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Topamax (Topiramate)

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Generic Topamax is a medication of high quality, which is taken in treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms. Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Neurontin, Depakote, Lamictal, Tegretol


Also known as:  Topiramate.


Generic Topamax target is the treatment of seizures in people with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and epilepsy. It can also be used to prevent migraine and infantile spasms.

Generic Topamax is acting by reducing brain agitation. It is anticonvulsant.

Topamax is also known as Topiramate, Topaz.

Generic name of Generic Topamax is Topiramate.

Brand name of Generic Topamax is Topamax.


Take it orally at the same time every day, with or without food.

Generic Topamax can be taken twice a day (in the morning and in the evening).

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Topamax suddenly.


If you overdose Generic Topamax and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately. Symptoms of Generic Topamax overdosage: feeling drowsy, problems with a speech, blurred vision, double vision, fatigue, lack of coordination, lack of consciousness, lightheadedness, pain of stomach, dyspepsia, vomiting, extreme hunger, agitation, depression, dyspnoea, confusion, decreased appetite, weakness of muscle, pain of bone, convulsion, coma.


Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children in a container that small children cannot open.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Topamax are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Generic Topamax if you are allergic to Generic Topamax components.

Do not take Generic Topamax if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.

Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful if you are taking ipratropium (such as Atrovent); motion sickness, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, urinary problems, Parkinson's disease, ulcers medicines; oral contraceptives; methazolamide; seizures medicines (carbamazepine (such as Tegretol), phenytoin (such as Phenytek, Dilantin); metformin (such as Glucophage); iron; salicylate pain relievers (such as choline salicylate (such as Arthropan), aspirin, choline magnesium trisalicylate (such as Trisalate), diflunisal (such as Dolobid), magnesium salicylate (such as Doan's); dichlorphenamide (such as Daranide); digoxin (such as Digitek, Lanoxin); zonisamide (such as Zonegran); tranquilizers; acetazolamide (such as Diamox); valproic acid (such as Depakote, Depakene); cholestyramine (such as Questran); sedatives; antidepressants; isoniazid (such as Nydrazid, INH); antihistamines, salsalate (such as Salgesic, Argesic, Disalcid), sleeping pills.

Be careful if you have lung, kidney or liver disease, diabetes, glaucoma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, nearsightedness, diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, kidney stones.

Avoid low-carbohydrate and high-fat diet.

Avoid being dehydrated.

Elderly people should be very careful with Generic Topamax.

Be careful with Generic Topamax if you are going to have a surgery (dental or other).

If you experience drowsiness and dizziness while taking Generic Topamax you should avoid any activities such as driving or operating machinery.

To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Generic Topamax.

Avoid alcohol while taking Generic Topamax.

It can be dangerous to stop Generic Topamax taking suddenly.

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Clozapine is an efficacious antipsychotic drug for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but does not sufficiently improve these symptoms in a substantial proportion of this population. There is no convincing evidence for the efficacy of any clozapine augmentation strategy. New evidence suggests that glutamate receptors are a candidate target for therapeutic effects in schizophrenia. We present an overview of studies assessing the potential clinical utility of adding glutamatergic agents to clozapine. We conducted 3 metaanalyses of data on positive, negative and overall symptoms of schizophrenia, analysing results from 3 studies on clozapine augmentation with glycine, 6 studies on lamotrigine add-on therapy to clozapine and 4 studies on topiramate addition to clozapine.

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One year, open-label, flexible-dosing clinical trial.

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Anticonvulsant drugs have multiple mechanisms of action. Recent in vivo MRS studies suggest that cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) increases occur with the administration of certain anticonvulsants in humans.

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In conclusion, in this study Topamax (reference product) and Sincronil (generic formulation) have proven therapeutically equivalent and both products were well tolerated.

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Significant advances have been made in the understanding of the pathophysiology, genetics and therapy of tremor disorders during the last 12 months. This review will consider Parkinson disease, essential tremor and other tremors and highlight advances in the field.

