The macrolide antibiotics include natural members, prodrugs and semisynthetic derivatives. These drugs are indicated in a variety of infections and are often combined with other drug therapies, thus creating the potential for pharmacokinetic interactions. Macrolides can both inhibit drug metabolism in the liver by complex formation and inactivation of microsomal drug oxidising enzymes and also interfere with microorganisms of the enteric flora through their antibiotic effects. Over the past 20 years, a number of reports have incriminated macrolides as a potential source of clinically severe drug interactions. However, differences have been found between the various macrolides in this regard and not all macrolides are responsible for drug interactions. With the recent advent of many semisynthetic macrolide antibiotics it is now evident that they may be classified into 3 different groups in causing drug interactions. The first group (e.g. troleandomycin, erythromycins) are those prone to forming nitrosoalkanes and the consequent formation of inactive cytochrome P450-metabolite complexes. The second group (e.g. josamycin, flurithromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, miocamycin and midecamycin) form complexes to a lesser extent and rarely produce drug interactions. The last group (e.g. spiramycin, rokitamycin, dirithromycin and azithromycin) do not inactivate cytochrome P450 and are unable to modify the pharmacokinetics of other compounds. It appears that 2 structural factors are important for a macrolide antibiotic to lead to the induction of cytochrome P450 and the formation in vivo or in vitro of an inhibitory cytochrome P450-iron-nitrosoalkane metabolite complex: the presence in the macrolide molecules of a non-hindered readily accessible N-dimethylamino group and the hydrophobic character of the drug. Troleandomycin ranks first as a potent inhibitor of microsomal liver enzymes, causing a significant decrease of the metabolism of methylprednisolone, theophylline, carbamazepine, phenazone (antipyrine) and triazolam. Troleandomycin can cause ergotism in patients receiving ergot alkaloids and cholestatic jaundice in those taking oral contraceptives. Erythromycin and its different prodrugs appear to be less potent inhibitors of drug metabolism. Case reports and controlled studies have, however, shown that erythromycins may interact with theophylline, carbamazepine, methylprednisolone, warfarin, cyclosporin, triazolam, midazolam, alfentanil, disopyramide and bromocriptine, decreasing drug clearance. The bioavailability of digoxin appears also to be increased by erythromycin in patients excreting high amounts of reduced digoxin metabolites, probably due to destruction of enteric flora responsible for the formation of these compounds. These incriminated macrolide antibiotics should not be administered concomitantly with other drugs known to be affected metabolically by them, or at the very least, combined administration should be carried out only with careful patient monitoring.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
The in vitro activity of tetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, roxithromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin was tested against 63 clinical isolates of Ureaplasma urealyticum. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by the broth microdilution method in A7 medium. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) of the tested agents after 24 h of incubation were as follows: tetracycline, 0.5 and 2.0 μg/ml; doxycycline, 0.125 and 0.25 μg/ml; erythromycin, 2.0 and 8.0 μg/ml; roxithromycin, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/ml; clarithromycin, 0.25 and 1.0 μg/ml; azithromycin, 2.0 and 4.0 μg/ml; levofloxacin, 1.0 and 2.0 μg/ml; and moxifloxacin, 0.5 and 0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC values after 24 h and 48 h incubation differed by no more than one dilution for all the agents with the exception of doxycycline (two dilution difference for MIC(90)). Overall, moxifloxacin was the most active agent in vitro against U. urealyticum, with the narrowest difference between MIC and MBC values, followed closely by levofloxacin. Clarithromycin was the most active macrolide.
We examined the in-vitro activities of various antibiotics against 25 strains of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (22 clinical isolates and 3 standard strains). In the 22 clinical isolates, the 90% minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC 90) of SCH27899, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and minocycline were 16, 2, 2, 4, 0.0039, 0.0039, 0.016, 2, and 4 microg/ml, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC 90) of SCH27899, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, clindamycin, and minocycline were 64, 4, 2, 8, 0.0625, 0.0625, 0.125, 8, and 64 microg/ml, respectively. The low sensitivity of M. pneumoniae to SCH27899 may be a result of the impermeability of the bacteria to this molecule. The results of this study suggest that SCH27899 would not be a suitable antimicrobial agent to use in the alternative chemotherapy of M. pneumoniae infection.
