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The clinical management of Helicobacter pylori infected patients who failed standard eradication therapies remains a challenge.
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To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1.
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A literature search of biomedical databases was performed. The reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed to further identify relevant trials. We hand-searched the abstracts of the American Digestive Disease Week (DDW) and the United European Gastroenterology Week (UEGW) from 1995 to 2013. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that used PPIs as the primary treatment for at least six month versus no treatment, placebo, antacid or anti-reflux surgery (ARS) were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Discrepancies in the interpretation were resolved by consensus. All analyses of outcomes were based on the intention-to-treat principle. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager software. The effect measure of choice was relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data.
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Helicobacter pylori eradication rates have decreased worldwide. Gastric acid inhibition during treatment is important to eradicate these bacteria successfully. A new potassium-competitive acid blocker, vonoprazan (VPZ), has been shown to achieve high eradication rates in a previous randomized controlled trial.
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Esomeprazole is efficient for acid-dependent diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in patients with chronic hepatitis and hepatic cirrhosis as it can reduce the disease symptoms and cause the epithelization of erosive and ulcerative defects of the mucous coat. The terms of the cicatrisation of erosive and ulcerative defects of the mucous coat of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum are comparable in patients with liver diseases and in the population (without chronic hepatic diseases). The simultaneous application of Nexium and modern hepatotropic drugs does not cause the development of hepatotoxic reactions.
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The results of this routine clinical practice program are consistent with data reported in controlled trials indicating the efficacy of esomeprazole even in patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms "refractory" to treatments prescribed by primary care practitioners.
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Eight hundred and five uninvestigated, primary care patients with upper GI symptoms that were considered to be acid-related were randomised to 2 weeks' treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg or placebo. The study population was divided into a model sample (N = 484) and a validation sample (N = 321). We developed a therapeutic index to predict PPI response from the model sample and tested this in the validation sample.
His muscular symptoms, signs, and laboratory findings improved markedly with conservative management, including hydration and urine alkalinization. He is being followed in the outpatient department with no evidence of recurrence.
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To evaluate the effects of long-term PPI treatment on development of bowel symptoms and/or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO).
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In some cases the patients are not real refractory because either they do not have GERD or the disease was not correctly treated, but the term refractory is still employed. Although debatable, the Brazilian GERD Consensus based upon evidences recommends as first step in the diagnosis, the upper digestive endoscopy to exclude the diagnosis of peptic ulcer and cancer and in some cases identify the presence of esophageal mucosa erosions.
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The EAL regimen can achieve an efficacy similar to that of the standard EBTM therapy. It may be very useful in countries where bismuth salts are not available. Compliance, CYP2C19 genotype and resistances to antibiotics may influence the outcome of levofloxacin-based rescue therapy. It seems advisable to reserve levofloxacin for rescue treatment to avoid an increase in the resistance phenomenon.
A total of 24 nonsmoking, healthy, Bangladeshi male subjects (mean [SD] age, 22.8 [2.22] years [range, 20-29 years]; weight, 64.7 [6.9] kg [range, 55-79 kg]; height, 1.69 [0.05] m [range, 1.63-1.82 m]; and body mass index, 22.39 [2.16] kg/m(2) [range, 18.99-27.34 kg/m(2)]) were enrolled. From serum data, the mean (SD) values for the test and reference products were as follows: 5.26 (1.57) and 5.54 (2.94) micromol/L for C(max); 2.53 (0.67) and 2.07 (0.65) hours for T(max); 15.74 (6.50) and 16.68 (6.77) micromol/L/h for AUC(0-12); and 17.15 (7.58) and 18.26 (7.31) micromol/L/h for AUC(0-infinity), respectively. The mean T(max) was found to be significantly different between the test and reference formulations (2.53 [0.67] vs 2.07 [0.65] hours, respectively; P < 0.05). The point estimates (90% CI) for the test/reference ratios of the In-transformed AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) were 92.92% (84.02%-102.76%) and 102.36% (85.96%-121.90%), respectively, which were within the FDA-accepted limits for assuming bioequivalence. No adverse events were reported by the volunteers during the study.
