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We calculated the growth inhibition of oral bacteria in the orthodontic appliances after herbal antibacterial agents were placed in culture media. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of these agents on Streptococcus mutans growth were determined. After cultivating colonies of Streptococci in biofilm medium with these herbal antimicrobial agents and orthodontic attachments, viable cell counting was performed from the bacteria which were attached on them. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of morphology was observed on bacterial cells which were attached to orthodontic attachments. The effects of these agents were then evaluated and recommendations were forwarded.
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Human skin is body's vital organ constantly exposed to abiotic oxidative stress. This can have deleterious effects on skin such as darkening, skin damage, and aging. Plant-derived products having skin-protective effects are well-known traditionally. Triphala, a formulation of three fruit products, is one of the most important rasayana drugs used in Ayurveda. Several skin care products based on Triphala are available that claim its protective effects on facial skin. However, the skin protective effects of Triphala extract (TE) and its mechanistic action on skin cells have not been elucidated in vitro. Gallic acid, ellagic acid, and chebulinic acid were deduced by LC-MS as the major constituents of TE. The identified key compounds were docked with skin-related proteins to predict their binding affinity. The IC50 values for TE on human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human keratinocytes (HaCaT) were 204.90 ± 7.6 and 239.13 ± 4.3 μg/mL respectively. The antioxidant capacity of TE was 481.33 ± 1.5 mM Trolox equivalents in HaCaT cells. Triphala extract inhibited hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced RBC haemolysis (IC50 64.95 μg/mL), nitric oxide production by 48.62 ± 2.2%, and showed high reducing power activity. TE also rescued HDF from H2O2-induced damage; inhibited H2O2 induced cellular senescence and protected HDF from DNA damage. TE increased collagen-I, involucrin and filaggrin synthesis by 70.72 ± 2.3%, 67.61 ± 2.1% and 51.91 ± 3.5% in HDF or HaCaT cells respectively. TE also exhibited anti-tyrosinase and melanin inhibition properties in a dose-dependent manner. TE increased the mRNA expression of collagen-I, elastin, superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), aquaporin-3 (AQP-3), filaggrin, involucrin, transglutaminase in HDF or HaCaT cells, and decreased the mRNA levels of tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. Thus, Triphala exhibits protective benefits on skin cells in vitro and can be used as a potential ingredient in skin care formulations.
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Bromobenzene treatment resulted in significant (P< 0.05) decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione peroxidase as well as total reduced glutathione. There was a significant (P< 0.05) increase in lipid peroxidation in kidney tissue homogenates. There were significant (P< 0.05) reductions in the levels of serum total protein and albumin as well as significant (P< 0.05) increases in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid. The oral administration of two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of Triphala in bromobenzene-treated rats normalized the tested parameters. The histopathological examinations of kidney sections of the experimental rats support the biochemical observations.
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Extracted human mandibular premolars sectioned below the cemento-enamel junction were placed in the tissue culture wells exposing the crown surface to S. mutans to form a biofilm. At the end of 3 rd and 7 th day, all groups were treated for 10 min with the test solutions and control and were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively.
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A controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial was designed. Thirty subjects underwent four consecutive experimental phases with four treatments: Triphala, Hi Ora, Chlorhexidine and Colgate Plax. On the day of study, the subjects discontinued all other oral hygiene habits and were randomly assigned for treatment with the experimental mouthwash. Each experimental phase was preceded by a 28-day washout period. Plaque formation was recorded after one undisturbed day.
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Swiss albino mice (weight 20-25 g) were used in this study. The mice were divided into five groups of six animals each. The aqueous extract of Triphala was given orally at two different doses (100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) for seven consecutive days, followed by a single intraperitoneal injection of paracetamol (500 mg/kg body weight) to induce hepato-renal toxicity. Serum levels of liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid were measured as indices of liver and renal injury. All the statistical analyses were performed with the help of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Student-Newman-Keuls test as post hoc test. Results were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05.