The sub-MIC effects (SMEs) and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) of vancomycin, roxithromycin, and sparfloxacin for Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae and of amikacin for Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were investigated. A postantibiotic effect was induced by exposing strains to 10x the MIC of the antibiotic for 2 h in vitro. After the induction, the exposed cultures were washed to eliminate the antibiotics. Unexposed controls were treated similarly. Thereafter, the exposed cultures (PA SME) and the controls (SME) were exposed to different subinhibitory concentrations (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3x the MIC) of the same drug and growth curves for a period of 24 h were compared. In general, the PA SMEs were much more pronounced than the SMEs. However, for amikacin and E. coli the SME of 0.2 and 0.3x the MIC also had an initial bactericidal effect. The longest PA SMEs were demonstrated for the combinations with the most pronounced killing during the induction and for the combinations which exhibited the longest PAEs.
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The occurrence, removal efficiency and seasonal variation of 22 antibiotics, including eight fluoroquinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides, were investigated in eight sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Beijing, China. A total of 14 antibiotics were detected in wastewater samples, with the maximum concentration being 3.1 μg L(-1) in the influent samples and 1.2 μg L(-1) in the effluent samples. The most frequently detected antibiotics were ofloxacin, norfloxacin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin and roxithromycin; of these, the concentration of ofloxacin was the highest in most of the influent and effluent samples. Eighteen antibiotics were detected in the sludge samples, with concentrations ranging from 1.0×10(-1) to 2.1×10(4) μg kg(-1). The dominant antibiotics found in the sludge samples were the fluoroquinolones, with ofloxacin having the highest concentration in all the sludge samples. The antibiotics could not be removed completely by the STPs, and the mean removal efficiency ranged from -34 to 72%. Of all the antibiotics, the fluoroquinolones were removed comparatively more efficiently, probably due to their adsorption to sludge. Seasonal variation of the antibiotics in the sludge samples was also studied. The concentrations of antibiotics in winter were higher than in spring and autumn. Since the total levels of the fluoroquinolones detected in the influent samples were lower than the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) of 8.0 μg L(-1), the residues of these antibiotics would be unlikely to have adverse effects on microorganisms involved in sewage treatment processes.
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The erythromycins have gained widespread use in treating a variety of infections. Although they are effective, limitations include the need to administer four times a day and the intolerable adverse gastrointestinal effects. Four of the more extensively studied agents, azithromycin, clarithromycin, dirithromycin, and roxithromycin, are currently being studied in patients. Based on the studies to date, the newer macrolides may offer several advantages over erythromycin, including: (1) greater antimicrobial activity against certain organisms; (2) longer elimination half-life, thus allowing less frequent administration; and (3) lower incidence of adverse gastrointestinal effects.
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It is well known that low-dose and long-term administration of macrolide antibiotics favourably modify the clinical status of chronic airway inflammatory diseases. However, the therapeutic mode of action of macrolide antibiotics is not well understood. The present study aimed to examine the influence of macrolide antibiotics, roxithromycin (RXM) and josamycin (JM) on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production from nasal polyp fibroblasts (NPF) in vitro. NPF, at a concentration of 2.5 x 10(5) cells x mL(-1), were stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in the presence of various concentrations of RXM or JM for 24 h. MMP-2 and -9 levels in culture supernatants were analysed by ELISA, and MMP mRNA expression was examined by RT-PCR. The influence of RXM on nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activator protein (AP)-1 activation was also examined. Addition of RXM (but not JM) at 5.0 and 7.5 microg x mL(-1) significantly suppressed the production of MMP-2 and -9 from NPF induced by TNF-alpha stimulation. RXM also suppressed MMP mRNA expression through the inhibition of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation. The present results suggest that the suppressive activity of roxithromycin on MMP-2 and -9 production is, in part, responsible for the therapeutic action of macrolides on chronic airway inflammatory diseases.
