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Ninety five isolates of Salmonella enterica belonging to 5 serotypes- S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Gallinarum, S. Paratyphi B and S. Bareilly were obtained with an overall prevalence rate of 14.40 per cent. S. Typhimurium isolates were distributed among four phages- DT003, DT004, DT096 and DT193 and all the S. Enteritidis isolates belonged to a single phage type, PT13a/7. Interspecies sharing of the phages was observed. Norfloxacin, enrofloxacin, gentamycin and ciprofloxacin were most effective, whereas, doxycycline, ampicillin, amoxycillin and tetracycline were relatively less effective.
Six patients with acute peritonitis undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal failure received an 800 mg loading dose of pefloxacin mesylate orally followed by 400 mg twice daily orally for 10 or 21 days. Plasma and dialysate levels of both pefloxacin and its metabolites were measured. Plasma levels in excess of the MIC for all infective bacteria were achieved within 90 min and in dialysate within 4 h. No significant accumulation of pefloxacin or its metabolite norfloxacin was noted. However, both serum and dialysate levels of the metabolite pefloxacin N-oxide rose continuously during treatment. Plasma and dialysate levels of all three agents fell rapidly during the five days after treatment had stopped. No major side effects were observed, although two patients developed Achilles tendonitis.
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In a prospective controlled study we evaluated the effect of early norfloxacin treatment on the duration of salmonella carriage after acute salmonellosis. The study was carried out during an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium infection at a military base. 23 patients received norfloxacin 400 mg twice daily for 7 days while 29 patients served as untreated controls. A patient was considered to have ceased being a carrier on the date of the first of 3 negative consecutive cultures. Four weeks after diagnosis 30% of the treated patients and 31% in the control group were still carriers. The corresponding figures after 8 and 12 weeks were 17 and 3% and 4 and 0%, respectively. Thus, one week of norfloxacin treatment instituted at an early stage of salmonellosis did not shorten the duration of carriage.
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The MIC of pefloxacin against all the strains (3122) isolated in an intensive care unit during 18 months was studied. The MIC of pefloxacin was estimated by standard agar diffusion method in Mueller-Hinton agar. All the strains with a MIC lower than 2 mg/l were considered as sensitive, between 2 and 4 mg/l as "intermediary" and over 4 mg/l as resistant. Geometrical means of MICs were calculated for each month and for different species. The study continued for 18 months from the introduction of the drug which was in widespread and constant use as a first-choice antibiotic. No significant increase was detected in the incidence of resistant strains during the study; on the other hand, small, limited clusters of resistant strains were observed during minor nosocomial epidemics. The general features of quinolone activity, the spectrum of this new quinolone and the slow evolution of the bacterial population are discussed.
All efflux pumps except bmeB9 were expressed in the wild-type parental strain. Susceptibility to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, ethidium bromide, SDS and triclosan was increased in ADB77DeltabmeB3 (up to 3-fold) and ADB77DeltabmeB1DeltabmeB3DeltabmeB12 (up to 5-fold). Expression of bmeB9 was increased and that of bmeB11 repressed in the latter deletant. A quadruple deletant (ADB77DeltabmeB1DeltabmeB3DeltabmeB12DeltabmeB15) had similar changes as well as a 2-fold increase in expression of bmeB16 and norfloxacin resistance. Expression of bmeB3 was increased in two triple deletants ADB77DeltabmeB1DeltabmeB12DeltabmeB15-type I (2-fold) and ADB77DeltabmeB1DeltabmeB12DeltabmeB15-type II (5.8-fold). Antimicrobial MICs were also increased in the latter deletant; ampicillin (2.6-fold), cefoperazone (3.4-fold), cefoxitin (1.8-fold), tetracycline (36.4-fold), SDS (1.7-fold) and triclosan (2-fold).