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Compare the pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of immediate- and extended-release formulations of topiramate (TPM) in healthy subjects following multiple dosing, and evaluate maintenance of topiramate exposures after switching formulations.

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Migraine is a costly, recurrent condition that affects 28 million individuals in the United States yet remains underdiagnosed and undertreated. In 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved topiramate for the prevention of migraine in adults, joining three other agents with this indication: divalproex sodium, propranolol, and timolol. We evaluated the role of topiramate in the treatment of migraine based on published literature and our clinical experiences. A qualitative systematic search of the literature from January 1966-December 2004 was conducted by using MEDLINE, and other pertinent literature was reviewed. Three large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of topiramate for migraine prevention in individuals experiencing 3-12 attacks/month have been published, as have several small studies and a comparator trial with propranolol. Based on the results of these studies, 100 mg/day is the optimum topiramate dosage in terms of efficacy and tolerability. Using that dosage, the number of migraine attacks/month decreased by approximately two. Several other secondary outcome measures were also significantly reduced including the number of days/month with migraine and the use of acute treatment/attack. Suboptimal efficacy was shown with 50 mg/day, whereas 200 mg/day caused considerably more tolerability issues. Paresthesia was dose related and the most common cause of attrition. Cognitive dysfunction and weight loss were also commonly reported. The reduction by two migraines/month demonstrated with topiramate in clinical trials is similar to the published results for other preventive agents, though most of those studies were small, antiquated, and poorly designed. In contrast, the topiramate trials enrolled a larger number of patients and closely adhered to the International Headache Society research recommendations, strengthening the quality of results. Topiramate 100 mg/day is an effective option in adults who require migraine prophylaxis. Although the published efficacy results of the various migraine preventive agents are comparable, the superior study design of the topiramate trials warrants consideration of topiramate as an agent of choice for migraine prevention. Future studies of any preventive agent should include more refined quality-of-life outcomes.

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Occurrence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) is one of the most important risk factors of seizure-related complications and comorbidities in patients with epilepsy. Their prevention is therefore an important aspect of therapeutic management both in idiopathic generalized epilepsies and in focal epilepsies.

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We report a case a carbamazepine (CBZ) intoxication with negative myoclonus that occurred 4 weeks after clobazam (CLB) had been added to a stable regimen of CBZ and topiramate (TPM). Both CBZ and CBZ-epoxide (CBZ-E) blood levels were elevated, and the symptoms resolved quickly when CBZ dosage was reduced and CLB discontinued. CLB was reintroduced a year later with the patient's consent, and the time course of the interaction was studied: CBZ and CBZ-E levels increased slowly over 12 days. The interaction is thus probably related to the progressive increase in Nor-CLB.

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Our findings support recent data regarding choices of medication in the pediatric population and additionally support current studies and future investigation into controlled trials in the pediatric population.

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This randomized, open-label, five-group study included two 28-day cycles. Five groups of female subjects received oral doses of ORTHO-NOVUM 1/35 alone (cycle 1) and then concomitant with TPM or CBZ (cycle 2). The treatment groups were group 1, TPM, 50 mg/day; group 2, TPM, 100 mg/day; group 3, TPM, 200 mg/day; group 4, TPM, 200 mg/day (obese women); and group 5, CBZ, 600 mg/day. Group 4 comprised obese women whose body mass index (BMI) was between 30 and 35 kg/m(2). The BMI of the remaining four groups was < or =27 kg/m2.

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Data of 246 patients with epilepsy admitted to our Department during the year 2001 were retrospectively analyzed.