Coronary heart disease remains the most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Although atherosclerosis is generally asymptomatic in the early stages, progressive plaque development leads to arterial stenosis which is characterized by angina and may eventually lead to unstable angina, myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Evidence that the coagulation cascade is activated during acute coronary events has justified the use of antithrombotic agents such as aspirin, heparin and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) in the standard management of acute coronary syndromes. The inflammatory process is also known to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, resulting in a cycle of continued inflammatory cell activation and ongoing cell recruitment. As the human leukocyte-associated antigen (HLA) system plays a key role in the regulation of the inflammatory process, the expression of HLA antigens in patients with symptomatic coronary heart disease has been investigated. These studies have demonstrated a relationship between the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression and the most severe pattern of angina refractory to conventional therapy, within the framework of a chronic infectious disease. A number of studies have documented an association between coronary heart disease and the presence of high titres of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, and this organism has been implicated in plaque instability. Such findings have stimulated interest in the role of C. pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, with a view to developing novel and effective treatment approaches. The ROXIS study showed a lower incidence of acute ischaemic events in patients with unstable angina treated with an antichlamydial antibiotic, roxithromycin.
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Regarding Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) has not defined the breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for expanded spectrum cephems such as cefpodoxime and ceftizoxime, because of the absence of resistant strains to these antibiotics. To date, in gonococcal urethritis, after treatment with third generation cephems and aztreonam, clinical failures caused by resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains have not been reported. However, we experienced two clinical failures in patients with gonococcal urethritis treated with cefdinir and aztreonam. N. gonorrhoeae isolates from these two patients showed high-level MICs to these agents. The MIC of cefdinir was 1 microg/ml for both strains and that of aztreonam was 8 microg/ml for both strains, while the MICs of other beta-lactams were also higher than the NCCLS value, except for ceftriaxone, for which the MIC was 0.125 microg/ml for both strains. Moreover, the MICs of fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and erythromycin against these two isolates were higher than the NCCLS susceptibility value. These isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin. In N. gonorrhoeae, the emergence of these beta-lactam-resistant isolates is of serious concern. However, a more serious problem is that these isolates were already resistant to non-beta-lactam antimicrobials. In Japan, ceftriaxone has not been permitted for clinical use against gonococcal infections. Therefore, in Japan, patients with gonococcal urethritis caused by these resistant N. gonorrhoeae strains should be treated with cefodizime or spectinomycin.
The legislative change which disallowed having the "no brand substitution" box checked as a default setting in prescribing software had a dramatic impact on the checking of the "no brand substitution" box. In contrast, there was no sustained effect of educating prescribers about software default settings relating to repeat prescribing of antibiotics. Other actions are required if unnecessary repeat prescriptions for some medicines, such as antibiotics, are to be reduced.
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Plasmid pB4 is a conjugative antibiotic resistance plasmid, originally isolated from a microbial community growing in activated sludge, by means of an exogenous isolation method with Pseudomonas sp. B13 as recipient. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of pB4. The plasmid is 79,370 bp long and contains at least 81 complete coding regions. A suite of coding regions predicted to be involved in plasmid replication, plasmid maintenance, and conjugative transfer revealed significant similarity to the IncP-1beta backbone of R751. Four resistance gene regions comprising mobile genetic elements are inserted in the IncP-1beta backbone of pB4. The modular 'gene load' of pB4 includes (1) the novel transposon Tn 5719 containing genes characteristic of chromate resistance determinants, (2) the transposon Tn 5393c carrying the widespread streptomycin resistance gene pair strA-strB, (3) the beta-lactam antibiotic resistance gene bla(NPS-1) flanked by highly conserved sequences characteristic of integrons, and (4) a tripartite antibiotic resistance determinant comprising an efflux protein of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP), and an outer membrane factor (OMF). The components of the RND-MFP-OMF efflux system showed the highest similarity to the products of the mexCD-oprJ determinant from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa chromosome. Functional analysis of the cloned resistance region from pB4 in Pseudomonas sp. B13 indicated that the RND-MFP-OMF efflux system conferred high-level resistance to erythromycin and roxithromycin resistance on the host strain. This is the first example of an RND-MFP-OMF-type antibiotic resistance determinant to be found in a plasmid genome. The global genetic organization of pB4 implies that its gene load might be disseminated between bacteria in different habitats by the combined action of the conjugation apparatus and the mobility of its component elements.
