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Trental (Pentoxifylline)

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Generic Trental is used for treating intermittent claudication (pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness in the foot, hip, thigh, or buttocks) in certain patients. It may also be used for other conditions.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Pletal, Pentoxil


Also known as:  Pentoxifylline.


Generic Trental is used for treating intermittent claudication (pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness in the foot, hip, thigh, or buttocks) in certain patients. It may also be used for other conditions.

Generic Trental is a xanthine derivative blood flow enhancer. It works by thinning the blood and improving red blood cell flexibility, causing the blood to flow more freely through the veins.

Trental is also known as Pentoxifylline.

Generic name of Generic Trental is Pentoxifylline.

Brand name of Generic Trental is Trental.


Take Generic Trental by mouth with food or milk.

Swallow whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Trental suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Trental and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Trental are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Trental if you are allergic to Generic Trental components, or to methylxanthines (theophylline, caffeine, theobromine).

Be very careful with Generic Trental if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant. Generic Trental is found in breast milk. Do not breast-feed while taking Generic Trental.

Do not take Generic Trental if you have had recent bleeding in the brain or eye.

Tell your health care provider or dentist that you take Generic Trental before you receive any medical or dental care, emergency care, or surgery.

It may take 2 to 4 weeks to notice improvement in your condition, and up to 8 weeks for maximum relief.

Use Generic Trental with caution in the elderly. They may be more sensitive to its effects.

Avoid alcohol.

Avoid machine driving.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Trental taking suddenly.

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In 6 months old male Wistar rats 15 mg pentoxifylline/kg body weight were given intravenously in a single dose. The animals were sacrificed after 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes respectively. It was confirmed that a single pentoxifylline administration enhanced prostacyclin generation by vascular and renal tissue samples, reaching its maximum 60 minutes after the treatment. The time course for PGI2-generation behaves differently in the tissues examined. It is concluded that the drug pentoxifylline might exert its beneficial role in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease at least in part by its influence on hemostatic balance at the endothelial-platelet interaction level.

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Ischemia/reperfusion injury can complicate recovery in cardiac operations. Ischemia induces endothelial dysfunction, which may contribute to leukocyte accumulation during reperfusion. Leukocyte-mediated injury may then occur. Using intravital microscopy we previously reported increased leukocyte retention in coronary capillaries and venules during early reperfusion during warm ischemia/reperfusion. In this study we investigated whether cold cardioplegic protection would limit leukocyte sequestration in coronary microvessels early in reperfusion. Pentoxifylline (PTX) has antiinflammatory effects and may limit endothelial dysfunction during ischemia/reperfusion. The effect of cardioplegia modification with PTX was also examined.

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Tibia fracture chronically up-regulated TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA and protein levels in hindpaw skin and PTX treatment significantly reduced the mRNA expression and cytokine protein levels for all these cytokines. PTX inhibited the nociceptive sensitization and some vascular changes, but had insignificant effects on most of the bone-related parameters measured in these studies. Immunostaining of hindpaw skin was negative for immunocyte infiltration at 4 weeks post-fracture.

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PTX was rapidly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration. Mean bioavailability after oral administration ranged from 15 to 32% among treatment groups and was not affected by the presence of food. Higher plasma PTX concentrations and apparent bioavailability were observed after oral administration of the first dose, compared with the last dose during the 5-day treatment regimens.

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The hemorheological effect of KB-2796, 1-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methyl]-4-(2,3,4,-trimethoxybenzyl)piperazine dihydrochloride, was studied in guinea pigs and rabbits in comparison with those of flunarizine (FNZ) and pentoxifylline (PXF). KB-2796 and FNZ at 10-100 microM dose-dependently prevented crenation of rabbit erythrocytes induced by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. After incubation of guinea pig whole blood at 37 degrees C, blood micropore-filterability decreased and blood viscosity increased with the progress of erythrocyte crenation. After a 4-hr incubation, KB-2796 inhibited erythrocyte crenation and decreased blood filterability at a concentration of 30 microM, and it increased blood viscosity at 10 microM. Treatment with FNZ (30 microM) and PXF (100 microM) also inhibited erythrocyte crenation and decreased blood filterability. Intravenous administration of KB-2796 at 3 mg/kg significantly inhibited the decrease of blood micropore-filterability after occlusion of the bilateral carotid arteries in rabbits. Although FNZ (3 mg/kg, i.v.) had no effect, PXF (3 mg/kg, i.v.) produced significant inhibition. These results suggest that KB-2796 prevents increase of blood viscosity and decrease of blood filterability by inhibiting the crenation of erythrocytes and suggest that this effect may be useful for the improvement of hemorheology in ischemic disease.