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The present study was undertaken to develop an animal model exploiting food cue-induced increased motivation to obtain food under operant self-administration conditions. To demonstrate the predictive validity of the model, rimonabant, fluoxetine, sibutramine and topiramate, administered 1 hour before the experiment, were tested. For 5 days, female Wistar rats were trained to self-administer standard 45 mg food pellets in one daily session (30 minutes) under FR1 (fixed ratio 1) schedule of reinforcement. Rats were then trained to an FR3 schedule and finally divided into two groups. The first group (control) was subjected to a standard 30 minutes FR3 food self-administration session. The second group was exposed to five presentations of levers and light for 10 seconds each (every 3 minutes in 15 minutes total). At the completion of this pre-session phase, a normal 30-minute session (as in the control group) started. Results showed that pre-exposure to environmental stimuli associated to food deliveries increased response for food when the session started. Corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone plasma levels, measured after the 15-minute pre-exposure, were also significantly increased. No changes were observed for the other measured hormones (growth hormone, prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, insulin, amylin, gastric inhibitor polypeptide, ghrelin, leptin, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide). Rimonabant, sibutramine and fluoxetine significantly reduced food intake in both animals pre-exposed and in those not pre-exposed to food-associated cues. Topiramate selectively reduced feeding only in pre-exposed rats. The present study describes the development of a new animal model to investigate cue-induced increased motivation to obtain food. This model shows face and predictive validity, thus, supporting its usefulness in the investigation of new potential treatments of binge-related eating disorders. In addition, the present findings confirm that topiramate may represent an important pharmacotherapeutic approach to binge-related eating.

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Dravet syndrome is a severe infantile onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with mutations in the sodium channel alpha 1 subunit gene SCN1A. To date no large studies have systematically examined the prognostic, clinical and demographic features of the disease. We prospectively collected data on a UK cohort of individuals with Dravet syndrome during a 5-year study period and analysed demographic information based on UK population and birth figures. From structured referral data we examined a range of clinical characteristics including epilepsy phenotype, seizure precipitants, electroencephalography data, imaging studies, mutation class and response to medication. Predictors of developmental outcome were determined by logistic regression. We identified 241 cases with SCN1A mutation-positive Dravet syndrome, 207 of which were UK-based. The incidence of mutation-positive Dravet syndrome is at least 1:40 900 UK births. Clinical features predicting a worse developmental outcome included status epilepticus (odds ratio = 3.1; confidence interval = 1.5-6.3; P = 0.003), interictal electroencephalography abnormalities in the first year of life (odds ratio = 5.7; confidence interval = 1.9-16.8; P = 0.002) and motor disorder (odds ratio = 3.3; confidence interval = 1.7-6.4; P < 0.001). No significant effect was seen for seizure precipitants, magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities or mutation class (truncating versus missense). Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging was documented in 11% of cases, principally with findings of non-specific brain atrophy or hippocampal changes. Sodium valproate, benzodiazepines and topiramate were reported as being the most helpful medications at the time of referral. Aggravation of seizures was reported for carbamazepine and lamotrigine. The identification of factors influencing prognosis both aids counselling and encourages early, syndrome-specific therapy. Prevention of status epilepticus with regular medication and emergency protocols is important and may influence developmental outcome.

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The safety population consisted of all patients who took >or=1 dose of study medication during the double-blind phase (topiramate 50 mg/day [N = 235], 100 mg/day [N = 386], 200 mg/day [N = 514], or placebo [N = 445]). Safety assessments included adverse event (AE) reports, physical examination, and clinical laboratory tests.

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Cardiac arrhythmia may be one of the major causes of sudden unexpected death in children with epilepsy. We assessed drug-induced QT prolongation to establish whether the use of antiepileptic drugs contributes to sudden unexpected death. A total of 178 children with epilepsy (93 males and 85 females, with ages ranging from 1 month to 18.9 years; mean age 7.0 +/- 4.1 years) were involved in the study. The QT intervals were manually measured and corrected using Fridericia's formula (QTFc = QT/RR(1/3)). The mean corrected QT interval (QTc) of 152 children on antiepileptic drugs during the study period was 0.40 +/- 0.03 s, and for 26 age-matched, antiepileptic drug-free control patients it was 0.40 +/- 0.03 s. The mean QTc of the children with monotherapy was 0.40 +/- 0.03 s for the valproate group (n = 42), 0.39 +/- 0.02 s for the carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine group (n = 34), and 0.40 +/- 0.02 s for the topiramate group (n = 26), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups as assessed by analysis of variance. In addition, there was no significant difference between the monotherapy group (n = 109; 0.40 +/- 0.02 s) and the polytherapy group (n = 43; 0.39 +/- 0.03 s). Major antiepileptic drugs may not precipitate prolongation of the QT interval into sudden unexpected death in children with epilepsy, however further studies are required.