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Campylobacter species had the highest isolation rate (9.3%) of all the bacterial and parasitic enteric pathogens which were sought in the stool specimens. Children less than three years old were those most frequently infected with Campylobacter species. Campylobacter jejuni was the commonest Campylobacter species isolated. All the Campylobacter isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol and norfloxacin. A significant number of the isolates (14.8%) showed multidrug resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline and gentamicin.
In a standardized experimental model 51 antimicrobial agents were coincubated with polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PNG) of healthy human donors and then screened for a modulation of chemiluminescence (CL) reaction during zymosan phagocytosis. Initial studies with low, therapeutic and high, nontherapeutic concentrations showed CL suppression by amoxicillin, tetracycline, doxycycline, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazol, clindamycin, fusidic acid, rifampicin, isoniazid and amphotericin B, yet stimulation of CL reaction by ceftriaxone, enoxacin, and norfloxacin. Dose-effect relationships for most of these substances showed a sigmoid-like graph with little influence upon most of the therapeutic range, but markedly increasing suppression (or stimulation) from a certain 'threshold' concentration. For certain substances this curve might indicate a narrowed therapeutic range of antimicrobial chemotherapy due to impairment of phagocytic functions.
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Interim analysis was performed because of the low recruitment rate, and a significantly lower infection rate than expected meant that the trial was discontinued. There was one symptomatic UTI in the placebo group (0.82%) and one in the norfloxacin group (0.89%). The UTI in the placebo group was de novo, while the infection in the norfloxacin group was secondary to pre-FC bacteriuria. There was no difference in the infection rates in the two groups. The overall infection rate (de novo and secondary to existing bacteruria) after FC was 0.85%.
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Centers participating in the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group.
The bacterial diseases of silkworms cause significant reductions in sericulture and result in huge economic loss. This study aimed to identify and characterize a pathogen from diseased silkworm. SW7-1, a pathogenic bacterial strain, was isolated from the diseased silkworm. The strain was identified on the basis of its bacteriological properties and 16S rRNA gene sequence. The colony was round, slightly convex, opaque, dry, and milky on a nutrient agar medium, the colony also exhibited jagged edges. SW7-1 was Gram-positive, without parasporal crystal, and 0.8-1.2 by 2.6-3.4 µm in length, resembling long rods with rounded ends. The strain was positive to most of the physiological biochemical tests used in this study. The strain could utilize glucose, sucrose, and maltose. The results of its 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that SW7-1 shared the highest sequence identity (>99%) with Bacillus cereus strain 14. The bacterial strain was highly susceptible to gentamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin and moderately susceptible to tetracycline and rifampicin. It exhibited resistance to other antibiotics. SW7-1 had hemolytic activity and could produce extracellular casease, lipase, and amylase. SW7-1 could reproduce septicemia-like symptoms with high mortality rate when re-fed to healthy silkworm. .The median lethal concentration (LC50) was 5.45 × 10(4) cfu/ml. Thus, SW7-1 was identified as B. cereus, which is a pathogen for silkworm and human infections are possible.
Bacterial adherence of E. coli obtained from patients with cirrhosis is unrelated to the sensitivity/resistance to quinolones, and is similarly reduced in both cases when subminimum inhibitory concentration of norfloxacin is added to the medium.
Among the 156 eyes studied, 36 were from patients who had undergone either bilateral surgery or more than one surgery in the same eye. Only the first eyes of the 120 patients that underwent initial ocular surgery were included in our analysis. Of these 120 eyes, 21 (18%) showed no bacterial growth. Of the 143 bacterial strains isolated from the remaining 99 eyes, 112 (78%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Among the CNS, greater than 90% were susceptible to cefotaxime, levofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, vancomycin, and each of the aminoglycosides except neomycin. Between 70% and 90% of the CNS were susceptible to cefazolin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol. Less than 70% of the isolated CNS were sensitive to the penicillin analogues, ceftazidime, erythromycin, and tetracycline.