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Individuals with HIV infection who were over 18 yr of age and free of opportunistic infections were recruited in the study and followed up 4 weekly. CD4 counts were measured using a flowcytometer using anti-human CD4 intervals. Pentoxiphylline was prescribed in a dose of 400 mg thrice daily.

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Oxidative stress is an important mechanism of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI). The optimal strategy to prevent CIAKI remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of pentoxifylline, a nonspecific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, on the prevention of CIAKI. A total of 32 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal dietary group (NN; n=8) and a high cholesterol-supplemented dietary group (HN; 4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid; n=24). At the end of eight weeks, the rats in the high cholesterol diet group were randomly divided into three subgroups (n=8 in each group). CIAKI was induced in two of the subgroups via intravenous injection of the radiocontrast media iohexol (10 ml/kg). Pentoxifylline (50 mg/kg) was administered to one of the iohexol-treated groups via intraperitoneal injection 12 h prior to and following contrast media (CM) injection. Kidney function parameters and oxidative stress markers were then measured. The renal pathological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin staining and scored semi-quantitatively. In iohexol-injected rats, serum creatinine (Scr), renal pathological scores, renal malondialdehyde (MDA) content, renal NADPH oxidase activity, fractional excretion of sodium (FENa%) and fractional excretion of potassium (FEK%) were significantly increased (P<0.01). The Scr, histologic scores, renal MDA content, NADPH oxidase activity, FENa% and FEK% in the rats treated with pentoxifylline prior to iohexol were observed to be reduced compared with those in rats treated with iohexol alone (P<0.01). This suggests that pentoxifylline significantly attenuates renal injuries, including tubular necrosis and proteinaceous casts induced by CM. It may be concluded that pentoxifylline protected the renal tissue from the nephrotoxicity induced by low-osmolar CM via an antioxidant effect.

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A chronic immune response involving proinflammatory T helper cell 1 (Th1) lymphocyte activation occurs in the atherosclerotic lesion, but whether this activation is protective or deleterious remains unclear. Methods and Results-- We modulated the immune response of the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mouse. Eight-week-old apoE(-/-) mice were treated daily with pentoxifylline (PTX), a known inhibitor of the Th1 differentiation pathway, or PBS (control) for 4 weeks or 12 weeks. Twelve-week PTX treatment reduced atherosclerotic lesion size by 60% (P<0.01). PTX-treated mice developed lesions that were limited to the degree of fatty streaks. In contrast, control mice developed mature fibrofatty atherosclerotic lesions. In parallel, the proportion of interferon (IFN)-gamma-producing Th1 splenic lymphocytes was significantly reduced by PTX, and lesion size was correlated to the proportion of IFN-gamma(+) T cells. In vitro addition of PTX to cultured spleen cells did not modify the production of IFN-gamma but increased the production of IL-10 by T cells, indicating that PTX does not suppress IFN-gamma production but rather blocks Th1 polarization while promoting Th2 polarization.

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Cilostazol, a novel oral phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has shown consistent improvement in exercise tolerance in patients with intermittent claudication (IC). In addition to this effect, cilostazol has previously been shown to have beneficial effects on the dyslipidemia, i.e., combination of high triglycerides with low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) suppresses the activity of lipoprotein lipase, which modulates the metabolism of triglycerides and HDL-C. To determine whether a reduction of IL-6 contributes to the improvement of lipid profiles, we prospectively investigated the effect of cilostazol (n=16, 100 mg, twice daily) on the changes of lipid profiles and on the association with the changes of IL-6 compared with those of pentoxifylline (n=16, 400 mg, bid) in patients with IC. After eight weeks of administration of cilostazol to patients with IC, walking distances were increased, associated with a 29% decrease in plasma triglycerides and a 13% increase in HDL-C. No significant changes of lipid profiles in the pentoxifylline and placebo groups were observed although a similar improvement in walking distances was achieved in the pentoxifylline group. IL-6 levels were significantly reduced in patients receiving cilostazol as compared with those receiving placebo or pentoxifylline. The cilostazol-induced changes in the IL-6 were positively related to those of triglycerides in the cilostazol group (r=0.63, P<0.05) and negatively related to those of HDL-C (r=-0.55, P<0.05). These findings suggest that in addition to consistent improvement of exercise tolerance, cilostazol may improve lipid profiles by reducing IL-6 release. However, pentoxifylline did not affect lipid profiles although a similar improvement of maximal walking distance (MWD) was achieved.

