Advancements in transplant immunosuppression have resulted in a significant reduction in acute cellular rejection and a modest increase in long-term patient and graft survival. Because the optimal immunosuppression regimen is still unknown, immunosuppressant use should be influenced by institutional preference and tailored to the immunologic risk of the patient and adverse-effect profile of the drug.
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We compared the incidence of severe complications among 123 consecutive simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) recipients randomized for treatment either with tacrolimus plus mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) or tacrolimus plus sirolimus during their initial postoperative hospital stay.
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This study aims at identifying and characterizing safety signals of serious adverse events associated with exposure to BRM among organ transplant patients in a real-world environment.
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Sirolimus (SRL) has been used as an alternative immunosuppressant strategy to allow either dose minimization or complete withdrawal of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) therapy to improve renal outcome. One hundred thirty-one heart and 55 lung transplant patients were converted from a CNI to SRL based immunosuppression, with CNI elimination in 25 patients, and dose reduction in 161 patients. Fifty-six (28%) patients died and 65 (33%) patients had a 25% or more decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) during a median follow-up of 18 months. The three groups (SRL only group n = 25; SRL + tacrolimus n = 94; SRL + cyclosporine n = 67) had an initial improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate (p = 0.05), with subsequent similar slow decline in mean eGFR (repeated measures ANOVA, p = 0.96). After controlling for important potential confounding variables, the three groups had similar renal outcome (p = 0.40) and overall survival (p = 0.45). In conclusion, the benefits of CNI withdrawal vs. minimization as part of SRL-based regimens are similar with regard to renal outcomes and patient survival.
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Tacrolimus (FK 506), a poorly soluble immunosuppressant is currently formulated in nonaqueous vehicle containing hydrogenated castor oil derivative for intravenous administration. Hydrogenated castor oil derivatives are associated with acute anaphylactic reactions. This proposes to overcome the problems of poor aqueous solubility of the drug and the toxicity associated with currently used excipients by the development of a new parenterally acceptable formulation using self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS). Solubility of FK 506 in various oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants was determined to identify SMEDDS components. Phase diagrams were constructed at different ratios of surfactants:cosurfactant (K(m)) to determine microemulsion existence area. Influence of oily phase content, K(m), aqueous phase composition, dilution, and incorporation of drug on mean globule size of microemulsions was studied. SMEDDSs were developed using ethyl oleate as oily phase and Solutol HS 15 as surfactant. Glycofurol was used successfully as a cosurfactant. Developed SMEDDS could solubilize 0.8% (wt/wt) FK 506 and on addition to aqueous phase could form spontaneous microemulsion with mean globule size < 30 nm. The resulting microemulsion was iso-osmotic, did not show any phase separation or drug precipitation even after 24 h, and exhibited negligible hemolytic potential to red blood cells.
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To investigate the characteristic and management of postoperative infection in abdominal cluster transplantation.
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Prolonged therapy with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) is effective in patients with difficult nephrotic syndrome. However, information on prevalence and risk factors for nephrotoxicity in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is limited. This retrospective observational study was conducted on 40 patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome treated with cyclosporine (CyA) (n = 28) or tacrolimus (n = 12) for more than 2 years. Nephrotoxicity was defined by the presence of striped fibrosis involving ≥10% of the interstitium or nodular hyalinosis in more than one arteriole. Ten additional parameters were graded semi-quantitatively. Continuous data are presented as median and interquartile range (IQR). The median (IQR) age at onset of nephrotic syndrome and CNI therapy were 30 (21-45) and 49.5 (40-102.5) months. A second renal biopsy, following 30 (26-35) months of CNI therapy, showed histological toxicity in 10 (25%) patients. Toxicity was seen in 7 and 3 patients receiving CyA and tacrolimus, respectively, and 5 patients each with minimal change and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Therapy with CNI was associated with significant increases in scores for global glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, nonnodular arteriolar hyalinosis (P < -0.001 for all), arteriolar smooth-muscle vacuolization (P = -0.02), juxtaglomerular hyperplasia (P = -0.002), and tubular microcalcinosis (P = -0.06). Risk factors for nephrotoxicity were initial resistance (OR 9; 95% CI 1.0-80.1; P = -0.049); dose of CyA (OR 9.2; 95% CI 1.1-74.6; P = -0.037); duration of heavy proteinuria (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0-1.4; P = -0.023); and hypertension during therapy (OR 6; 95% CI 1.3-28.3; P = -0.023). Following prolonged CNI therapy, one in four biopsies show features of toxicity. Prolonged duration of heavy proteinuria, hypertension, initial steroid resistance and high CyA dose predict the occurrence of nephrotoxicity.