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Neutrophils prepared from normal human peripheral blood (1 x 10(5) cells/ml) were treated with various concentrations of RXM for 1 h, and then stimulated with 1.0 microg/ml of LPS in the presence of the agent for 24 h. MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 levels in culture supernatants were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
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A reliable and sensitive procedure is presented for the analysis of erythromycin (ERY) and oleandomycin (OLE) in food of animal origin, such as meat, liver, kidney, raw milk and egg. The method is based on a solid-phase extraction clean-up with a cation exchange cartridge, a 9-fluoromethylchloroformate (FMOC) precolumn derivatization and a separation by HPLC with fluorometric detection. The selectivity is satisfactory enough to control ERY and OLE residues as not many interfering peaks are observed for various food matrices. The macrolides recoveries of the total procedure were low, although >50%. However, addition of an internal standard (roxithromycin) corrected for recovery to give satisfactory quantitative results for repeatability, linearity, detection and quantification limits and mainly accuracy.
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Antibiotic susceptibility was performed on sixty clinical isolates of nonsporing anaerobes against ten antimicrobial agents. The test was performed on Muller Hinton Agar and Wilkins Chalgren blood agar by preparing suspension of freshly isolated colonies in BHI broth. Apart from Metronidazole and Chloramphenicol newer antibiotics like Minocycline, Secnidazole, Tinidazole, Clarithromycin, Roxithromycin were also tried. Antimicrobial agents like Metronidazole, Secnidazole, Tinidazole and Minocycline were 100% sensitive, followed by Chloramphenicol, Clarithromycin and Roxithromycin. These newer agents can be good alternatives for the treatment of non sporing anaerobes.
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Mice made monocytopenic with etoposide or both granulocytopenic and monocytopenic with cyclophosphamide were infected in a thigh muscle with 3 x 10(6) CFU of Staphylococcus aureus; 1 h later erythromycin or roxithromycin was administered, and 4 h after that the number of CFU per thigh was determined. In vitro as well as in vivo, the maximal effect of both antibiotics was only bacteriostatic. Monocytopenia did not diminish the efficacy of either erythromycin or roxithromycin in vivo, whereas the combination of granulocytopenia and monocytopenia markedly decreased the efficacy of both drugs: a 4-fold dose increase was necessary to obtain the same final number of CFU at the site of infection as in the controls. It is concluded that granulocytes contributed substantially to antibiotic efficacy against S. aureus in this short-term infection model.
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Optimal pharmacotherapy includes utilization of the right drug, at the right time, right duration of therapy and adequate dosage. This study analyzed utilization of antimicrobial drugs at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad and in outpatients of the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad-Liman.
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A single dose of roxithromycin, 300 mg, was taken by six healthy male volunteers on three occasions at consecutive weekly intervals. It was well tolerated. On the first two occasions, roxithromycin was assayed in serum samples taken at intervals up to 8 h after the administration. The mean peak concentration at 1 h was 3.0 mg/l (range 0.3-7.3). The serum samples from the volunteers showed variable bactericidal activity against a strain of Streptococcus sanguis isolated from a case of bacterial endocarditis. Roxithromycin was not detected in saliva or gingival fluid. Smooth surface plaque samples taken at intervals were investigated for the emergence of streptococci resistant to roxithromycin at 2 and 8 mg/l. Initially two volunteers had small number of roxithromycin-resistant streptococci. At the end of the study all six volunteers had resistant streptococci detectable in their plaque samples and these accounted for 100% of the streptococci in two volunteers. The most resistant isolates (in several cases with MIC greater than 64 mg/l) were Str. sanguis or Str. mitior; individual volunteers tended to yield the same strain on consecutive samplings.