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Bacterial intestinal infections is one of the most outstanding problems of international health service, preserving its significant clinical and social-economic importance. This group of infectious diseases is most frequently accompanied by the development of dehydration, thus leading to the development of nitrozative and oxidative stress. The presented data evidence the inhibiting action of pentoxifyllin for iNOS on dehydration, what may be manifested by decrease of severity of nitrozative and oxidative stress.

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BAECs were cultured according to Schwartz's method, and one stage clotting time assay was used to measure TF activity.

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Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection often suffer from persistent, painful ulcers that commonly occur on the soft palate, buccal mucosa, tonsillar area or tongue, which are referred to as aphthous ulcers. This paper reports the case in which pentoxifylline was successfully used to treat recurrent aphthous ulcers in an HIV patient.

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Preterm birth represents the single largest cause of mortality and morbidity for newborns and a major cause of morbidity for pregnant women. Tocolytic agents include a wide range of drugs that can inhibit labour to prolong pregnancy. This may gain time to allow the fetus to mature further before being born, permit antenatal corticosteroid administration for lung maturation, and allow time for intra-uterine transfer to a hospital with neonatal intensive care facilities. However, some tocolytic drugs are associated with severe side effects. Combinations of tocolytic drugs may be more effective over single tocolytic agents or no intervention, without adversely affecting the mother or neonate.

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Venous ulcers affect approximately 1% of the world's population, increasing healthcare expenditures and decreasing quality of life. Several hypotheses may help explain their origin. Incompetent veins or valves or impaired muscle function may lead to abnormal calf muscle pump function that can elevate ambulatory venous pressure (venous hypertension). This hypertension subsequently results in local venous dilatation and pooling, concomitantly trapping leukocytes that may release proteolytic enzymes that destroy tissues. Venous pooling also induces interendothelial pore widening and deposition of fibrin and other macromolecules that "trap" growth factors within them, rendering them unavailable for wound repair. Compression therapy, the mainstay treatment, reduces edema, reverses venous hypertension, and improves calf muscle pump function. Several treatment options can be employed as adjuvants to compression--eg, systemic therapy with pentoxifylline or aspirin, autologous grafts, tissue-engineered skin, growth factor therapy, and/or vein surgery. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management options regarding venous ulcers are reviewed.

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Pentoxifylline (PTF), a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, can prevent inflammation and tissue damage in animal and in vitro human studies. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Since Ca2+ is a critical signal regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in macrophages, the effects of PTF on Ca2+ influx were examined in NR8383 alveolar macrophages (AMs). PTF induced a dose-dependent inhibition on Ca2+ influx activated by zymosan and by protein kinase C (PKC) activators 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG) or phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The inhibition appeared to be specifically on the receptor-operated Ca2+ entry. The capacitative Ca2+ entry was not affected by PTF. The inhibition was not due to altered cAMP levels since the zymosan-activated Ca2+ influx was not affected by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, nor by dibutyryl cAMP. Pretreatment with protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor genistein abolished zymosan-induced, but not DOG-induced Ca2+ influx, suggesting that PTK is an upstream element of the signaling cascade and not the target of PTF. The Ca2+ entry activated by zymosan and by PKC activators was inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD98059. Moreover, activation of MAPK by C6-ceramide (C6C) triggered a similar Ca2+ influx as elicited by zymosan and PKC activators, suggesting that MAPK is an element of the pathway. The C6C-induced Ca2+ influx was also inhibited by PTF. These results indicate that PTF blocks the receptor-operated Ca2+ influx in NR8383 AMs by inhibiting PDE which may acts as a downstream element of the signaling pathway or by direct interaction with Ca2+ channels.

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Similar to pentoxifylline, vinpocetine was also shown to have a beneficial effect over ischemic colon anastomoses.

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The results were comparable to those of previous studies, with positive responses seen in 63.6% of male patients and 61.5% of female patients. However, recurrence of ulcers was noted in all patients once the drug was discontinued. This was attributed to the small size of the patient sample studied and to the relatively short duration of treatment. No significant side effects were noted.

