Adjuvant endocrine therapy remains the principle strategy to reduce recurrence risk in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Studies of the natural history of breast cancer have shown that, while not reaching zero at any time point, the risk of recurrence is highest in the first 5 years following initial diagnosis and treatment. Within this initial 5 years, there is a peak of recurrence at the 2- to 3-year mark. Among the types of breast cancer recurrences observed at this early peak, distant metastasis (DM) predominates over local or contralateral relapse. DM recurrences are most strongly linked to breast-cancer-related death, and it has been suggested that adjuvant endocrine therapies that are most effective in minimizing the early peak of DM recurrence may have the most favorable impact on survival in women with early breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) including anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane have gained popularity in the past few years as alternatives to 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen, the previous standard of care. However, clinicians have not yet resolved how best to integrate AIs into breast cancer treatment; both upfront therapy (i.e., in lieu of tamoxifen) and a sequential/switch strategy (i.e., after some period of prior tamoxifen) have been proposed. The benefits and drawbacks of these approaches to AI treatment, particularly with respect to reducing early DM recurrences, are reviewed.
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Using various in vitro and in vivo assays, we tested the effect of roscovitine on three hormonal therapy-resistant model cells: (a) MCF-7-TamR (acquired tamoxifen resistance model); (b) MCF-7-LTLTca (acquired letrozole resistance model); and (c) MCF-7-HER2 that exhibit tamoxifen resistance (ER-growth factor signaling cross talk model).
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To dileneate a role of miR-10b in tamoxifen-resistance, we over-expressed miR-10b in MCF-7 cells and down-regulated its levels in MCF7TR cells. The mechanistic role of HDAC4 in miR-10b-mediated tamoxifen resistance was studied using HDAC4 cDNA and HDAC4-specific siRNA in appropriate models.
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Data was collected about cancer type and treatment, symptoms, prior use of T, bone density analyses and menopause treatments.
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Anastrozole concentrations were not affected by the combination with low-dose tamoxifen, whereas endoxifen levels were lower in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers. C-telopeptide increased by 20% with anastrozole and decreased by 16% with tamoxifen and by 7% with their combination (P < 0.001); osteocalcin showed similar changes. Compared with anastrozole, the combination arm showed lower IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels (-17% versus -9%; P = 0.004) and lower estradiol/SHBG and estrone sulfate reductions (-15% versus -29% and -30% versus 38%, respectively). However, IGF-I/IGFBP-3 and estradiol/SHBG did not decrease in poor CYP2D6 metabolizers. Endometrial thickness was not greater in the combination than in the anastrozole arm.
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Questionnaires regarding lifestyle were completed preoperatively by 634 patients in southern Sweden. CYP1A2*1F and CYP2C8*3 were genotyped. Clinical data and tumor characteristics were obtained from patients' charts, population registries, and pathology reports. Coffee consumption was categorized as low (0-1 cups/day), moderate (2-4 cups/day), or high (5+ cups/day).
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We report a woman in her 30s who developed a right breast tumor 10 years after undergoing mastectomy for invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast. She underwent modified radical mastectomy for the right breast cancer, which was diagnosed histologically as invasive ductal carcinoma with metastasis to the axillary lymph nodes. Because of the risk of recurrence, she received postoperative systemic adjunctive chemotherapy using CMF, but this had to be withdrawn because of liver toxicity. The patient therefore received hormonal therapy with goserelin and tamoxifen for 24 months. During this period, however, she became menopausal, necessitating withdrawal of the goserelin. After a disease-free interval of 34 months, liver metastasis appeared, and so tamoxifen was changed to exemestane. After 3 months, the metastasis showed a marked response, and this has been subsequently maintained for 48 months. Because the patient's menstrual cycle then returned, goserelin was restarted after consultation with a gynecologist. This case illustrates that exemestane and goserelin combination therapy is effective for recurrent breast cancer.
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Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and Embase, up to 11 April 2016.
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Scientific questions deserving further investigation include the relationship between mammography use and DCIS incidence and whether imaging technologies and treatment guidelines can be modified to focus on lesions that are most likely to become clinically problematic.
