The case of a 57-year-old white female who was found deceased at home by her husband is presented. A suicide note was found at the scene. No remarkable findings were observed at autopsy. Comprehensive toxicological analysis of the heart blood identified ethanol (0.16 g/dL), diazepam (1.1 mg/L), and tizanidine (2.3 mg/L). Blood concentrations of tizanidine following therapeutic use do not exceed 0.025 mg/L. The medical examiner ruled that the cause of death was combined ethanol and multiple drug intoxication, and the manner of death was suicide.
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In addition to muscle stiffness and increasing mobility restrictions, symptoms commonly associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity are spasms, sleep disturbances, pain, fatigue and bladder dysfunction. Treatment options include trigger factor avoidance, physiotherapy and antispasticity medication. Oral antispasticity agents commonly used in Germany are baclofen, tizanidine and gabapentin, but physician and patient satisfaction with their effectiveness is low. Over the past few years, randomized controlled trials, observational studies and registry data have demonstrated the positive risk:benefit profile of add-on 9-delta-tetra-hydrocannabinol:cannabidiol oromucosal spray for moderate-to-severe resistant MS spasticity. Herein, evidence for this novel therapeutic option is reviewed. A case study illustrates the level of improvement in daily functioning that is possible in treatment responders.
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Sixteen patients suffering from spasticity due to multiple sclerosis were treated with baclofen and tizanidine in a partially blind cross-over study. No significant difference in efficacy was found. The most striking difference was seen in the side-effects: baclofen frequently caused more or less severe muscle weakness and even falling during walking and standing. Treatment with tizanidine produced an apparent improvement of mobility in some patients suffering from moderate or marked paresis associated with a marked spasticity of their legs. Isometric muscle strength did not show any significant changes during either treatment. The different impact of baclofen and tizanidine on mobility and weight support seems to be related to their different site of action in spasticity.
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Cerebral blood flow to the left hemisphere of adult Sprague-Dawley rats (n=48) was temporarily interrupted by middle cerebral artery and bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 3 hours in eight rats of each group. Tizanidine was given to each group of rats intraperitoneally before the ischemic insult, 2 hours after ischemia, right after the reperfusion, 2 h after reperfusion, and 4 hours after reperfusion; the animals survived for 24 hours after the reperfusion. After killing and triphenyltetrasoliumchloride staining of brain slices, infarction volumes and ratios of the brains were calculated and the results were compared with those of the control group.
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Trigeminal neuralgia was defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as a sudden, usually unilateral, severe, brief, stabbing recurrent pain in the distribution of one or more branches of the fifth cranial nerve. Standard treatment is with anti-epileptic drugs. Non-antiepileptic drugs have been used in the management of trigeminal neuralgia since the 1970s. This is an update of a review first published in 2006 and previously updated in 2011.
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Further investigations that must also include neurologists and anesthetists are required to work out effective pain relief regimens for APAM in patients with PP.
To analyze the results of examination and treatment of patients with poststroke shoulder pain.
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A total of 113 potentially relevant articles were identified by the search; of these, 54 studies were included in the review (23 randomized controlled trials [RCTs] and 31 open-label, nonrandomized, or observational studies). Of these, 51 involved treatment with botulinum toxin (BTX). All studies assessed spasticity; some also assessed additional outcomes, such as pain, disability, and functional status. Thirty-eight clinical trials reported a significant reduction in spasticity with BTX, either compared with baseline or with placebo (P < 0.05). A head-to-head comparison found a significant reduction in spasticity with BTX injections compared with oral tizanidine (TZD) (P < 0.001). Two studies of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) reported significant reductions in upper limb spasticity after 12 months of treatment, and 1 study of tizanidine reported significant reductions in upper limb spasticity after 16 weeks of treatment (all, P < 0.001). General or local weakness, injection-site pain, and fatigue were the most frequently reported adverse events with BTX type A, and dry mouth was the most frequently reported adverse event with BTX type B. No serious or life-threatening adverse events were reported in any trial of BTX.
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We assigned randomly in a double blind study 10 children treated with tizanidine (0.05 mg/kg/day) and 30 with placebo for a 6-month period, after which they were unified in the group of tizanidine. The dependent variables were spasticity, Ashworth scale, posture tone scale, reflex scale and liver function test.
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Spasticity is a common disability in children with cerebral palsy. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments, including physical therapy, occupational therapy, orthotics, rhizotomy, and orthopedic surgery, all play important roles in the management of spasticity. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of available medications for treatment of spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. Common medications include benzodiazepines, dantrolene sodium, baclofen, tizanidine, botulinum toxins, phenol, alcohol and intrathecal baclofen. In general, oral medications and intrathecal baclofen are used for treating generalized spasticity, whilst chemodenervation agents (botulinum toxins, phenol, and alcohol) are used to treat localized spasticity. There is more sufficient evidence for the recommendation of botulinum toxin A as an effective anti-spasticity treatment in children with cerebral palsy. However, more data concerning safety and long-term effects of botulinum toxin A is needed. Further study is needed to determine which kinds of medications can cause substantial improvement in daily activity, participation level, self-competence, or quality of life in children with cerebral palsy.