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Aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerance and safety of treatment of leg ulcer with pentoxiphylline administered orally in daily dose of 1200 mg divided for 3 doses for six months. The study was carried out in 19 centres in Poland. The results of clinical and laboratory (HGB, WBC, PTL) examinations made before, during and after treatment were documented in individual case-records. Pentoxiphylline was administered to 184 patients (124 F and 60 M) aged 22-86 (mean-61.6) yrs. One hundred and thirty-five patients had non-arterial ulcers, 37-partly arterial and 12-arterial. The duration of the disease was 1 to 1620 (mean 158) weeks. Resting pain was reported by 131 patients. In 9 persons the treatment was stopped after 1-2 months; in 6 (3%) of them due to side effects. In 175 patients pentoxiphylline was administered as follows: 1200 mg daily for 6 months in 92 cases, 1200 mg daily for 2-5 months--in 58, 1200 mg daily for 3-5 months and 800 mg daily for next 1-3 months--in 12 cases, and 800 mg daily for 1-6 months--in 13 cases. In 161 (92%) cases a beneficial effect was achieved including complete healing of the ulcers in 79 (45%) or improvement in 82 (47%); in 14 (8%) there was no improvement. The resting pain was significantly reduced in 114 (87%) patients within 1-24 weeks and completely disappeared in 69 (53%) patients within 2-20 weeks of treatment. No significant abnormalities in the results of laboratory tests were found. Transient side effects of the therapy appeared in 11 patients but they did not require administration of the drug to be discontinued. The study showed that pentoxiphylline is a effective, well tolerated and safe drug in the treatment of leg ulcers.

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During the last decade, the cellular and plasmatic factors as well as fluid-dynamic conditions responsible for the 'anomalous' rheological behavior of blood have been clarified. Hypotheses about the hemodynamic significance of the hemorheological factors in microvascular perfusion can be formulated and have now been subjected to in vivo tests. Red cells have bipotential flow properties: as a consequence of passive, fluid-drop-like adaptation of RBC and membrane 'tank-treading' rapidly flowing mammalian blood has properties akin to an emulsion with extremely high fluidity - while slowly flowing blood becomes aggregated and assumes the properties of a concentrated reticulated suspension of low fluidity. In addition, in the normal microcirculation the fluidity of blood is maintained by rheological and vasomotor factors despite the fact that the cells are larger than the capillaries. Here, fluidity of blood flow thence critically depends a. on the presence of a minimum of shear forces sufficient to disperse aggregates and deform single cell, b. on the biochemical integrity of the vascular content which is prerequisite for normal RBC deformability, c. on the factors that keep microvascular hematocrit low. Under abnormal biophysical and/or biochemical conditions slowly flowing blood may suffer local loss of fluidity, under conditions of fluidity being abolished without coagulation. In hypoperfused microvascular beds, the variability of flow conditions, as well as the resulting variability of flow behavior is submitted as the cause of non-homogeneous perfusion ('collateral blood viscidation'). Hemorheological active drugs (such as pentoxifylline) cannot improve the deformability (fluidity) of normal erythrocytes, but they can protect the cells against the effect of rigidifying metabolites such as lactate, pH-drop, hyperosmolarity etc. Thus, they can maintain blood fluidity and thence residual flow despite abnormal flow behavior and flow conditions in hypoperfused organs. In vivo results corroborate the theory that factors which increase macroscopic blood viscosity in vitro are of small significance in the normal circulation (where they are likely to be compensated by vasodilatation). However, these same factors are critical to perfusion in the abnormal or decompensated circulation in the absence of adequate flow forces and following the recruitment of the limited vasodilator reserve of vital organs.

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An objective search for etiological bases should be conducted in any case of acute sensorineural hearing loss. The presence of cerebellopontine tumors in 7.5% of cases of SD, among other treated causes, justifies a thorough clinical investigation in these patients. Overall good evolution of hearing was observed in 67.5% of cases of SD, regardless of its etiology. Therapy within the first seven days of SD was significantly related to better outcomes in hearing.

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trental suspension 2016-07-23

Pentoxifylline (PTF), a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, can prevent inflammation and tissue damage in animal and in vitro human studies. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Since Ca2+ is a critical signal regulating the release of inflammatory mediators in macrophages, the effects of PTF on Ca2+ influx were examined in NR8383 alveolar macrophages (AMs). PTF induced a dose-dependent inhibition on Ca2+ influx activated by zymosan and by protein kinase C (PKC) activators 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DOG) or phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). The inhibition appeared to be specifically on the receptor-operated Ca2+ entry. The capacitative Ca2+ entry was not affected by PTF. The inhibition was not due to altered cAMP levels since the zymosan-activated Ca2+ influx was not affected by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin, nor by dibutyryl cAMP. Pretreatment with protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor genistein abolished zymosan-induced, but not DOG-induced Ca2+ influx, suggesting that PTK is an upstream element of the buy trental signaling cascade and not the target of PTF. The Ca2+ entry activated by zymosan and by PKC activators was inhibited by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor PD98059. Moreover, activation of MAPK by C6-ceramide (C6C) triggered a similar Ca2+ influx as elicited by zymosan and PKC activators, suggesting that MAPK is an element of the pathway. The C6C-induced Ca2+ influx was also inhibited by PTF. These results indicate that PTF blocks the receptor-operated Ca2+ influx in NR8383 AMs by inhibiting PDE which may acts as a downstream element of the signaling pathway or by direct interaction with Ca2+ channels.