Treatment with systemic tacrolimus is possibly safe and effective in reducing graft rejection and prolonging graft survival in patients with high-risk PKP after graft failure with systemic CsA.
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Cryptosporidium is one of the common causes of infective diarrhea in post-transplant patients in endemic areas. However, data are limited on Cryptosporidium infection in recipients of solid organ transplantation. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, disease manifestation, management, and outcome of Cryptosporidium infection in living-donor renal transplant recipients (RTR).
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Non-adherence among liver transplant recipients is a common problem associated with increased risk of graft failure. SD tacrolimus can be used to measure non-adherent behavior and perhaps target patients for behavioral interventions.
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The effect of tacrolimus on epididymal biochemical markers was investigated following single daily subcutaneous doses of 1, 2 and 3 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for 2 weeks to male adult rats. The tacrolimus 2 and 3 mg kg(-1) day(-1) groups showed a significant and dose-dependent decrease in sperm count in the cauda epididymis. Among tissue levels of L-carnitine, alpha-glucosidase and acid phosphatase, only L-carnitine level in the cauda epididymis was significantly reduced in the tacrolimus 3 mg kg(-1)day(-1) group. However, no significant difference was seen in the plasma L-carnitine. It was suggested that lowering of L-carnitine in the cauda epididymis was attributable to the adverse effect on epididymal function to transport and/or concentrate L-carnitine. Since L-carnitine has been reported to have antioxidant potential, antioxidant defense enzymes in the cauda epididymis such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were evaluated. The results showed no significant differences in activities, confirming that the treatment with tacrolimus did not affect the activities of these antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, this study indicates that tacrolimus induces a decrease in L-carnitine level in the cauda epididymis, which is probably caused by impairment of epididymal function to transport and/or concentrate L-carnitine from bloodstream, and a decrease in sperm count.
Folate nonresponsiveness could be attributed in part to increased noggin expression in Fkbp8 (-/-) embryos, resulting in decreased Msx2 expression. Folate treatment further increases Olig2 and noggin expression, thereby exacerbating ventralization.
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In all cases the raised Tacrolimus values were observed only by ACMIA, while the correlation (r2) of the other assays with LC-MS/MS was excellent for CMIA (0.97) and good for MEIA (0.88) and EMIT (0.83). The aberrant results were often recorded over a span of several weeks or months and could not be ascribed to a common cause.
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All of the 13 patients included in the study were positive at entry for MRI-proven bone edema of the wrist and finger joints and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies or IgM-rheumatoid factor. A tight control approach was applied for 12 months. Plain MRI and radiographs of both wrist and finger joints were examined every 6 months. MRI was scored by the RA MRI scoring (RAMRIS) technique and plain radiographs were scored using the Genant-modified Sharp score. Variables that were correlated with plain radiographic changes at 12 months were examined.
This review summarizes data concerning the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical efficacy of the new PKC inhibitor sotrastaurin with a focus on renal transplantation. The article contains information that has been presented at international transplant meetings and congresses and that has been published between 2006 and 2010. Additionally, current ongoing trials are described in detail.
Two new diagnoses have been causing graft loss during long-term follow-up, namely, chronic nephropathy and anticalcineurinic toxicity. The advent of the mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) obviates anticalcineurine toxicity and reduces posttransplant malignancy incidence with good inmunosuppressive potential. We examinated the renal and metabolic behavior in renal transplant recipients who required conversion from an anticalcineurinic (cyclosporine or tacrolimus) to an m-TOR inhibitor (everolimus) as part of their immunosuppressive maintenance therapy.
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Concentration-response curves for agonist in the presence CsA were significantly shifted to the left with increase in maximal responses. This effect was due to increased calcium influx from extracellular calcium stores whereas there were no significant changes in calcium influx in the presence of tacrolimus; concentration-response curve was comparable to controls.