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A method was developed for rapid toxicological analysis of eperisone, tolperisone, and tizanidine in human serum using a MonoSpin® C18 extraction column and LC/MS/MS. The method was validated for LOD, linearity, precision, and extraction recovery. This method was rapid with an LOD of 0.5 ng/mL, linearity range 1-500.0 ng/mL (r2 = 0.999), and RSD value below 14.6%. Extraction recovery from the sample was greater than 98.6, 98.8, and 88.5% for eperisone, tolperisone, and tizanidine, respectively. Results showed that combination of the MonoSpin C18 extraction column and LC/MS/MS is a simple and rapid method for the analysis of these three analytes, and a method is described for simultaneous quantitative determination of the analytes in human serum by LC/MSIMS. This method was used to determine the serum levels of eperisone in a patient with eperisone poisoning, and could be successfully applied for screening analyses in clinical cases other than poisoning.
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A list of commonly used migraine medications was agreed upon by the 6 authors, who treat migraine and other headaches on a regular basis and are members of the Women's Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society. Each medication was researched by the first author utilizing widely accepted data sources, such as the American Academy of Pediatrics publication "The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk; Thomas Hale's manual Medications and Mothers Milk; Briggs, Freeman, and Yaffe's reference book Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation; and the National Library of Medicine's Drugs and Lactation Database (LactMed) - a peer-reviewed and fully referenced database available online.
In a double blind, randomised, multicentre trial 22 patients were followed up during 13 weeks and subsequently included in a 52 week observational longitudinal study. Patients were those with chronic, disabling spasticity who did not respond to maximum doses of oral baclofen, dantrolene, and tizanidine. After implantation of a programmable pump patients were randomly assigned to placebo or baclofen infusion for 13 weeks. After 13 weeks all patients received baclofen. Clinical efficacy was assessed by the Ashworth scale, spasm score, and self reported pain, and health related quality of life by the sickness impact profile (SIP) and the Hopkins symptom checklist (HSCL).
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Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital.
Intrathecal tizanidine, clonidine, or the combinations increased the tail-flick latency in dose- and time-dependent fashion without affecting motor function. The order potencies (dose producing a 50% of peak effect, in microg) of tizanidine and clonidine were 1.8 and 0.75, respectively. With isobolographic analysis, tizanidine with lidocaine and clonidine with lidocaine showed significantly synergistic antinociceptive interaction. Potency ratio analysis and fractional analysis also confirmed the synergistic interaction. At the doses in the combinations showing comparable antinociception, tizanidine with lidocaine, unlike clonidine with lidocaine, did not affect motor function or blood pressure.
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First, we reported a case of tizanidine-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. In the second case report, we presented an episode of asthma exacerbation after taking bimatoprost. Through the review of these two cases, we highlighted some common criticisms of spontaneous reporting systems: under-reporting and false causality attribution.
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Rifampicin greatly reduces the plasma concentrations of many drugs. Our aim was to characterise the inducibility of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2 by rifampicin, using tizanidine and caffeine as probe drugs for presystemic and systemic CYP1A2-mediated metabolism.
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The overall efficacy and tolerance of a new skeletal muscle relaxant DS 103-282 was evaluated by treating 10 patients with chronic spinal spasticity. Other agents such as baclofen, dantrolene sodium or diazepam had been only minimally beneficial in these patients. Treatment was started with DS 103-282 at a mean dosage of 7.4 mg. per day which was adjusted according to response up to 14.5 mg. per day at the end of the 8-week trial period. Objective rating assessments showed improvement in spasticity, medullary automatism and clonus. No changes were recorded in the reflex pattern nor improvement in disability scores. Only a few mild side-effects were reported, there was a noticeable absence of sedation, but reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was noted in most patients. DS 103-282 appears to have demonstrable myotonolytic action and in view of its good tolerance it deserves further investigation.
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This treatment protocol was well tolerated and yielded a high degree of efficacy, demonstrating that outpatient management can be effective for achieving analgesic withdrawal and resolution of analgesic rebound headache.
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Although spasticity of varying severity affects up to 80% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) during the course of their disease, the symptom is often overlooked and undertreated. Despite the availability of oral antispasticity treatments (baclofen, tizanidine and others), approximately one-third of MS patients in Europe and the USA experience moderate or severe nonfocalized spasticity. At present, a thorough clinical evaluation of MS-related spasticity that takes into account the patient's own perception of spasms, spasticity-related pain and other associated symptoms is not common in daily neurological practice. Some of the usual spasticity scales, such as the Ashworth and modified Ashworth scales, reflect the observer's measurement of spasticity at a particular point in time. Herbal (smoked) cannabis has long been recognized as a possible option for relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain, but pertinent concerns about psychoactive effects and addiction risk have prevented its common use. An innovative method of benefiting from the mode of action of cannabinoids while limiting their drawbacks is to reduce peak plasma levels of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol and counteract psychoactivity with higher than naturally occurring proportions of a second cannabinoid, cannabidiol. Sativex® oromucosal spray (1:1 ratio of 9-delta-tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol) has recently been approved in a number of EU countries and elsewhere for use in patients with MS-related spasticity who are resistant to treatment with other antispasticity medications. In clinical trials, Sativex provided initial relief of spasticity symptoms within the first 4 weeks of treatment (trial period) in up to about half of patients resistant to other available oral antispasticity medications and demonstrated clinically significant improvement in spasticity (30% or higher reduction from baseline) in three-quarters of the initial responders. Adverse events were limited mainly to mild or moderate cases of somnolence and dizziness. Under everyday clinical practice conditions, Sativex at a mean daily dose of <7 sprays/day, was shown to relieve spasticity in about 70% of patients previously resistant to treatment. Clear improvements were also noted in associated symptoms such as sleep disturbances, bladder problems, loss of mobility and cramps. In large observational studies, >80% of patients reported no adverse events with the use of Sativex and interim data from safety registries in the UK and Spain indicate a low risk for serious adverse drug reactions. Follow-up studies in Sativex responders support continued benefit without the need to increase doses for at least 1 year. Sativex appears to be a promising solution for a meaningful proportion of patients with MS-related spasticity who have inadequate response to current antispasticity medications.
