuria (urinary albumin creatinine ratio <30 mg/g) after 1 year of follow-up and the proportion of patients in each treatment group achieving low RA disease activity after 1 year, defined as a disease activity score C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) <3.2 and a DAS28-CRP score <2.6 after 12, 24 and 60 months. Furthermore, all hospitalisations for acute and elective reasons will be adjudicated by the event committee after 12, 24 and 60 months. Three hundred treatment-naive patients with early RA will be randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either conventional treatment administered and monitored by their general practitioner according to national guidelines (control group) or a stepwise implementation administered and monitored in a quarterly rheumatological nurse-administered set-up of behaviour modification and pharmacological therapy targeting (1) hyperlipidaemia, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycaemia and (4) microalbuminuria (intervention group).
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A total of 20,536 people were assigned randomly to simvastatin 40 mg daily or placebo for an average of 5 years. Five baseline N-BNP groups were defined (<386; 386 to 1,171; 1,172 to 2,617; 2,618 to 5,758; and > or =5,759 pg/ml).
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The patients with CAD and obesity presented at baseline significantly increased hs-CRP level, insignificantly decreased FMD and lower PON1 activity compared to non-obese individuals. There was no association of obesity with 8-iso-PGF2α in the CAD and control group. The PON1 activity was significantly higher in 192R carriers in patients and controls, irrespective of obesity. Obesity was not associated with the effects of simvastatin on PON1 activity, urine 8-iso-PGF2α, and TNF-α, whereas it blunted its effect on the FMD improvement. The Q192R polymorphism was associated with simvastatin effectiveness on hs-CRP and FMD.
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Three review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data.
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Simvastatin interacts with the RA system, inducing the expression of the key protein regulating the uptake of retinol (STRA6) and the expression of apoptosis-promoting CRABP2. These effects may contribute to cooperative apoptosis-inducing effects of simvastatin and RA and support the examination of these compounds in the treatment of endometriosis.
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Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing cholesterol for 10 days to induce hypercholesterolemia. The NAD levels in the plasma and liver and hepatic ACMSD activity were determined. In vitro study, the expression of ACMSD and the transcriptional factors that regulate cholesterol metabolism were determined using rat primary hepatocytes treated with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol or simvastatin, a statin medication, by quantitative real-time PCR analysis and Western blotting analysis.
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Statins are widely prescribed medicines and are also available in fixed dose combinations with other drugs to treat several chronic ailments. Given the safety issues associated with statins it may be important to assess feasibility of a single time concentration strategy for prediction of exposure (area under the curve; AUC). The peak concentration (Cmax) was used to establish relationship with AUC separately for pravastatin and simvastatin using published pharmacokinetic data. The regression equations generated for statins were used to predict the AUC values from various literature references. The fold difference of the observed divided by predicted values along with correlation coefficient (r) were used to judge the feasibility of the single time point approach. Both pravastatin and simvastatin showed excellent correlation of Cmax vs. AUC values with r value ≥ 0.9638 (p<0.001). The fold difference was within 0.5-fold to 2-fold for 220 out of 227 AUC predictions and >81% of the predicted values were in a narrower range of >0.75-fold but <1.5-fold difference. Predicted vs. observed AUC values showed excellent correlation for pravastatin (r=0.9708, n=115; p<0.001) and simvastatin (r=0.9810; n=117; p<0.001) suggesting the utility of Cmax for AUC predictions. On the basis of the present work, it is feasible to develop a single concentration time point strategy that coincides with Cmax occurrence for both pravastatin and simvastatin from a therapeutic drug monitoring perspective.
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Of 239 respondents (62 from ANZ and 177 from UK) 58% worked in teaching hospitals; most (78.2%) practised in 'closed' units with a mixed medical and surgical case mix (71.0%). The most frequently prescribed statins were simvastatin (77.6%) in the UK and atorvastatin (66.1%) in ANZ. The main reasons cited to explain the choice of statin were preadmission prescription and pharmacy availability. Most respondents reported never starting statins to prevent (65.3%) or treat (89.1%) organ dysfunction. Only a minority (10%) disagreed with a statement that the risks of major side effects of statins when prescribed in critically ill patients were low. The majority (84.5%) of respondents strongly agreed that a clinical trial of statins for prevention is needed. More than half (56.5%) favoured rates of organ failure as the primary outcome for such a trial, while a minority (40.6%) favoured mortality.
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LDL-C goal achievement rates and reductions in LDL-C, total cholesterol and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were similar in patients with and without the MS within statin treatment groups; triglycerides were reduced more and HDL-C tended to be increased more in patients with the MS, as expected. Treatment with rosuvastatin 10 mg was more effective in allowing patients with and without the MS to reach European and ATP III LDL-C goals, compared to atorvastatin 10 mg, simvastatin 20 mg and pravastatin 40 mg (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons); consistently produced greater reductions in LDL-C, total cholesterol and non-HDL-C, compared to these treatments; and produced similar or greater reductions in triglycerides and increases in HDL-C, compared to the other treatments.