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Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses. We report here the inhibitory effects of GA, with an IC(50) value of 74 nM against COX-2 and 1500 nM for COX-1, showing ≈20 fold preference towards COX-2. Further docking studies revealed that GA binds in the active site of COX-2 at the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) binding site. The carboxylate moiety of GA interacts with Arg120 and Glu524. Based on substrate dependent kinetics, GA was found to be a competitive inhibitor of both COX-1 and COX-2, with more affinity towards COX-2. Taken together, our studies indicate that GA is a selective inhibitor of COX-2. Being a small natural product with selective and reversible inhibition of COX-2, GA would form a lead molecule for developing potent anti-inflammatory drug candidates.
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The present study describes the antifungal potential of fruit and powdered ingredients of triphala churna, i.e. Emblica officinalis (Garetn.) (Amla), Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Baheda) and Terminalia chebula (Retz.) (Harada), collected from the market of Gwalior (M.P.), India. Water extracts of all the fruits and powdered samples were tested (in vitro) for their antifungal activities by poisoned food technique against different Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. terreus and A. niger) associated with them during storage. All extracts displayed varied levels i.e. very low to very high antifungal activities on four Aspergillus species. The aqueous extracts of fresh fruits (37.96 +/- 7.59%) was observed to be most effective than dry fruits (34.95 +/- 7.59%) and powder (25.07 +/- 6.05%). Terminalia chebula (fresh and dry) extracts were found most active against the four Aspergillus species with 49.15 and 40.8% inhibition, respectively. None of the extracts were found effective against the growth of A. niger. All fruits and powdered aqueous extracts were observed to be ineffective against the A. niger. The variability in antifungal activity of aqueous extracts in the present study may be useful to study the relationship between antifungal potential of herbal drugs and prevalence of fungal contaminant during their storage.
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Dental caries is a widely prevalent infectious disease afflicting the humans worldwide. Each year oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and oral candidiasis significantly adds to the economic burden of the world. Though there are standard management techniques for these diseases; they do have side effects and are not cost effective. Ayurveda is a traditional Indian system of medicine that is being practiced in the Indian peninsula since ages. Among the various herbal medicines in ayurveda, triphala occupies a royal position due to its wide beneficial systemic actions. Triphala is a mixture of fruits of Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The antimicrobial actions of triphala are well documented in the literature. However availability of review articles regarding triphala as an antimicrobial against oral infections is limited. Need was felt to review this aspect of triphala. The present article reviews the use of triphala and its constituents in the prevention and control of dental caries and other common oral infections. Thorough review of the literature indicated that triphala can be effectively used to manage dental caries, gingival and periodontal diseases. Further it can also be utilized as a root canal irrigant and against oral candida species.
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Methanol extract of triphala was prepared and analyzed for the presence of catechin by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. Collagen sponge was prepared by incorporating triphala into collagen sponge. The triphala incorporated collagen was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and water uptake analysis. Infected wound was dressed with triphala incorporated collagen sponge. Wound reduction rate, collagen content, and matrix metalloproteinases in the granulation tissue, histology, and Fourier transform electron microscopy analysis were done to obtain the healing pattern.
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The total 1095 children were screened (831 boys and 264 girls). Out of total 34 teenager boys were diagnosed, as acetowhite positive lesion. All the acetowhite positive lesions were found exclusively in males. Histological findings after 9 month use of Triphala mouth rinse revealed no changes in cells in 23 (85.2%), hyperkeratinization in 2 (7.4%), hyperkeratinization and spongiosis was evident in 1 (3.7%), mild pleomorphism in 1 (3.7%) patient. Comparative evaluation from 0-9 month showed statistically highly significant test (P < 0.01).
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To assess the effect of herbal antimicrobial agents on Streptococcus mutans count in biofilm formations during orthodontic treatment.
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Triphala comme un anti fongique est démontré pour avoir plus d'efficacité que le lavage de la bouche classique chlorhexidine.
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The study spanned over 7 months and was conducted in Malappuram district of Kerala. A simple questionnaire having closed-ended questions was prepared and circulated among the physicians in the area. Demographic and other relevant details were obtained from the patients and the medicine system relied on was scrutinized.