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Adult normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM) were treated with physiological concentrations of tamoxifen and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen during 72 hours. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. Total melanin was quantified by spectrophotometry, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was determined by competitive ELISA. The relative mRNA levels of several genes involved in melanogenesis were investigated by real-time PCR.
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Though combination chemotherapy or antitumor nanomedicine is extensively investigated, their combining remains in infancy. Additionally, enhanced delivery of estrogen or its analogs to tumor with highly-expressed estrogen-receptor (ER) is seldom considered, despite its necessity for ER-positive breast cancer treatment. Here, nanomedicine based combination therapy using QLPVM conjugated liposomal tamoxifen (TAM) and doxorubicin (DOX) was designed and testified, where the penta-peptide was derived from Ku70 Bax-binding domain. Quantitative, semi-quantitative and qualitative approaches demonstrated the enhanced endocytosis and cytotoxicity of QLPVM conjugated sterically stabilized liposomes (QLPVM-SSLs) in vitro and in vivo. Mechanism studies of QLPVM excluded the possible electrostatic, hydrophobic or receptor-ligand interactions. However, as a weak cell-penetrating peptide, QLPVM significantly induced drug release from QLPVM-SSLs during their interaction with cells, which was favorable for drug internalization. These findings suggested that the nanomedicine based combination therapy using QLPVM-SSL-TAM and QLPVM-SSL-DOX might provide a rational strategy for Luminal A breast cancer.
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Bazedoxifene was recently approved for use in the European Union for the treatment of osteoporosis and thus may represent a near-term therapeutic option for patients with advanced breast cancer.
Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) plays an important role in tumor progression and drug resistance. This study examined whether YB-1 is involved in the alteration of response to endocrine therapy in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer cells. MCF7 cells that stably expressed YB-1 (MCF7-YB-1) and vector control cells (MCF7-vector) were established. These cells were used to analyze the expression of the factors related to ER and growth factor receptor signaling pathways and responses to antiestrogens (tamoxifen and fulvestrant) and estrogen responsive element (ERE) activity. The effect of knocking down endogenous YB-1 expression was tested in wild-type MCF7 cells. In addition, the expression of YB-1 and the factors related to ER and growth factor receptor signaling pathways were evaluated in clinical breast cancers treated with preoperative chemotherapy. The expression of HER2, AIB1, p-Erk, and c-Myc was increased in MCF7-YB-1 cells. In contrast, knocking down of YB-1 decreased the expression of these factors but increased the expression of ERα in wild-type MCF7 cells. Furthermore, sensitivity to antiestrogens was decreased in the MCF7-YB-1 in comparison to that in MCF7-vector cells. The introduction of YB-1 into MCF7 cells inhibited apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phase induced by antiestrogens. In MCF7-YB-1 cells, the expression levels of p-Erk and c-Myc were continuously upregulated when cells were treated with either tamoxifen or fulvestrant. The ERE activity was reduced in MCF7-YB-1 cells in comparison to MCF7-vector cells, and the ERE activity in MCF7-YB-1 cells was inhibited by fulvestrant at a lower concentration than that which inhibited the ERE activity in MCF7-vector cells. In ER-positive clinical breast cancers treated with preoperative chemotherapy, significantly more number of specimens that showed increased or positive YB-1 expression after chemotherapy was positive for HER2 expression. These data suggest that alteration of YB-1 may modify the crosstalk between the ER pathway and HER2 pathway in ER-positive breast cancer cells, and consequently, may alter the response to endocrine therapy in ER-positive breast cancer cells.
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Patients with breast cancer exhibited a similar risk of developing dementia (adjusted HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.86-1.04) compared with the cancer-free group. In addition, among women diagnosed with breast cancer, tamoxifen users exhibited a significant 17% lower risk of dementia compared with those not using tamoxifen (adjusted HR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69-0.98), but the significant difference was limited to 5 years or more use (adjusted HR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.32-0.69). Both tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitor use had a joint effect, with a significantly lower risk of dementia among patients.
To describe the endometrial pathologic lesions in premenopausal breast cancer patients with a history of tamoxifen (TMX) use.