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Rapid cycling bipolar disorder (RCBD) is defined in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) as a type of manic-depressive illness in which the patient experiences four or more episodes of mania and/or major depression per year. It was first reported as a consequence of the reduced effectiveness of lithium carbonate in the treatment and prophylaxis of this form of bipolar disorder (BD) in contrast to those with less frequent cycling. Among the anticonvulsants, there have been reports with different degrees of controlled data concerning carbamazepine, valproate, lamotrigine, topiramate, gabapentin and primidone. There is a paucity of double-blind studies, but what is available supports the use of lamotrigine. There is open data supporting the use of carbamazepine, valproate and topiramate. Regarding other classes, nimodipine may have specific utility in ultradian- (ultra-ultra-) or ultra-RCBD and there is double-blind data regarding the specific utility of olanzapine in RCBD. Low thyroid function may be a factor in development of RCBD; therapies aimed at elevating thyroid levels, even beyond the usual range, have frequently produced benefits in open trials. More research is needed into the possible therapeutic benefits of verapamil, bupropion, choline, light therapy and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).

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Some patients experience cognitive disturbances with topiramate.

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We performed a literature review of the research findings related to treatment-resistant BD reported through February 2012.

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Topiramate, propranolol and divalproex may be more efficacious than other prophylactic medications. Besides, the safety and tolerability of divalproex should be further verified by future studies.

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In pediatric epilepsy, neurodevelopmental comorbidities could be sometimes even more disabling than seizures themselves, therefore it is crucial for the clinicians to understand how to benefit these children, and to choose the proper antiepileptic drug for the treatment of epilepsy associated to a specific neurodevelopmental disorder. Aim of this paper is to discuss the potential impact on cognition and behavior of new and newest AEDs and to guide the choice of the clinicians for a targeted use in epilepsy associated with specific neurodevelopmental disorders.

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Brain free DA levels were significantly lower and plasma EAA levels were significantly higher in the TS model group compared with those in the blank control group (P<0.05). Topiramate of 10 and 20 mg/kg significantly decreased the frequency of IDPN-induced HTR and significantly increased the level of brain free DA when compared with the TS model group (P<0.05). Topiramate of 20 mg/kg treatment as haloperidol treatment significantly decreased plasma EAA levels compared with the TS model group (P<0.05).

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The available data suggest that the risk of developing renal calculi during zonisamide treatment is low. Data are insufficient to determine whether concomitant treatment with topiramate increases the risk of renal stones.

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The appropriate treatment of migraine requires an individually tailored approach and is based on bio-behavioral, nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods. The available data in the pertinent literature on pharmacologic approaches are few and contradictory. Drug approaches for migraine attack include acetaminophen, NSAIDs and triptans. Acetaminophen and ibuprofen are often effective, but some migraine attacks may be refractory. The triptans can be a useful therapeutic option in adolescents. The literature data on prophylaxis are conflicting: flunarizine and topiramate are probably effective; for other drugs (including cyproheptadine, amitriptyline, divalproate and levetiracetam) there is insufficient evidence in children. The results from the use of propranolol are conflicting, whereas nimodipine and clonidine have been shown to be noneffective. Further studies are needed based on larger samples, multicenter trials, patient selection from primary care centers, and precise respect of current international diagnostic criteria. Moreover, new parameters of treatment efficacy should be considered.

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Placebo response in clinical trials for anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) has been examined and a recent meta-analysis revealed that East Asian trials showed unexpectedly higher placebo response. As multi-national trials have become common, it is important to understand placebo response in different settings, including regions/countries for future clinical trials.