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Pharmaceuticals are increasingly detected in environmental matrices, but information on their trophic transfer in aquatic food webs is insufficient. This study investigated the bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of 23 pharmaceuticals in Taihu Lake, China. Pharmaceutical concentrations were analyzed in surface water, sediments and 14 aquatic species, including plankton, invertebrates and fish collected from the lake. The median concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals ranged from not detected (ND) to 49 ng/L in water, ND to 49 ng/g dry weight (dw) in sediments, and from ND to 130 ng/g dw in biota. Higher concentrations of pharmaceuticals were found in zoobenthos relative to plankton, shrimp and fish muscle. In fish tissues, the observed pharmaceutical contents in the liver and brain were generally higher than those in the gills and muscle. Both bioaccumulation factors (median BAFs: 19-2008 L/kg) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (median BSAFs: 0.0010-0.037) indicated a low bioaccumulation potential for the target pharmaceuticals. For eight of the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in food webs, the trophic magnification factors (TMFs) were analyzed from two different regions of Taihu Lake. The TMFs for roxithromycin, propranolol, diclofenac, ibuprofen, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and tetracycline in the two food webs ranged from 0.28 to 1.25, suggesting that none of these pharmaceuticals experienced trophic magnification. In addition, the pharmaceutical TMFs did not differ significantly between the two regions in Taihu Lake.
In immunocompromised patients, cryptosporidial diarrhoea is a debilitating and potentially life-threatening infection for which no effective specific therapy exists. In an uncontrolled study of 24 AIDS patients with diarrhoea exclusively due to Cryptosporidium spp., treatment with roxithromycin, 300 mg bd for 4 weeks, produced symptomatic improvement of diarrhoea in 79% of cases, with 50% of patients achieving complete response. The response rate was 100% in a subgroup of five patients with no previous or concomitant opportunistic infections. In complete responders, improvement was rapid, occurring within 3-5 days, and the duration of response was at least 6 months. Response did not appear to be correlated with the degree of immunodeficiency. The most limiting adverse effects were abdominal pain (two patients), elevated hepatic enzymes (two patients) and abdominal pain with elevated hepatic enzymes (one patient). Minor symptoms, such as gastrointestinal upset, occurred in nine patients. We conclude that roxithromycin is relatively well tolerated and effective against cryptosporidial diarrhoea in AIDS patients. Further studies to optimize dosing regimens are required.
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The biotransformation of roxithromycin in simulated gastrointestinal fluids at 37 degrees C and in rats was investigated by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Roxithromycin degraded to its Z-isomer and decladinose derivative in simulated gastrointestinal fluids in vitro at pH = 3, and followed pseudo first-order degradation with a rate constant (+/-SD, standard derivation) of 0.1066 min(-1) (+/-0.0014) at pH 1.0, 0.0994 min(-1) (+/-0.0031) at pH 1.2, 0.0400 min(-1) (+/-0.0003) at pH 1.3, 0.0136 min(-1) (+/-0.0008) at pH 1.8, and 0.0022 min(-1) (+/-0.0002) at pH 3.0, respectively. The ratio of Z-roxithromycin to roxithromycin (+/-SD) was 0.21 (+/-0.01) at pH 1.0, 0.19 (+/-0.03) at pH 1.2, 0.18 (+/-0.01) at pH 1.3, 0.15 (+/-0.01) at pH 1.8, and 0.08 (+/-0.02) at pH 3.0, respectively. Pepsin and NaCl added to gastric fluid had no effect on the transformation of roxithromycin. Roxithromycin underwent four metabolic routes such as geometric isomerization, demethylation, dealkylation, and hydrolysis of cladinose in rats after oral administration. The geometric isomerization in rats was neither observed after an intravenous dose, nor after an oral dose with Na(2)CO(3) alkalization. The geometric isomerization between roxithromycin and its Z-isomer took place in gastric fluid both in vitro and in vivo. It was interconvertible and pH-dependent. The isomerization of roxithromycin to its Z-isomer was less than that of Z- to E-configuration both in vitro and in vivo.