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After informed consent was obtained, gastric biopsies of the antrum were taken from patients with reflux oesophagitis prior to and after 6 mo of 20 mg omeprazole (n = 14) or 40 mg esomeprazole (n = 12) therapy. Patients did not take any other medications known to affect the gastric mucosa. All patients were Helicobacter pylori negative as confirmed by rapid urease test and histology, respectively. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, EGFR, and p53 expression were measured by immunohistochemical techniques. At least 600 glandular epithelial cells were encountered and results were expressed as percentage of total cells counted. Was considered statistically significant.
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To evaluate the costs and effectiveness of on-demand maintenance therapy with oral esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole or rabeprazole in patients with endoscopy-confirmed non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) in the UK.
In this Phase I, single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, healthy volunteers (50-75 years) received enteric-coated LDA 81 mg once daily (QD) on days 1 to 5 (open-label), then enteric-coated LDA 81 mg QD plus either naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium or placebo twice daily (BID) on days 6 to 10 (randomized). Serum thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2)) inhibition from baseline to day 11 was the primary end point. The primary analysis excluded volunteers with ≤95% inhibition at day 6. Assay sensitivity and noninferiority of naproxen/esomeprazole magnesium versus placebo were concluded if the 90% CI lower limit for percent inhibition of TXB(2) was >90.0% in both treatment groups (prespecified criterion). Tolerability was a secondary end point.
The known factors that have contributed to the decline of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rate include antibiotic resistance, poor compliance, high gastric acidity, high bacterial load, and cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphism. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is important in the eradication regimen. The principal enzyme implicated in the metabolism of PPIs is CYP2C19. The effects of PPI depend on metabolic enzyme, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and CYP2C19 with genetic differences in the activity of this enzyme (the homozygous EM, heterozygous EM (HetEM), and poor metabolizer). The frequency of the CYP2C19 polymorphism is highly varied among different ethnic populations. The CYP2C19 genotype is a cardinal factor of H. pylori eradication in patients taking omeprazole- based or lansoprazole-based triple therapies. In contrast, the CYP2C19 polymorphism has no significant effect on the rabeprazole-based or esomeprazole-based triple therapies. The efficacy of levofloxacin-based rescue triple therapy might be also affected by the CYP2C19 polymorphism, but CYP2C19 genotypes did not show obvious impact on other levofloxacin-based rescue therapies. Choice of different PPIs and/or increasing doses of PPIs should be individualized based on the pharmacogenetics background of each patient and pharmacological profile of each drug. Other possible factors influencing gastric acid secretion (e.g., IL-1β- 511 polymorphism) would be also under consideration.
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An otherwise healthy 55-year-old woman was prescribed rabeprazole 20 mg/day administered in the morning for persistent symptoms of dyspepsia. Ten days later, she presented with a 7 day history of marked anxiety associated with panic attacks, night terror (pavor nocturnus), episodic mental confusion, and attention deficit. Within 2 days of discontinuing rabeprazole, the patient recovered completely from the neuropsychiatric manifestations. Subsequent esomeprazole therapy did not cause psychiatric symptoms.
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The results of clinical trials with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are usually based on the Hetzel-Dent (HD), Savary-Miller (SM), or Los Angeles (LA) classifications to describe the severity and assess the healing of erosive oesophagitis. However, it is not known whether these classifications are comparable. The aim of this study was to review systematically the literature to compare the healing rates of erosive oesophagitis with PPIs in clinical trials assessed by the HD, SM, or LA classifications.
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To compare the effects of standard-dose esomeprazole with those of standard doses of lansoprazole and rabeprazole on intragastric pH during repeated daily oral dosing in healthy volunteers.
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BACKGROUND& AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma in patients with Barrett's esophagus (BE), but there are limited data from clinical trials to support this concept. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial to assess the effects of the combination of aspirin (3 different doses) and esomeprazole on tissue concentrations of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) in patients with BE with no dysplasia or low-grade dysplasia.
Two identically designed, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of esomeprazole 40, 20, or 10 mg daily for up to 6 months, as well as a noncomparative, multicenter trial of esomeprazole 40 mg daily for up to 12 months, were conducted in 1326 patients with healed erosive esophagitis (1294 negative for Helicobacter pylori [H. pylori]). Gastric biopsy samples were obtained before treatment and on completion of (or discontinuation from) the trials. Samples were evaluated for the presence of H. pylori, characteristics of acute gastritis or atrophic gastritis, and enterochromaffin-like cell pathology.