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Therapeutic hypothermia reduces mortality and neurologic impairment in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Topiramate exerts a neuroprotective effect in asphyxiated neonatal animal models. However, no studies have investigated the association of hypothermia and topiramate, because topiramate pharmacokinetics during hypothermia and the optimal administration schedule are unknown. The influence of hypothermia on topiramate pharmacokinetics was evaluated in asphyxiated neonates treated with prolonged whole-body hypothermia and topiramate.

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Treatment of manifestations: Benzodiazepines (particularly clonazepam) used to treat myoclonus-dystonia improve both myoclonus and tremor. Antiepileptic drugs (valproate, topiramate) may improve myoclonus, but the response is variable. Anticholinergic medication may improve dystonia; botulinum toxin injection may be especially helpful for cervical dystonia. Improvement with L-5-hydroxytryptophan, L-dopa and the salt of sodium oxybate has been reported. Stereotactic thalamotomy can improve myoclonus but has caused dysarthria and hemiparesis. Deep brain stimulation has improved both myoclonus and dystonia in several individuals; it is unclear whether targeting the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is more effective than targeting the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus (VIM). Other: Symptoms of M-D often improve short term with ingestion of alcohol, but the risk of addiction recommends against its long term use.

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Vigabatrin, lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, zonisamide, rufinamide, lacosamide, eslicarbazepine, and perampanel have been included in this review. The most tolerated AEDs from a cognitive and behavioral point of view are lamotrigine and rufinamide, thus representing optimal drugs for children with cognitive and/or attention problems.

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This 6-month open-label study evaluated the efficacy and safety of topiramate monotherapy for partial-onset or primarily generalized seizures in 22 adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy. The initial topiramate dose of 25 mg could be titrated to a maximum effective or maximum tolerated dose of 200 mg/d. Eighteen patients completed the study. The mean topiramate dose was 200 mg/d (range, 75-200 mg/d). Compared with baseline, monthly seizure frequency decreased 89% (median), with 17 patients (94%) achieving complete control. Five patients dropped out of the study. No changes in hematologic, renal, and hepatic function evaluations were noted, and only 1 patient experienced clinical signs significant enough to warrant discontinuation of treatment. In this small study, topiramate in doses ranging from 75 to 200 mg/d was effective and well tolerated as monotherapy in adults with newly diagnosed epilepsy.

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We sought to discern the utility of weight loss pharmacotherapy as an adjunct to bariatric surgery in patients with inadequate weight loss or weight buy topamax regain.

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A sufficient number buy topamax of studies were available for a quantitative synthesis for fluoxetine, orlistat, and sibutramine. Twenty two randomized controlled trials were included in the review, with a total of 296 participants for fluoxitine, 2036 for orlistat, and 1047 for sibutramine. Pharmacotherapy produced modest reductions in weight for fluoxetine (5.1 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.3 - 6.9) at 24 to 26 weeks follow up; orlistat 2.0 kg (CI, 1.3 - 2.8) at 12 to 57 weeks follow-up, and sibutramine 5.1 kg (CI, 3.2 - 7.0) at 12 to 52 weeks follow-up. Glycated hemoglobin also modestly and significantly reduced for fluoxetine and orlistat. Gastrointestinal side effects were common with orlistat; tremor, somnolence and sweating with fluoxetine; and palpitations with sibutramine. Some studies, using a variety of study designs, were available on other drugs and a significant decrease in weight was noted in three studies of mazindol, one of phenmetrazine, two of phentermine. No studies were identified that fit inclusion criteria for pseudophedrine, ephedra, sertraline, yohimbine, amphetamine or its derivatives, bupropion, topiramate, benzocaine, threachlorocitric acid, sertraline, and bromocriptine.