Oral norfloxacin prevented Gram-negative bacilluria in female patients with hip fractures, who needed medium-term transurethral catheterization. This was shown in a placebo-controlled double-blind study of 34 patients. Seventeen of these received a suspension containing 200 mg norfloxacin and 500 mg amphotericin B, twice daily. In the placebo group, six cases of Gram-negative bacilluria had occurred by day 7, as compared with no cases during a median time of catheterization of 23 days in the group on medication. Bacteriuria, either by Gram-positive cocci or by Gram-negative bacilli, was observed in 50% of patients on placebo by day 7; in the treatment group this was the case by day 17 (P less than 0.001). Subsequent bacteriuria with Gram-positive cocci was eliminated by nitrofurantoin (50 mg qid) within four days. Norfloxacin is very suitable for the prevention of Gram-negative bacilluria, because it decontaminates Gram-negative bacilli from the bowel, reaches high concentrations in urine and rarely produces resistant variants.
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Centre Médico-Social de Bilyogo, Kigali, Rwanda. The only clinic in Rwanda using quinolones for the treatment of gonorrhoea.
Effects of various antimicrobials on in vitro Shiga toxin production and release by Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 was investigated in this study with particular reference to the role of outer membrane vesicles in toxin release by the organism. Five antimicrobials, namely nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, fosfomycin and mitomycin C, were chosen for the study and the toxin titre was measured by the reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) method using an available kit. Only mitomycin C was found to induce production of Shiga toxin in the bacteria and its release by outer membrane vesicles. The highest titre of toxin was obtained in vesicle fraction suggesting that the vesicles play an important role in the release of Shiga toxin from periplasmic space by the organism.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) can lead to poor maternal and perinatal outcomes. Investigating epidemiology of UTI and antibiotics sensitivity among pregnant women is fundamental for care-givers and health planners.
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Cyclothialidine is a new DNA gyrase inhibitor isolated from Streptomyces filipinensis NR0484. Structurally, it belongs to a new class of natural products containing a unique 12-membered lactone ring that is partly integrated into a pentapeptide chain. Cyclothialidine was found to be one of the most active of all the DNA gyrase inhibitors tested in the DNA supercoiling reaction of Escherichia coli DNA gyrase; 50% inhibitory concentrations (in micrograms per milliliter) of 0.03 (cyclothialidine), 0.06 (novobiocin), 0.06 (coumermycin A1), 0.66 (norfloxacin), 0.88 (ciprofloxacin), and 26 (nalidixic acid) were found. In addition, DNA gyrases from gram-positive species were inhibited equally as well as DNA gyrase from E. coli. Cyclothialidine also inhibited the in vitro DNA replication directed from oriC of E. coli. Among the bacterial species tested, only Eubacterium spp. were inhibited by cyclothialidine, suggesting that it can enter the cells of Eubacterium and exert antibacterial activity through interference with the DNA gyrase within the cells, although its penetration into most bacterial cells appears to be poor. These results provide a basis for cyclothialidine to be a lead structure for novel antibacterial agents with DNA gyrase inhibitory activities.
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T. pyogenes was isolated from different clinical specimens from cattle, goats, sheep, pigs, horses, dogs, and buffaloes. Correlations were assessed by the Chi-square or Fisher's exact tests.
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In Vietnam's coastal wetlands, fluoroquinolones, a widely used class of antibiotics in shrimp farming, are frequently detected in sediments of former shrimp farms. This phenomenon could lead to negative impacts on the aquatic ecosystem, since the antibiotic residues could induce changes in the microorganism communities of the water body. The potential of native wetland plants (Acrostichum aureum L. and Rhizophora apiculata Blume Fl. Javae) for phytoremediation of fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin) was investigated. The half-life for each antibiotic was estimated at approximately 10 days in the planted sediment. With respect to the accumulation of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in plants, these antibiotics were found mainly in roots. Antibiotic translocation from root to stem and leaves occurred at a low rate. The results showed that A. aureum and R. apiculata can be valuable for the phytoremediation of antibiotic-contaminated sediments. Additionally, the initialfindings of the presence of resistant bacteria indicated that bacteria could play a role in facilitating the phytodegradation.
Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) can greatly enhance the emission intensity of the weak chemiluminescence reaction of Ce (IV) with norfloxacin (NFLX) in acid medium. Based on this phenomenon, a simple and rapid new method for the continuous determination of norfloxacin was developed. The calibration graph is linear for 7.78 x 10(-8) -5.82 x 10(-6) g x mL(-1), the detection limit (3sigma) is 1.57 x 10(-8) g x mL(-1), and the relative standard deviation (n = 10, c = 1.94 x 10(-6) g x mL(-1)) is 1.7%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of norfloxacin in capsules. Additionally, the system's mechanism was discussed.
Recent observations have suggested that classic antibiotics kill bacteria by stimulating the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). If true, this notion might guide new strategies to improve antibiotic efficacy. In this study, the model was directly tested. Contrary to the hypothesis, antibiotic treatment did not accelerate the formation of hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli and did not elevate intracellular free iron, an essential reactant for the production of lethal damage. Lethality persisted in the absence of oxygen, and DNA repair mutants were not hypersensitive, undermining the idea that toxicity arose from oxidative DNA lesions. We conclude that these antibiotic exposures did not produce ROS and that lethality more likely resulted from the direct inhibition of cell-wall assembly, protein synthesis, and DNA replication.
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The rats were randomly divided into high altitude group and plain group. Blood gas and biochemical analysis showed that the physiological parameters significantly changed at high altitude. The mRNA and protein expression of MRP2 in high altitude group were higher than plain group in rat small intestine and kidney, while was reduced in rat liver. The AUC, Ka and Cmax of norfloxacin were significantly reduced in high altitude group (p<0.05). However, the MRT, CL, t1/2 and Vd were significantly increased (p<0.05).
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Stool samples were collected between 1 October 2007 and 30 September 2008 from a total of 651 outpatients with diarrhoea who were under five years of age in four provinces of Kenya. Conventional, biochemical methods, multiplex PCR and antimicrobial susceptibility were conducted to identify the bacterial causes and virulence factors in the isolates, respectively.
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A method for the quantitative determination of humanuse fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin in sewage sludge and sludge-treated soil samples was developed. The accelerated solvent extraction was optimized with regard to solvents and operational parameters, such as temperature, pressure, and extraction time. A 50 mM aqueous phosphoric acid/ acetonitrile mixture (1:1) was found to be optimum in combination with an extraction temperature of 100 degrees C at 100 bar, during 60 and 90 min for sewage sludge and sludge-treated soil samples, respectively. A cleanup step using solid-phase extraction substantially improved the selectivity of the method. Overall recovery rates for FQs ranged from 82 to 94% for sewage sludge and from 75 to 92% for sludge-treated soil, with relative standard deviations between 8 and 11%. Limits of quantification were 0.45 and 0.18 mg/kg of dry matter for sewage sludge and sludge-treated soils, respectively. The presented method was successfully applied to untreated and anaerobically digested sewage sludges and sludge-treated soils. Ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were determined in sewage sludges from several wastewater treatment plants with concentrations ranging from 1.40 to 2.42 mg/kg of dry matter. Therefore, contrary to what may be expected for human-use pharmaceuticals, FQs may reach the terrestrial environment as indicated by the occurrence of FQs in topsoil samples from experimental fields, to which sewage sludge had been applied.
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Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri is a causative agent of contagious agalactia in goats. In this study, M. mycoides subsp. capri mutants were selected for resistance to fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) by serial passes in broth with increasing concentrations of antibiotic. Mutations conferring cross-resistance to the three fluoroquinolones were found in the quinolone resistance determining regions of the four genes encoding DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Different mutations in the DNA gyrase GyrA subunit suggest a different mechanism of inhibition between norfloxacin and the other tested fluoroquinolones. The presence of an adenosine triphosphate-dependent efflux system was suggested through the use of the inhibitor orthovanadate.