trental drug interactions 2017-06-17

Pentoxifylline administration reduced the systemic inflammatory buy trental response, the pancreatic histological lesion and renal dysfunction in pancreatic I-R injury and may be a useful tool in pancreas and kidney transplantation.

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Long-term pentoxyfylline therapy effectively achieves sustained biochemical improvement. This correlates well with histological buy trental resolution of the disease.

trental generic name 2016-04-25

The effect of antiaggregants on the system of regulation of the aggregative state of the whole blood in healthy volunteers has been studied using the global test of low-frequency piezothrombelastography. It is established that specific effects of antiaggregants are manifested in all stages of fibrinogenesis (initiation/amplification and propagation). According to buy trental the results of the global test at initial stages of hemocoagulation (initiation/amplification), a pronounced specific antiaggregative effect of COX-1 blockers and ADP receptors is accompanied by the intensification of thrombin activity and the formation of chronometric hypercoagulation. The blocker of phosphodiesterase, while losing a specific antiaggregative effect, has a lower influence on the change of thrombin activity, thus ensuring hronometric and structural hypocoagulation at the subsequent stages of fibrinogenesis. The proposed method can be used for real-time monitoring of the results of pharmacotherapy and drug effects at various stages of fibrinogenesis in the program of personalized antiaggregant therapy.

trental 400 dose 2017-02-24

Allogeneic BMT has been shown to be a highly effective therapy for both AML and ALL. With the availability of unrelated donors, continuing advances in the development of new and more effective transplant regimens, and the identification of agents such as the hematopoietic growth factors, alprostadil, and pentoxifylline to decrease the regimen related toxicities, BMT will become a viable option for a greater number of adults with acute leukemia. The optimal timing for BMT will continue to evolve, but based upon the currently available information, patients age 55 or less with AML with a high probability of relapse based upon cytogenetic abnormalities should be considered for transplantation in first remission if a related or unrelated donor can be identified. For patients at low risk for relapse (e.g., age 25 or less who buy trental have received high-dose intensification), transplantation can be delayed until documentation of early relapse. For patients with Ph1+ ALL or t(4;11), transplantation in first remission should be considered if a suitable related or unrelated donor is identified. Adults with ALL without adverse prognostic characteristics should be considered for transplantation at relapse or in second remission.

trental 400 dosage 2016-07-23

We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group trials register (last searched November 2003). For the first buy trental version, we also searched EMBASE (1980 to 1999), MEDLINE (1966 to 1999), Science Citation Index (1981 to 1999) and the Ottawa Stroke Trials Registry. We also contacted the manufacturers of methylxanthines and the principal investigators of the identified trials.

trental user reviews 2016-01-06

Drug-induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common side effects of medications and accounts for about 20 % of hospital admissions for buy trental acute kidney injury (AKI). Some possible pharmacologic mechanisms of pentoxifylline (PTX) that suggest it as a candidate to ameliorate AKI include interaction at the level of the adenosine receptors, increase in erythrocyte deformability, stimulation of vasodilatory prostaglandins production and prevention of vascular congestion, and suppression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and apoptosis. This manuscript reviews all clinical and animal studies on the use of PTX as a renoprotective agent against a number of nephrotoxic drugs.

trental dosage 2017-04-26

Within a 16 years observation period a trash phenomenon was seen in 15 patients. In 13 of these patients it occurred as a postoperative complication of a surgical buy trental intervention for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. In 2 cases an aortobifemoral bypass had become necessary because of an underlying AOD. In addition to the standard therapy with heparin 8 patients were intravenously given 2 ampoules of Prostavasin (60 mcg of PGE1) twice daily. All patients survived, and only in 1 case a thigh amputation was unavoidable. Apart from the heparinization, the 7 patients of the control group had received i.v. administrations of vaso-active drugs (naftidrofuryl, pentoxifylline) and hemodilution. 3 patients died within the first three postoperative days, one of them after a thigh amputation. A further patient suffered the loss of both lower legs, but survived and recovered completely as did 3 patients who did not require amputation. Though these results cannot claim the significance of a randomized controlled study they indicate that PGE1 may act favourably in the treatment of the trash syndrome.