Developmental transcription factors important in early neuron specification and differentiation often remain expressed in the adult brain. However, how these transcription factors function to mantain appropriate neuronal identities in adult neurons and how transcription factor dysregulation may contribute to disease remain largely unknown. The transcription factor Nurr1 has been associated with Parkinson's disease and is essential for the development of ventral midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons. We used conditional Nurr1 gene-targeted mice in which Nurr1 is ablated selectively in mature DA neurons by treatment with tamoxifen. We show that Nurr1 ablation results in a progressive pathology associated with reduced striatal DA, impaired motor behaviors, and dystrophic axons and dendrites. We used laser-microdissected DA neurons for RNA extraction and next-generation mRNA sequencing to identify Nurr1-regulated genes. This analysis revealed that Nurr1 functions mainly in transcriptional activation to regulate a battery of genes expressed in DA neurons. Importantly, nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes were identified as the major functional category of Nurr1-regulated target genes. These studies indicate that Nurr1 has a key function in sustaining high respiratory function in these cells, and that Nurr1 ablation in mice recapitulates early features of Parkinson's disease.
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Treatment of 14 breast cancer cell lines revealed that LSR+/CD44- lines were highly sensitive, LSR+/CD44+ lines were slightly sensitive, and LSR-/CD44+ lines were resistant to iota cytotoxicity. Reduction in LSR expression resulted in a significant decrease in toxin sensitivity; however, overexpression of CD44 conveyed toxin resistance. CD44 overexpression was correlated with decreased toxin-stimulated lysosome formation and decreased cytosolic levels of iota toxin. These findings indicated that expression of CD44 drives iota toxin resistance through inhibition of endocytosis in breast cancer cells, a role not previously defined for CD44. Moreover, tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells exhibited robust expression of LSR and were highly sensitive to iota-induced cytotoxicity.
Bone remodeling is a dynamic process in which activated osteoclasts resorb bone and osteoblasts generate a bone matrix that undergoes mineralization. This process repairs microdamage' the microscopic cracks that develop in bone during regular activity-and ensures skeletal strength. A number of local and systemic factors mediate bone cell activity. Systemic regulators include endogenous parathyroid hormone (PTH), vitamin D metabolites, prostaglandins, cortisol, and sex hormones. A number of cytokines and growth factors regulate bone cell function at the local level. For example, bone resorption and formation are tightly orchestrated via the RANK/receptor activator of NF-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Estrogen deficiency, glucocorticoid use, and immune-mediated conditions lead to an imbalance in the RANKL-OPG ratio, inducing osteoclastogenesis and accelerated bone resorption. A number of steps in the tightly orchestrated bone remodeling process can be targeted with pharmacotherapy. This article reviews the available and emerging treatments that inhibit resorption (the antiresorptive or anticatabolic agents) or augment bone formation (anabolic therapy).
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To review the evidence regarding the efficacy of intrauterine levonorgestrel-releasing systems (LNG-IUS) in preventing endometrial pathology in high-risk women.
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Tamoxifen is the treatment of choice in estrogen receptor alpha breast cancer patients that are eligible for adjuvant endocrine therapy. However, ∼50% of ERα-positive tumors exhibit intrinsic or rapidly acquire resistance to endocrine treatment. Unfortunately, prediction of de novo resistance to endocrine therapy and/or assessment of relapse likelihood remain difficult. While several mechanisms regulating the acquisition and the maintenance of endocrine resistance have been reported, there are several aspects of this phenomenon that need to be further elucidated. Altered metabolic fate of tamoxifen within patients and emergence of tamoxifen-resistant clones, driven by evolution of the disease phenotype during treatment, appear as the most compelling hypotheses so far. In addition, tamoxifen was reported to induce pluripotency in breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. In this context, we have performed a whole transcriptome analysis of an ERα-positive (T47D) and a triple-negative breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231), exposed to tamoxifen for a short time frame (hours), in order to identify how early pluripotency-related effects of tamoxifen may occur. Our ultimate goal was to identify whether the transcriptional actions of tamoxifen related to induction of pluripotency are mediated through specific ER-dependent or independent mechanisms. We report that even as early as 3 hours after the exposure of breast cancer cells to tamoxifen, a subset of ERα-dependent genes associated with developmental processes and pluripotency are induced and this is accompanied by specific phenotypic changes (expression of pluripotency-related proteins). Furthermore we report an association between the increased expression of pluripotency-related genes in ERα-positive breast cancer tissues samples and disease relapse after tamoxifen therapy. Finally we describe that in a small group of ERα-positive breast cancer patients, with disease relapse after surgery and tamoxifen treatment, ALDH1A1 (a marker of pluripotency in epithelial cancers which is absent in normal breast tissue) is increased in relapsing tumors, with a concurrent modification of its intra-cellular localization. Our data could be of value in the discrimination of patients susceptible to develop tamoxifen resistance and in the selection of optimized patient-tailored therapies.