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Pharmacotherapeutic management of bipolar disorder has advanced considerably since the introduction of lithium therapy nearly 50 years ago. The sizable percentage of patients who do not respond adequately to lithium and/or are intolerant to its side effects has served as an impetus for identifying alternative pharmacotherapeutic agents. Recent advances in the understanding of the neurotransmitter systems and their receptors as it buy topamax applies to treatment of bipolar disorder has, in part, led to progress in delineating applications of anticonvulsant/antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in this area. Although the efficacy of many drugs has been evaluated in patients with this disorder, medication tolerability and adherence issues related to unfavorable side effect profiles are substantial impediments to the development of novel pharmacotherapies. The potential for excessive weight gain as a side effect of certain psychopharmacologic agents remains a concern to both clinicians and patients.

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Encephalopathy with continuous spike-wave during sleep (CSWS) is a particularly difficult-to-treat childhood epileptic syndrome. This study sought to present the EEG improvement and clinical efficacy of topiramate (TPM), a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug ( buy topamax AED), in a series of 21 children with CSWS encephalopathy.

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To review the epidemiology and pharmacologic management of epilepsy in buy topamax elderly patients.

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Topiramate is associated with buy topamax various psychiatric and neurocognitive side effects. We report a case of a 21-year-old woman who was prescribed topiramate for the treatment of migraine headaches by her neurologist. She developed episodes of dissociation while receiving topiramate. These episodes increased when the dose of medicine was increased. The frequency of these episodes decreased as the medicine dose was tapered down, and these episodes eventually stopped after the medicine was discontinued. There was no recurrence of symptoms during the 23-week follow-up period.

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Topiramate is more efficacious than placebo at increasing the mean weekly proportion of cocaine nonuse days and buy topamax associated measures of clinical improvement among cocaine-dependent individuals.

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We conducted an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of topiramate in 42 male subjects (42 of 44) meeting DSM-IV criteria for BPD. The Structured Clinical Interview (SCID I and II) was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to topiramate (n = 22) or placebo buy topamax (n = 20).

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Altogether 208 patients with were included for treatment: 140 with topiramate (77.8% females; mean age, 37.9) and 68 with nadolol (69% females; mean age, 36.9). The mean number of crises in the month prior to treatment was: topiramate group, 6.3 +/- 2.6; nadolol group 5.3 +/- 2.0 (p = 0.0066). At four months after starting treatment: topiramate group, 2.69 +/- 2.6; nadolol group 2.6 +/- 2.2 (NS). The percentage of reduction in the number of migraines was 56 buy topamax .6% with topiramate and 51.6% with nadolol (NS). The responder rate (reduction in the frequency of crises by at least 50%) was 71.3% with topiramate versus 69% with nadolol (NS). The excellent response rate (reduction in crises by at least 75%) was 53.3% with topiramate versus 32.2% with nadolol (p = 0.0077). Adverse side effects were reported by 54% of patients treated with topiramate versus 30.8% of those treated with nadolol (p = 0.0015). The rate of satisfaction was 61% for the topiramate group and 71% for the group with nadolol (NS).

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Nightly oral administration of topiramate is a feasible strategy for the treatment of buy topamax BECTS, with the advantages of comparable efficacy, convenience, and fewer adverse reactions.

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Quantitative analysis of the FDA and EMA databases for orphan buy topamax drug designations according to STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria.

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Outcomes research emphasizes patient self-assessment and preferences in optimizing treatment. We previously showed that lamotrigine produces significantly less cognitive and behavioral impairment compared with topiramate. In the current study we extend these observations to subject self-report of preference for lamotrigine or topiramate independent of potentially confounding effects of seizures or seizure control. Additionally, drug preference was related to buy topamax effects of lamotrigine and topiramate on objective neuropsychological tests as well as self-perception on behavioral instruments.

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Neither topiramate nor delayed hypothermia alone conferred protection in this protocol. Combined treatment with topiramate and delayed hypothermia improved both performance and pathological outcome in P15 and P35 rats compared with PBS-treated animals that underwent delayed hypothermia concurrently. At P15, functional measures were better in buy topamax topiramate-treated animals (mean correct forepaw response 9.3/10 versus 4.8/10; P<0.001), and there was >50% reduction in tissue loss (P<0.001); trends were similar at P35.