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We evaluated the preventive effects of Terminalia chebula (T. chebula) aqueous extract on oxidative and antioxidative status in liver and kidney of aged rats compared to young albino rats. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), lipofuscin (LF), protein carbonyls (PCO), activities of xantione oxidase (XO), manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), levels of glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were used as biomarkers. In the liver and kidney of aged animals, enhanced oxidative stress was accompanied by compromised antioxidant defences. Administration of aqueous extract of T. cheubla effectively modulated oxidative stress and enhanced antioxidant status in the liver and kidney of aged rats. The results of the present study demonstrate that aqueous extract of T. cheubla inhibits the development of age-induced damages by protecting against oxidative stress.
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Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed solid malignancies among US men. We identified gallic acid (GA) as a major bioactive cytotoxic constituent of a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation - triphala (TPL). Both TPL and GA were evaluated on (AR)(+) LNCaP prostate cancer and normal epithelial cells.
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Qualitative assay with 3-week biofilm showed complete inhibition of bacterial growth with Triphala, MTAD and NaOCl, except GTP and saline, which showed presence of bacterial growth. In quantitative analysis, GTP- and saline-treated tooth samples have shown 1516 +/- 17.2 CFU/mL, 156.4 x 10(9) +/- 3.1 x 10(9) CFU/mL respectively. Qualitative assay with 6-week biofilm showed growth when treated with Triphala, GTP and MTAD whereas NaOCl has shown complete inhibition. All groups except NaOCl showed eight log reduction when compared to control when analyzed quantitatively.
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The study was a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, with a total of 60 school children (n = 30 in each group; triphala and chlorhexidine groups). Plaque and gingival indices were used to evaluate baseline and follow-up plaque and gingivitis.
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Terminalia, a large genus of Combretaceae, is distributed in Tropical Asia, Africa, and America. Some Terminalia plants are used in folk medicine because they possess powerful medicinal properties. Dried fruits of Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula are used as the main ingredient in Triphala, a famous polyherbal formulation in Ayurvedic medicine and Thai folk medicine, because of their laxative, detoxifying, and rejuvenating effects. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships of medicinal Terminalia species (T. bellirica, T. chebula, and T. catappa) and authenticate their crude drugs, "Samo" and Triphala, nucleotide sequencing alignments in the internal transcribed spacer one-two (ITS 1-2) regions of Terminalia plants collected in Thailand were performed. The amplified fragments of Terminalia species were approximately 800 bp in length. To compare these sequences and DDBJ registered data, a molecular phylogenetic tree was constructed. Phylogenetic analysis clearly separated the sequences into two groups: Asian Terminalia and African Terminalia with some exceptions. In the analyzed sequences, the length of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region was 674 bp in T. chebula, and 677 bp in T. bellirica and T. catappa. Eighty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and nine insertion-deletions (indels) were observed, and the nucleotide sequences of this region showed species-specific sequences. Based on these differences, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) were applied to identify medicinal Terminalia species. Moreover, the ARMS method was chosen for fingerprinting analysis of Samo crude drugs and Triphala formulations because it was a fast, cost-effective, and reproducible approach.
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The antimicrobial efficacy of root canal irrigant plays an important role in increasing the success of root canal treatment (RCT). The aim of the present experimental study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of Triphala (a plant-derived solution) with 0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5% concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis).
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Triphala showed statistically significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans biofilm formed on tooth substrate. The incorporation of Triphala in mouth rinse could prove to be effective in reducing S. mutans count in the oral cavity.
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A double blind randomised control trial was conducted among 57 volunteers who were assessed to be in the high caries risk category. They were randomly allocated into three study groups: 1) 15 ml of 6% triphala mouthwash; 2) 15 ml of 0.2% chlorhexidine (active control); 3) no mouthwash (passive control). Mouthwashes were given twice a day for 15 days. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at baseline and at 15 and 45 days. Mutans streptococci (MS) were cultured on MSB agar and colony counts obtained. The α error was fixed at 5%. ANOVA and post-hoc LSD tests were performed using SPSS version 14.
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The results suggest that Triphala (300 mg/kg) has a considerable and reliable effect in reducing colitis in rats. This effect can be attributed to its antioxidant activity and well presence of flavonoids.