trental pill 2016-04-28

The sperm motility stimulants 2-deoxyadenosine (DOA) and pentoxifylline (PTF), used to improve the success of insemination and sperm micro-injection for low motility sperm samples, were studied for their effects on the developmental capacity of mouse and human oocytes. When human oocytes were micro-injected with spermatozoa in 3 mM DOA 80% of them became blocked at the 1-cell pronuclear stage. However, when spermatozoa in 3 mM PTF were used for micro-injection or when spermatozoa were washed to remove DOA before micro-injection only a few oocytes (9-10%) were blocked. Pregnancies occurred in five of 14 patients into whom cleaving embryos from all three treatments buy trental had been transferred, indicating that once cleavage was initiated, development of embryos occurred at expected rates. Exposure of mouse oocytes to DOA for a short period during insemination (4-6 h) or a longer period during the pronuclear cell cycle (18-20 h) significantly reduced cleavage beyond the 2-cell stage, resulting in a dramatic reduction in blastocyst formation. PTF did not significantly reduce mouse embryo development. Similar results were obtained for oocytes inseminated in vitro or micro-injected with a spermatozoon into the perivitelline space. Neither DOA nor PTF increased fertilization of mouse oocytes. PTF reduced fertilization, particularly in cumulus-enclosed oocytes and oocytes micro-injected with spermatozoa in PTF. We conclude that DOA is a potent inhibitor of embryo development and oocytes should not be exposed to DOA. Exposure of oocytes to PTF had little effect on their subsequent development but treatment of cauda epididymal mouse spermatozoa can reduce their fertilizing capacity.

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Cancer anorexia/cachexia is a common clinical problem that substantially impacts upon the quality of life and survival of affected patients. Extensive investigations have not supported the use of either enteral or paternal hyperalimentation for buy trental such patients. Despite positive pilot trial reports, large randomized studies have been unable to demonstrate a clinically defensible role for either pentoxifylline, cyproheptadine, or hydrazine sulfate for patients with anorexia. Multiple placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, clinical trials have demonstrated that corticosteroids do have appetite-enhancing properties in patients suffering from cancer anorexia/cachexia, but none of these studies has demonstrated weight gain. In comparison, multiple studies have demonstrated that the progestational agent, megestrol acetate, has both appetite-enhancing and weight-promoting properties.

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Pentoxifylline had no significant effect on the recovery of buy trental EF after a T-shunt procedure, but a larger study (double-blinded) is required for a more accurate assessment of any beneficial effect of pentoxifylline after a T-shunt procedure.

trental generic 2017-09-11

Rat blood was investigated as a suitable test system for the discovery of inhibitors of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) biosynthesis. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused a concentration- and time-dependent stimulation of TNF alpha production by heparinised rat blood with peak levels (1000-5000 U/ml; L929 bioassay) at 6 h. Bioactive material was neutralised with a polyclonal rabbit anti-murine TNF alpha antibody which cross-reacts with rat TNF alpha. Dexamethasone, pentoxifylline and denbufylline inhibited TNF alpha production with IC50s of 6.0 +/- 2. buy trental 0 nM, 20.6 +/- 8.00 microM and 138.0 nM, respectively. When rats were dosed p.o. with dexamethasone or pentoxifylline or i.p. with denbufylline and 1.5 h later TNF alpha production was assessed ex vivo by LPS-stimulated blood, a dose-related inhibition of TNF alpha production occurred with ID50s of approximately 0.08, 250.0 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively. These results demonstrate that rat blood provides a useful test system for the detection and ex vivo evaluation of inhibitors of TNF alpha biosynthesis.

trental dosage dogs 2017-11-30

To evaluate the effectiveness of a bolus application of pentoxifylline (PTXF) at the beginning of CPR in a standardized resuscitation animal Requip Max Dosage model.

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We investigated the signal transduction pathway of IL-12 and showed that lisofylline (LSF) inhibited the signal transducer and activator of transcription factor-4 (STAT4) activation Ceftin 250mg Tablets . Interruption of IL-12-mediated STAT4 activation prevented autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

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Each rat received an identical wound from a full-thickness incision on its back. Propecia 1mg Cost Experimental rats received systemic administration of PTX. All rats underwent examinations for biomechanical and polymerase chain reaction(PCR) analysis. Maximum stress and energy absorption were calculated as the biomechanical examinations. Expressions of MMP-1, MMP-3 and TIMP-1 genes were evaluated semi-quantitatively by reverse transcriptional (RT)-PCR.