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Forty-one patients (20 of 24 in topiramate group; 21 of 25 in placebo group) completed the trial. The topiramate group showed significant improvement over the study period (mean Y-BOCS score at week 12 as compared with baseline: P=.000). Those receiving topiramate experienced a mean decrease of 32.0% in Y-BOCS score, compared with 2.4% decrease for those receiving placebo. Twelve patients in the topiramate group versus no patient buy topamax in the placebo group were rated as responder.

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We conducted a systematic review, searching PUBMED and The Cochrane Library for articles Seroquel Generic Cost in any language on use of hormonal contraceptive methods among women taking anticonvulsant therapy from 1966 through 3 May 2010. Forty-three articles were identified and evaluated.

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Our results suggest that weight loss occurs in most adults treated with topiramate and is sustained for at least 1 year. Reduced caloric intake may account, in part, for weight loss during early treatment. The pattern of Cymbalta Effective Dose weight loss differs according to baseline BMI, with obese patients experiencing greater weight loss during continued therapy.

topamax 15 mg 2016-12-10

To assess Cipro Gonorrhea Dosage the effects of drug treatment in BPD patients.

topamax 5 mg 2017-04-01

To explore efficacy and tolerability outcomes of topiramate (TPM) in patients Topamax 50mg Reviews with epilepsy transitioning from valproic acid (VPA) because of insufficient efficacy and/or tolerability onto TPM.

topamax positive reviews 2016-11-05

Most AEDs Bactroban London Drugs have effects on glial cells and, when used at an appropriate cell-specific concentrations, may be well tolerated by cortical astrocytes. However, at higher concentrations, GBP, LTG, TGB, and LEV seem to be better tolerated than are CBZ, TPM, and OXC. These findings may reveal novel ways of producing large numbers of new AEDs capable of reducing the extent of inflammation, neuronal damage, and death under pathological conditions such as epilepsy and/or traumatic brain injury.

topamax buy online 2016-04-03

In this report of the actual effects of topiramate in a clinical setting on weight and eating habits of 17 patients with TBI and obesity of various etiologies, topiramate seemed to be a safe Viagra Dosage Instructions intervention. Topiramate appeared to be differentially effective, with particular effects on primary pathological eating patterns.

topamax starting dose 2015-02-11

The use of topiramate, which is prescribed for the management of epilepsy, for Cheap Accutane migraine headache prophylaxis and as a weight-loss agent, has been associated with the development of metabolic acidosis, hypokalaemia and renal stone disease. We systematically reviewed all the literature.

topamax xr dosage 2016-03-05

Over the past few years numerous new agents have been examined for their efficacy in bipolar disorder (BPD). New antiepileptic agents and atypical antipsychotics currently form the bulk of these emerging agents. As the armamentarium for treating BPD increases, it allows for the possibility of choosing drugs on the basis of their tolerability as well as their efficacy, rather than on Neurontin High Dose efficacy alone.

topamax overdose symptoms 2016-02-15

A patient with valproate-induced hyperammonemic encephalopathy presented with altered mental status and hyperammonemia in the context of normal liver functions. Fortunately, altered mental status and elevated plasma ammonia level normalized 1 day after discontinuation of divalproex sodium (Depakote). The case analysis suggests a possible synergistic interaction of valproic acid and topiramate with respect to the emergence of hyperammonemic encephalopathy in the context of Voltaren Pills Dosage normal liver functions. Possible mechanisms of the encephalopathy and hyperammonemia are discussed. For example, valproate has diverse metabolic effects that include regulating levels of ammonia by altering activity of the urea cycle, whose first step uses HCO3 in the synthesis of carbamoylphosphate. Topiramate's inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity may be the basis of its possible synergy with valproate by affecting levels of HCO3.