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It was confirmed that CYP3A5*1 wild-type carriers had lower median dose-adjusted tacrolimus trough concentrations compared with noncarriers. Adults had 56 and 77% lower trough concentrations at 6 weeks (p = 0.0003) and 1 year, respectively (p < 0.0017), and, similarly, children had 65 and 39% lower median concentrations, with p values of 0.006 and 0.011, respectively. No association was found for PPARA c.209-1003G>A, POR*28, or CYP3A4*22. An association between the PPARA c.209-1003G>A genotype and an increased number of infections with cytomegalovirus (CMV) within the first year was identified (p < 0.05). Only 29% of trough concentrations measured between 2 and 12 weeks post-transplantation were on target.
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Tacrolimus (TAC), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, is used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) and skin immune diseases. TAC-loaded topical hydrogel formulations composed of carbomer, carnosine, transcutol P (diethylene glycol monoethyl ether) and humectant were prepared. For comparison, TAC-loaded topical cream-type formulations were also prepared and commercially available TAC ointment was used as a reference. A drug release study in vitro revealed that the total amount of TAC released from hydrogels over 24 h was approximately 30 times greater than that for the reference formulation. Compared to the reference ointment and creams, carbomer gel formulations showed higher skin permeation and retention of TAC (significantly different at p < 0.05), especially those with more than 10% of transcutol P. Therefore, carbomer gel formulations with sufficient levels of transcutol P are good candidates for skin delivery of TAC and have potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of AD or immune skin disorders.
The cornea is the most commonly transplanted tissue in the body. Although corneal grafts generally have high success rates, transplantation onto inflamed and vascularized host beds, or so-called high-risk corneal transplantation, has a high rate of graft rejection. The management of this high-risk corneal transplantation is challenging and involves numerous measures. One of the key measures to prevent graft rejection in these cases is the use of systemic immunosuppressive agents. In this article, we will review the systemic immunosuppressive agents most commonly used for high-risk corneal transplantation, which include corticosteroids, cysclosporine A, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin. Benefits, risks, and published data on the use of these medications for high-risk corneal transplantation will be detailed. We will also summarize novel immunoregulatory approaches that may be used to prevent graft rejection in high-risk corneal transplantation.
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Coating of stents has been shown to minimize the interactions between platelets, stent surface and vascular response following stent implantation. The aim of our study was to compare the tacrolimus-eluting carbon-coated JANUS(®) stent with sirolimus-eluting CYPHER(®) stent for the prevention of symptom-driven clinical end points in a real world clinical setting.
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New immunosuppressive agents have decreased the incidence of acute rejection rates without improvement in long-term outcomes. Drug toxicity due to a narrow therapeutic index and individual variations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics significantly contributes to the inferior outcomes. This review focuses on advances in individualization of immunosuppression therapy using therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics as a strategy to minimize toxicity.
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Host Schwann cell (SC) migration into nerve allografts is the limiting factor in the duration of immunosuppression following peripheral nerve allotransplantation, and may be affected by different immunosuppressive regimens. Our objective was to compare SC migration patterns between clinical and experimental immunosuppression regimens both over time and at the harvest endpoint. Eighty mice that express GFP under the control of the Schwann cell specific S100 promoter were engrafted with allogeneic, nonfluorescent sciatic nerve grafts. Mice received immunosuppression with either tacrolimus (FK506), or experimental T-cell triple costimulation blockade (CSB), consisting of CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion protein, anti-CD40 monoclonal antibody, and anti-inducible costimulator monoclonal antibody. Migration of GFP-expressing host SCs into wild-type allografts was assessed in vivo every 3 weeks until 15 weeks postoperatively, and explanted allografts were evaluated for immunohistochemical staining patterns to differentiate graft from host SCs. Immunosuppression with tacrolimus exhibited a plateau of SC migration, characterized by significant early migration (< 3 weeks) followed by a constant level of host SCs in the graft (15 weeks). At the endpoint, graft fluorescence was decreased relative to surrounding host nerve, and donor SCs persisted within the graft. CSB-treated mice displayed gradually increasing migration of host SCs into the graft, without the plateau noted in tacrolimus-treated mice, and also maintained a population of donor SCs at the 15-week endpoint. SC migration patterns are affected by immunosuppressant choice, particularly in the immediate postoperative period, and the use of a single treatment of CSB may allow for gradual population of nerve allografts with host SCs.