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Both intention-to-treat and per protocol analyses showed significantly positive results in favour of pentoxifylline over placebo. Severity of rest pain was consistently and significantly lower as shown Famvir Generic Equivalent by the results of the pre-infusion pain scores (p = 0.007), pain visual analogue scales (p < 0.001) and scores describing rest pain-related sleep disturbances (p = 0.003). Treatment response was not influenced by the presence of diabetes mellitus or by eligibility for surgery.

trental cost 2015-02-02

Both groups were comparable in all aspects. There were 23 male and two female patients in the test group, and 20 male and five female patients in the control group (p-value is 0.021). Mean age was 37.9 +/- 10.5 years in the test group and 33.8 +/- 11.0 years in the control group (p-value is 0.186). The APACHE II score in the test group and in the control group was statistically not significant (p-value is 0.661). In the test group, seven (28 percent) patients had wound infection and in the control group, 13 (52 percent) patients had wound infection (p-value is 0.083). The mean postoperative hospital stay in the test group Prevacid Dose Infants was 6.8 +/- 2.1 days and in the control group, it was 11.2 +/- 5.2 days (p-value is 0.001).

trental overdose 2015-08-29

Flow Cytometry: T98G cells exposed to both continuous and intermittent irradiation exhibit similar arrest at the G2/M checkpoint. The addition of 2 mM PTX significantly reduced the radiation-induced G2/M block in both irradiation schemes. Clonogenic Assays: The same PTX concentration applied before a continuous dose of 12 Gy, two intermittent doses of 6 Gy, or three intermittent doses of 4 Gy, all given within a 1-h interval, consistently caused radiosensitization. The drug enhancement ratios for PTX were 1.5, 2.7, and 6.0 Prilosec Cost for the continuous and two different intermittent dose schedules, respectively. Adding PTX after irradiation yielded lower enhancement ratios than pre-irradiation application. A similar pattern was observed after total doses of 4, 6, 9, or 12 Gy, as well. In low oxygen conditions, PTX was seen to have the same effects as in normoxic conditions. Spheroid Outgrowth Assays: The in vitro PTX effects were replicated in the spheroid outgrowth assays.

trental dose dogs 2015-09-15

The highest level of MPO was noted at the first day in patients with severe AP. A decrease of MPO blood level occurred during the first three days in all patients with necrotizing pancreatitis. The development of pancreatitis-associated lung injury and purulent complications was accompanied by increased MPO levels. Administration of pentoxifylline significantly reduced the MPO blood level, which was clearly correlated with the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in Neurontin Medication the two groups of patients.

trental dosing 2017-05-31

Purpose. This study was designed to determine the efficacy and mechanisms of radioprotection by the combination of gamma-tocotrienol (GT3) and pentoxifylline (PTX) against acute radiation injury. Materials and Methods. Post-irradiation survival was monitored to determine the most efficacious dose and time of administration of PTX. Dose reduction factor (DRF) was calculated to compare the radioprotective efficacy of the combination. To determine the mechanism of synergistic radioprotection by the combination, mevalonate or calmodulin were coadministered with the GT3-PTX combination. Mevalonate was used to reverse the Triphala 500 Mg inhibitory effect of GT3 on 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), and calmodulin was used to reverse the inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) by PTX. Results. The combination was most effective when 200 mg/kg of PTX was administered 15 min before irradiation along with 200 mg/kg of GT3 (-24 h) and resulted in a DRF of 1.5. White blood cells and neutrophil counts showed accelerated recovery in GT3-PTX-treated groups compared to GT3. Mevalonate had no effect on the radioprotection of GT3-PTX; calmodulin abrogated the synergistic radioprotection by GT3-PTX. Conclusion. The mechanism of radioprotection by GT3-PTX may involve PDE inhibition.