Estrogen receptor (ER) status, tumor grade and our previously developed gene expression grade index (GGI) were associated with distinct miRNA profiles. Several miRNAs were found to be clinically relevant, including miR-210, its expression being associated with tumor proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, miR-210 was associated with poor clinical outcome in ER-positive, tamoxifen-treated BC patients. Interestingly, the prognostic performance of miR-210 was similar to several reported multi-gene signatures, highlighting its important role in BC differentiation and tumor progression. Functional analyses in BC cell lines revealed that miR-210 is involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion.
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Breast cancer is associated with a low rate of thromboembolic events (TEE) when compared to other cancers, without influence of the histological type on incidence. Risk factors include the stage of cancer, and the patients' profile and management: hospitalization, surgery and presence of a central catheter but also some cytotoxic chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and some anti-angiogenic targeted therapies. The pathophysiology of TEE includes a cross-stimulation phenomenon, involving tumor cells with procoagulant activity, and factors of hemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Circulating cellular microparticles bearing tissue factor play a major role, as well as thrombogenic platelet interactions with tumor cells via P-selectin. The occurrence of TEE in a cancer patient significantly increases the risk of death. Prevention is framed by recommendations in surgical patients. Curative treatment is based on the use of low molecular weight heparin for at least six months.
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A total of 70 Wistar-Albino female rats with a mean weight 213 ± 27 g were randomly divided into equal seven groups. The first group (C) underwent no procedure. The second group (RT) underwent the whole thoracic radiation including heart. The third group (T) was administered T through tail vein alone. The fourth group (RT+T+Tx) was administered T initially and the whole thoracic radiation at two hours, followed by tamoxifen at one week. The fifth group (RT+T+Le) was administered T and then underwent thoracic radiation, followed by letrozole. The sixth group (T+RT+An) was administered T and then underwent thoracic radiation, followed by anastrazole. The seventh group (T+RT+Ex) was administered T and then underwent thoracic radiation, followed by exemestane at one week. Hormonotherapy was administered to the rats in the Group 5, 6 and 7, as indicated in the Group 4. Radiation therapy was administered following T treatment at two hours as a single 12 Gy fraction. After the rats were sedated under anesthesia and sacrificed at 24 weeks, cardiac tissues were removed. Serial sections obtained following paraffin blockage were stained and the ratio of myocardial fibrosis was assessed. According to statistical analyses by the one-way ANOVA test and Tukey HSD test, a significant difference between test components.
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Due to the low therapeutic index of anti-cancer drugs, they should be closely monitored for evidence of potential contamination that may be of high toxicity and not to have the desired therapeutic effect. Therefore, analytical methods to detect drugs related substances at low concentrations are necessary. Capillary electrophoresis allows for fast and clear separation of drug derivatives. A multitude of submethods make selection of suitable environment for various types of chemicals possible. Publications concerning separation of drugs such as cisplatin, carboplatin, lobaplatin, methotrexate, tamoxifen, paclitaxel from their derivatives, which are their potential contaminations, show that capillary electrophoresis provides the appropriate tools to analyze the impurities of these anti-cancer drugs and is able to partially displace such technique as thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, which still play a major role in this field.