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The production of interleukin-8 induced by the activation of protease-activated receptor 2 and its synergism with interleukin-1beta were modulated by 14-membered-ring macrolides, namely, roxithromycin, erythromycin, and clarithromycin, in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes. Those macrolides may attenuate the protease-activated receptor 2-interleukin-8 axis and thereby modulate proinflammatory responses in the skin.
A simple, stability-indicating, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of roxithromycin in the presence of its forced alkaline, oxidative and ultraviolet degradation products. Reversed-phase chromatography was conducted using an ODS C18 (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.) column at ambient temperature with ultraviolet detection at 215 nm. A mobile phase consisting of 0.03 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer-methanol (40:60, v/v) adjusted to pH 4.5 was used for the separation of the studied drug and its degradation products at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The method showed good linearity over the concentration range of 10.0-150.0 µg/mL with a detection limit of 2.5 µg/mL and quantification limit of 8.4 µg/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of roxithromycin in its commercial tablets; the obtained results were favorable compared with those obtained by the official method. Furthermore, content uniformity testing of the studied tablets was also conducted. The method was also utilized to investigate the kinetics of the different degradation products of the drug. The first-order rate constant, half-life time and activation energy of the degradation reactions were calculated.
The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of roxithromycin in the empiric treatment of extra-hospitalary pneumonias in immunocompetent adult patients.
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A number of new antibiotics have lately become available for treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in out-patients. The new drugs are generally more expensive than the older ones, which might be justified by better effects, improved safety, or by other advantages. In this study, a retrospective economic analysis has been made using data from a previous trial comparing a new macrolide, roxithromycin, with an older 1, erythromycin stearate in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections. The trial was multicentre, double blind, randomized and comparative. There were no significant differences in efficacy between treatments, although the cure rate was higher for roxithromycin, 85% vs 79% for erythromycin. 20/39 of the erythromycin-treated patients reported adverse events, vs 7/40 roxithromycin-treated subjects, a highly significant difference. More detailed information was obtained by reviewing the medical records of the participants, and from questionnaires distributed to the 3 centres that had included patients in the trial. Additional visits were found necessary for 4 patients treated with erythromycin and for 1 using roxithromycin. Using the healing rates in the present investigation, and including costs for initial drug treatments, second consultations, and failed therapy, average cost-effectiveness (SEK/patient cured) was 409 for roxithromycin-treated patients, and 488 for erythromycin-treated. Roxithromycin should then be cheaper than erythromycin stearate. With the same healing rate, roxithromycin would be less cost-effective, but indirect costs and effects on quality of life are not then taken into account.
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Analytical methods have been developed for the determination of eight acidic pharmaceuticals and two metabolites, seven antibiotics and the parasiticide ivermectin in a selected river sediment. The sediments were solvent extracted with ultrasonic assistance. A solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up step was performed thereafter. The acidic compounds clofibric acid, diclofenac, fenoprofen, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen and the parasiticide ivermectin were measured in the negative mode by LC-APCI-tandem MS, whereas the antibiotics clarithromycin, erythromycin, roxithromycin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were detected in the positive mode by LC-ESI-tandem MS. Bezafibrate could not be determined in the sediment using the method developed. The limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.4 to 8 ng g(-1) for the acidic pharmaceuticals, sulfadiazine and ivermectin and was 20 ng g(-1) for the other antibiotics.
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Pefloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, accumulates in macrophages and several other types of nucleated cells (but not in erythrocytes). Upon fractionation of macrophage homogenates by isopycnic centrifugation in sucrose gradients, fluoroquinolones are not found associated with any specific cellular structure. We have compared the activities of pefloxacin and roxithromycin against intracellular Staphylococcus aureus in mouse J774 macrophages. Pefloxacin was significantly more active for equivalent intracellular drug concentrations (i.e. expressed by reference to the respective MICs of the drugs as determined in broth), suggesting differences in intracellular availability and/or capacity of the drugs to express their activity in the intracellular environment. The difference was enhanced by incubating the cells in acidic medium. We have also examined the cellular pharmacokinetics and intracellular distribution of pefloxacin in uninfected and Legionella pneumophila infected guinea pig macrophages. In contrast to uninfected cells from which pefloxacin was quickly released, macrophages infected with legionella retained approximately 20-30% of the accumulated pefloxacin after a 60-min wash-out. Cell fractionation studies indicated that the drug remaining in cells was associated with components of high buoyant density. These fractions also contained [3H] if cells had been incubated with [3H] labelled legionella (by in-vitro exposure to [3H]-thymidine, before phagocytosis). These results suggest that part of the intracellular pefloxacin becomes associated with legionella, or with legionella-containing cytoplasmic structures.