trental drug action 2017-03-09

In a major histocompatibility complex incompatible WKAH-->PVG combination, neither oral CsA (7.5 mg/kg/day) nor oral A802715 (100 mg/kg/day) was able to prolong graft survival. However, a combination of both drugs, given at the same dose, sustained graft survival during treatment. A similar synergism was not obtained with pentoxifylline, another methylxanthine derivative. The synergism between A802715 and CsA could be further increased by using a continuous intravenous infusion of A802715, since (1) lower doses of A802715 (20 mg/kg/day) and CsA (5 mg/kg/day) could be used, and (2) six of seven grafts survived permanently. In a major histocompatibility complex compatible Wag/Rij-->R/A Periactin Liquid Dosage combination, similar synergistic effects and permanent graft survival could also be obtained by oral A802715 (100 mg/kg/day) in combination with a low dose of CsA (2.5 mg/kg/day). In both strain combinations, long-term survivors accepted donor-type but rejected third-party second grafts in the absence of immunosuppression. This specific tolerance was not related to clonal deletion nor anergy, as recipient lymphocytes proliferated normally in the anti-donor mixed lymphocyte reaction. Instead, a defect in generating specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes was involved.

trental 250 mg 2016-05-09

Increasing evidence has implicated TNF-alpha as a pivotal molecule involved in the systemic inflammatory manifestations of ENL, an acute inflammatory complication that may occur in the chronic course of leprosy. In the present study, the mechanism of action of pentoxifylline (PTX) as an alternative therapy for management of leprosy reactions has been evaluated. The effect of PTX on TNF-alpha production was examined in leprosy patients at the protein level and at the transcriptional level as well. Treatment of ENL patients with PTX (1200 mg daily) ameliorated the systemic symptoms and favoured the evolution of reactional leprosy lesions. Serum TNF-alpha was assayed before and during treatment with PTX in 15 patients. The increased TNF-alpha levels Levitra And Alcohol seen in the circulation during the reaction were dramatically reduced within 3-7 days of therapy. No significant effect on serum IL-6 was noted. In vitro TNF-alpha production was assayed upon culture stimulation with Mycobacterium leprae. A reduction of inducible TNF-alpha in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was seen after 1-2 weeks of in vivo administration of PTX. Furthermore, no effect of the drug on IL-10 secretion was detected in these cultures. A kinetic analysis of the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 mRNA at the site of leprosy lesion was performed in six reactional patients by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amount of TNF-alpha mRNA was increased in the tissue during ENL compared with before the reaction, and decreased thereafter following treatment for reaction (either PTX or thalidomide). These data suggest that PTX inhibits TNF-alpha production in ENL patients both in vivo and in vitro, and it may be useful in the treatment of leprosy patients undergoing ENL.

trental drug class 2016-01-20

High-flux hemodialysis is the method of choice for the treatment of many life threatening intoxications. Reports on intoxication with pentoxifylline are rare, and although pharmacokinetic properties of the drug suggest a potential role for hemodialysis, there are no published reports on extracorporeal treatment attempts. We report the first case of successful treatment of Precose Acarbose Tablets potentially life-threatening pentoxifylline intoxication by high-flux hemodialysis. Based on this single case, dialysis should be considered, especially in anuric patients with pentoxifylline intoxication.

trental 50 mg 2016-01-03

The effect of PTX treatment on haemolysis during CPB was studied in 25 patients (PTX group). Oral PTX (1200 mg/day in 3 divided doses) treatment for 3 days was followed by 300 mg i.v. PTX administration after anaesthesia induction. The control group consisted of 25 patients with equivalent surgery but no PTX treatment. Blood samples were collected at seven time points: prior to CPB, Pediatric Zyrtec Dosage at 5 and 10 min of CPB and 5, 10 and 15 min after removal of cross clamping and 10 min after weaning from bypass in order to measure the haemolysis parameters, which included free haemoglobin and haptoglobin.

trental 400 mg 2015-06-02

Private IVF unit.

trental 300 mg 2015-03-18

A 45 year old female patient presented with the cutaneous manifestations of malignant atrophic papulosis (Köhlmeier-Degos disease) for two years. The typical papules with central porcelain-white atrophy correspond histologically to wedge-shaped necrosis of the connective tissue due to thrombotic occlusion of small vessels in the corium. The pathogenesis of malignant atrophic papulosis and effective treatment modalities are unknown. A slow virus infection has been suggested by some authors. Therefore, we attempted an immune therapy with interferon alpha-2a over a period of 11 months, but failed to cause a significant effect on the appearance and progression of the skin lesions. Furthermore, we could not confirm the effectiveness of a recently reported treatment modality with pentoxifylline and aspirin administered to our patient over a period of 5 months.

trental pentoxifylline tablets 2016-09-25

Previous studies have suggested that pentoxifylline (PTX) exerts multiple beneficial effects on the inflammatory cascade, particularly on the function of neutrophils. We investigated whether continuous infusion of PTX could reduce indirect lung injury (ILI) caused by fresh water drowning and if so, what is the possible molecular mechanism.