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Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sounds, is a highly prevalent disorder. Although a wide variety of drugs have been investigated off label for the treatment of tinnitus, there is no approved pharmacotherapy. We report an open-label exploratory pilot study to assess the effect of muscle relaxants acting on the central nervous system on tinnitus patients. Cyclobenzaprine at high (30 mg) and low doses (10 mg), orphenadrine (100 mg), tizanidine (24 mg) and eperisone (50 mg) were administered to a maximum of 20 patients per group over a 12-week period. High-dose cyclobenzaprine resulted in a significant reduction in the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) score between baseline and week 12 in the intention-to-treat sample. On the other hand, other treatments were not effective. These results were confirmed in an explorative analysis where baseline corrected THI and Clinical Global Impression scores at week 12 were compared between groups. The present open trial presents a new promising pharmacotherapy for tinnitus that should be validated in placebo-controlled double-blind trials.
Subjects were evaluated for dose and effect throughout the trial as well as for side effects. Data for Ashworth rigidity scores, spasm scores, deep tendon reflex scores, and motor strength were collected on the affected upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE). Differences over time were assessed via descriptive statistics, Friedman's analysis, and Wilcoxon's signed-rank. Data are reported as the mean +/- 1 standard deviation.
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Despite a satisfactory grade of recommendation, general pharmacological treatments are limited by adverse events and lack of evidence of functional benefit. Intrathecal baclofen should be discussed for upper-limb spasticity, but further studies are needed before its use can be recommended. The place of chemical neurolysis with use of alcohol or phenol should be evaluated with surgical neurotomy and botulinum toxin therapy. The use of botulinum toxin is the only treatment supported by scientific results, but many questions remain about the site of injection, how to improve efficacy and influence on neurological recovery.
The effects of the intrathecal alpha 2-agonists tizanidine and clonidine and the somatostatin analog octreotide on an experimental rat model of tactile allodynia were investigated to determine the therapeutic potential for treating chronic neuropathic pain. Allodynia was induced by ligating the rat sciatic nerve. The mechanical threshold for paw withdrawal was assessed by applying von Frey hairs to quantify analgesic actions. Mean 50% paw withdrawal thresholds were converted to the percentage of maximum possible effect (%MPE) where %MPE = (postdrug threshold-predrug threshold) divided by (15 g-predrug threshold) x 100. Dose-response curves were plotted for suppression of paw withdrawal 30 minutes after intrathecal injection of various doses of tizanidine, clonidine, and octreotide. Thresholds on the non-lesioned side were greater than 15 g. The lesioned side had baseline thresholds of less than 4.5 g. Dose-response curves were established for the antiallodynia effects of each drug. Tizanidine and clonidine at a 25-micrograms dose increased the threshold to greater than 97% of the MPE, but caused transient hindpaw weakness or sedation. No side effect was observed at a 10-micrograms dose, at which the threshold was 88-96% of MPE. Intrathecal octreotide modestly increased the threshold to only 49-67% of MPE, showing a lesser analgesic effect, although no side effect was observed at a 4-micrograms dose. The antiallodynic effects of intrathecal tizanidine and clonidine were more potent than that of octreotide.
Intrathecal ethanol block is a last but very useful choice for treatment of intractable spasticity in PML and other neurologic disorders in AIDS patients when other oral treatments have failed and intrathecal baclofen infusion is not suitable.
Systemic and/or IT treatment with Tiz significantly suppressed SRA. This Tiz-mediated anti-SRA effect was reversed by BRL (5 mg kg(-1)), Efa (1 mg kg(-1)), and Ida (1 mg kg(-1)). No reversal was seen after Yoh (3 mg kg(-1)) or ARC (5 mg kg(-1)) treatment. Anti-SRA induced by IT Tiz (50 μg) was reversed by IT injection of Ati (50 μg). Significant suppression of H-reflex was measured after systemic Tiz treatment (1 mg/kg) or isoflurane (2%) anesthesia, respectively. Immunofluorescence staining of spinal cord sections taken from animals with spasticity showed upregulation of α2A receptor in activated astrocytes.