topamax alcohol abuse 2015-06-22

Some studies suggest a higher risk of hypertension in people with epilepsy. Captopril, a potent and selective angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, is a well known antihypertensive drug. Besides the peripheral renin-angiotensin system (RAS), ACE inhibitors are also suggested to affect the brain RAS which might participate in the regulation of seizure susceptibility. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of captopril on the protective action of numerous antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine [CBZ], phenytoin [PHT], valproate [VPA], phenobarbital [PB], oxcarbazepine [OXC], lamotrigine [LTG] and topiramate [TPM]) against maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice. This study was accompanied by an evaluation of adverse effects of combined treatment with captopril and antiepileptic drugs in the passive avoidance task and chimney test. Captopril (25 and 50 mg/kg i.p.) did not influence the threshold for electroconvulsions. Among the tested antiepileptics, captopril (25 and 50 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antiseizure action of CBZ, decreasing its ED(50) value from 12.1 to 8.9 and 8.7 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, captopril (50 mg/kg i.p.) enhanced the anticonvulsant activity of LTG. ED(50) value for LTG was lowered from 5.1 to 3.5 mg/kg. The observed interactions between captopril and CBZ or LTG were pharmacodynamic in nature as captopril did not alter plasma and total brain concentrations of these antiepileptics. The combinations of captopril with antiepileptic drugs did not lead to retention deficits in the passive avoidance task or motor impairment in the chimney test. Based on the current preclinical data, it is suggested that captopril may positively interact with CBZ and LTG in epileptic patients. The combinations of captopril with the remaining antiepileptics (PHT, VPA, PB, OXC and TPM) seem Levaquin Brand Name neutral.

topamax highest dose 2016-05-26

Twenty-nine studies Buspar Reviews 2012 reporting on 15 different augmentations were included. Significant better efficacy than placebo on total symptom severity was observed for lamotrigine, citalopram, sulpiride, and CX516 (a glutamatergic agonist). The positive effect of lamotrigine disappeared after outlier removal. The other positive findings were based on single studies. Significantly better efficacy on positive symptom severity was observed for topiramate and sulpiride. The effect of topiramate disappeared after outlier removal. Results for sulpiride were based on a single randomized controlled trial. Citalopram, sulpiride, and CX516 showed better efficacy for negative symptoms than placebo, all based on single studies.

topamax 600 mg 2017-05-13

This study evaluated available controlled treatment studies to determine utility of pharmacotherapy for binge-eating disorder (BED). The authors identified randomized placebo-controlled trials testing pharmacotherapy-only treatments and controlled trials testing pharmacotherapy with psychotherapy treatments. Meta-analysis was performed on placebo-controlled trials with data for attrition, remission, and weight loss. Qualitative review was performed on remaining controlled treatment literature. A total of 33 studies were considered of which 14 studies with a total of 1,279 patients were included in the meta-analysis of pharmacotherapy-only treatment and 8 studies with a total of 683 patients were included in the qualitative review of pharmacotherapy combined with psychotherapy interventions. No evidence suggested significant differences between medication and placebo for attrition. Evidence suggested that pharmacological treatments have a clinically significant advantage over placebo for achieving short-term remission from binge eating (48.7% vs. 28.5%) and for weight loss, although weight losses are not substantial. No data exist to allow evaluation of longer-term effects of pharmacotherapy-only treatment for BED. Combining medications with psychotherapy interventions failed to significantly enhance binge outcomes, although specific medications (orlistat, topiramate) enhanced weight losses achieved with cognitive behavioral therapy and behavioral weight loss. In summary, BED patients can be advised that certain pharmacotherapies may enhance likelihood of stopping binge eating short term, but that longer-term effects are unknown. Although some weight loss may occur, it is unlikely to be substantial with available medications. Combining medications with cognitive or behavioral treatments is unlikely to enhance binge outcomes, but specific medications (orlistat, topiramate) may enhance weight losses, albeit modestly.

topamax drug interactions 2016-06-02

This case illustrates the importance of recognizing this entity in a non-ophthalmic setting and that intravenous methylprednisolone may be useful in the treatment of the condition when it is not responsive to conventional treatment. In addition, it is important to recognize that complete resolution of visual symptoms from the myopic shift may be delayed, despite normalization of intraocular pressure.