We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled trial of oral 500 mg amoxicillin 3 times per day vs oral 300 mg roxithromycin once a day for 10 days.
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Antimicrobial activity of 6 macrolides was determined using a micro-broth dilution method, against 535 clinical isolates of 22 species, which were isolated in 1996 from 325 facilities in Japan. Results were as follows. 1. In general, antimicrobial activities of 14-membered macrolides were higher than those of 16-membered macrolides. The antimicrobial activities of 14-membered macrolides were in the order of clarithromycin (CAM), erythromycin (EM), roxithromycin (RXM). Among 16-membered macrolides, rokitamycin (RKM) was the most potent, josamycin (JM) was next potent followed by midecamycin (MDM). More numbers of highly-resistant strain of > 100 micrograms/ml were recognized in 14-membered macrolides than in 16-membered macrorides. 2. Most of S. pyogenes (group A) strains were distributed in the susceptible range and almost none was found in the resistant range. 3. S. pneumoniae strains were distributed widely from the susceptible range to the highly resistant range, and as high as 37.1% fell into the high resistance of > 100 micrograms/ml range. 4. Against Peptostreptococcus spp. and MRSA, 16-membered macrolides were more effective than 14-membered macrorlides, and their antibacterial activities were in the order of RKM, JM, MDM. Ratio of high-resistant strains of > 100 micrograms/ml against 14-membered macrolides was much higher than that against 16-membered macrolies. 5. Most of M. (B.) catarrhalis strains were distributed in the susceptible range of < or = 1.56 micrograms/ml, and most of H. influenzae strains were distributed within the moderately resistant and the resistant ranges. 6. In M. (B.) catarrhalis and H. influenzae, no correlation between macrolide resistance and beta-lactamase production was recognized. 7. Most of C. jejuni strains were susceptible to all macrolides used in this study.
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Bacterial colonization might influence the clinical response of psoriasis patients to the therapeutic efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs. Macroride antibiotics are used for the treatment of psoriasis patients; however, few studies have investigated the immunoregulatory efficacy of macrorides in bacterial superantigen-stimulated immune cells. The suppressive efficacy of roxithromycin was evaluated in vitro against the concanavalin A- or streptococcal pyrogenic enterotoxin A-induced proliferation of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells in 22 healthy subjects. The concentrations of ten cytokines in a peripheral-blood mononuclear cell-culture medium were measured using beads-array procedures. The cellular c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activities were measured using cell-based ELISA procedures. Roxithromycin inhibited the proliferation of both concanavalin A- and superantigen-stimulated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells dose-dependently with significant effects at 50 microM (P<0.001). Furthermore, the suppressive efficacy of betamethasone butyrate propionate against the superantigen-stimulated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells were significantly promoted in combination with 5-25 microM roxithromycin (P<0.05). The concentrations of interleukin-2, -4, -5, -10 and -12p70 in the supernatant of the superantigen-stimulated peripheral-blood mononuclear cells cultured for 24 h and the concentrations for interleukin-1beta and -12p70 in the supernatant cultured for 72 h, respectively, decreased significantly in the presence of 50 microM roxithromycin (P<0.05). The stimulation of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells with the superantigen increased cellular JNK activity was significantly attenuated this increased activity by 50 microM roxithromycin (P<0.01). These results suggest that roxithromycin, either itself or in combination with glucocorticoid, is effective for the treatment of psoriasis patients with hemolytic streptococci infection, via the suppression of helper T lymphocytes by inhibiting the cellular JNK activity.