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Fewer cardiovascular events and deaths were predicted to occur in the group treated with higher-intensity statins, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was estimated at pound11 103/QALY. The ICER remained below the pound20 000 threshold for 20-39-year-olds and 40-59-year-olds, but rose above this threshold in individuals aged over 60 years. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that results were most sensitive to variation in treatment effect on mortality and the cost of high-intensity statins.
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Effects of pravastatin and simvastatin on the humoral immune response were studied using Cunningham's method of the IgM plaque-forming cell (PFC) assay system in mice. The vehicle (0.5% CMC), pravastatin (1 mg/body : about 50 mg/kg) or simvastatin (0.5 mg/body : about 25 mg/kg) were given orally for 14 days in experiment Exp-I and Exp-II. The vehicle, pravastatin (0.5 mg/body : about 25 mg/kg) or simvastatin (0.25 mg/body : about 12.5 mg/kg) were given orally 29 times for 32 days in Exp-III. There were no significant differences in the mean numbers of PFCs per 10(6) splenocytes between the pravastatin groups and the vehicle groups. In the simvastatin groups, however, there were significant reductions of the numbers of PFCs in Exp-I, Exp-II and Exp-III, as compared with the vehicle group. Based on these results, it was considered that suppressive effect on IgM antibody production was induced by simvastatin, whereas such a suppression was not observed with pravastatin.
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Large-scale randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have well demonstrated the beneficial effects of cholesterol-lowering treatment with statins in patients at high risk of vascular disease. However, large statin RCTs were usually restricted to the typical 5-6 years. Moreover, non-cardiovascular events, especially the risk of cancer, probably failed to emerge within a restricted period of 6 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of statin treatment by performing a meta-analysis of statin RCTs with extended follow-up beyond 6 years. Six RCTs with post-trial follow-up were eligible for inclusion, involving 47,296 patients with total follow-up ranging from 6.7 to 14.7 years. During the post-trial period, all the surviving participants were advised to take a statin and the cholesterol level were almost identical between the original statin group and the original placebo group. Over the entire 6.7-14.7 years of follow-up, a significant reduction in the rates of all-cause mortality (relative risk 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.85-0.96; P=0.0009), cardiovascular mortality (0.87, 0.81-0.93; P<0.0001) and major coronary events (0.79, 0.72-0.86; P<0.00001) was observed in favour of the original statin group. During 2-year post-trial period, further reduction in all-cause mortality (0.83, 0.74-0.93; P=0.001), cardiovascular mortality (0.81, 0.69-0.95; P=0.01) and major coronary events (0.77, 0.63-0.95; P=0.01) was observed among initially statin-treated patients. Over the entire follow-up period, statin treatment did not increase the incidence of cancers (0.99, 0.95-1.04; P=0.79), deaths from cancers (1.00, 0.93-1.07; P=0.98) and non-cardiovascular mortality (0.95, 0.90-1.00; P=0.07). In conclusion, statin treatment beyond 6 years is effective and safe in patients at high risk of vascular events. Moreover, earlier treatment with statin may not only preserve the initial benefit but also have further survival benefit for additional 2 years. Further studies are called for to explore the underlying mechanisms.
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Sequential arterial injury augments the thrombotic response suggesting that the propensity for arterial thrombosis is at least partially acquired. This thrombotic augmentation can be acutely attenuated by intravenous lovastatin which may result from a pleiotropic impact on platelet function. These results appear to be a class effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors.
A structured framework was applied to demonstrate considerations when tackling challenging medication regimens.
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A total of 6,080 cases and 24,320 controls were examined. The mean age was 74 years, and the majority of patients were Caucasian (88%) and male (99%). Filled prescriptions of statins were recorded less frequently in cases (49%) than in controls (52%; OR: 0.88; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.83-0.93). This inverse association remained significant after adjusting for inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes severity, cholecystectomy, liver disease, filled prescriptions for sulfonylurea, aspirin or NSAID use, or colorectal evaluation. Simvastatin comprised the majority (87%) of statin-filled prescriptions, and the association with risk of CRC with simvastatin was very similar to that of any statin. No significant associations were observed between the risk of CRC and nonstatin cholesterol (OR: 1.02; 95% CI 0.88-1.18) or triglyceride-lowering medications (OR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.87-1.05). The significant inverse association was limited to Caucasians, patients without history of polyps, patients aged 65 years and older, and patients with colon cancer (excluding rectum).