The performance of ozonation in wastewater depends on water quality and the ability to form hydroxyl radicals (·OH) to meet disinfection or contaminant transformation objectives. Since there are no on-line methods to assess ozone and ·OH exposure in wastewater, many agencies are now embracing indicator frameworks and surrogate monitoring for regulatory compliance. Two of the most promising surrogate parameters for ozone-based treatment of secondary and tertiary wastewater effluents are differential UV(254) absorbance (ΔUV(254)) and total fluorescence (ΔTF). In the current study, empirical correlations for ΔUV(254) and ΔTF were developed for the oxidation of 18 trace organic contaminants (TOrCs), including 1,4-dioxane, atenolol, atrazine, bisphenol A, carbamazepine, diclofenac, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, meprobamate, naproxen, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), phenytoin, primidone, sulfamethoxazole, triclosan, trimethoprim, and tris-(2-chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP) (R(2) = 0.50-0.83) and the inactivation of three microbial surrogates, including Escherichia coli, MS2, and Bacillus subtilis spores (R(2) = 0.46-0.78). Nine wastewaters were tested in laboratory systems, and eight wastewaters were evaluated at pilot- and full-scale. A predictive model for OH exposure based on ΔUV(254) or ΔTF was also proposed.
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are frequently co-prescribed with new antidepressants (ADs) or new antipsychotics (APs). A PubMed search with no time limit was used to update the review of the clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) drug interactions DIs (DIs) between AEDs with new ADs and APs. Our best interpretation of what to expect regarding dosing changes in the average patient after combining AEDs with new ADs or new APs is summarized on updated tables that integrate the information on in vitro metabolism studies, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) studies, case report/series and prospective studies. There will be a need to periodically update these dose correction factors as new knowledge becomes available. These tables will provide some orientation to clinicians with no TDM access and may also encourage clinicians to further study TDM. The clinical relevance of the inductive properties of carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital and primidone on new ADs and new APs and the inhibitory properties of valproic acid and some new ADs, are relatively well understood. On the other hand, PK DI studies combining new AEDs with weak inductive properties (particularly oxcarbazepine doses≥1200mg/day), topiramate doses≥400mg/day, clobazam, eslicarbazepine, and rufinamide), with new ADs and new APs are needed. Valproic acid may be 1) an inhibitor and/or inducer of clozapine and olanzapine with potential for clinically relevant DIs, 2) an inhibitor of paliperidone, and 3) a weak inducer of aripiprazole. Fluoxetine and fluvoxamine are relevant inhibitors of phenytoin and valproic acid and possibly of clobazam, lacosamide, phenobarbital, or primidone.
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Extrapyramidal syndromes have been described after administration of phenytoin and primidone. Although asterixis, dystonia, and tremor have been described with carbamazepine (Tegretol), there is no report of orofacial dyskinesia. We report a case in which a dose-related lingual-facial-buccal extrapyramidal reaction occurred in association with carbamazepine intoxication.
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Thyroid function tests were studied in epileptic children undergoing long-term anticonvulsive therapy with phenytoin, primidone or mephenytoin. Serum T4 was decreased in all three treated groups, serum T3 was diminished only in those treated with phenytoin or primidone. FT4 was also significantly decreased while serum TSH and TBG were not affected in the treated patients. The effect of anticonvulsant drugs on thyroid hormone catabolism and peripheral conversion of T4 seems to be important in these alterations.
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Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent.
The most active growth and development of the human cerebrum and cerebellum occurs in the second half of pregnancy and in the first year of life. It is therefore not surprising that many teratogens may also affect development causing slight, moderate or even severe brain damage. The "classical" antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) valproic acid (VPA), phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone and carbamazepine are all considered to be teratogenic. They may increase the rate of major congenital anomalies including neural tube defects (NTD), cause specific facial and other dysmorphic features--the "Anti Epileptic Drug Syndrome" (AEDS) and often some degree of mental impairment. Of these AEDs, the most teratogenic seems to be valproic acid, causing about 2% of NTD and an additional increase of 4-8% in major congenital anomalies. Phenytoin also increases the rate of various anomalies, but apparently not of NTD. Phenobarbital primidone and carbamazepine are also teratogenic and impair intellectual function but to a lesser extent than VPA and phenytoin. Cognition is mainly impaired in the children that also exhibit the AEDS. The impairment is slight to moderate, leaving the affected children with a close to borderline intelligence. Lamotrigine monotherapy in pregnancy seems to be relatively safe. In general, polytherapy is more dangerous to the fetus than monotherapy and, at least for VPA and lamotrigine, there seems to be a "threshold effect".
A total of 120 epileptic children aged 2-15 y were enrolled in three groups. The first group was on therapy with carbamazepine, phenobarbital or primidone. The second was treated with valproic acid and the third group was untreated. Serum calcium, phosphorous, total alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels were compared between groups. Bone mineral density tests were also performed at four sites of the lumbar spine and three sites of femoral neck and results were compared between the groups.
The antiepileptic drugs phenobarbital and phenytoin were determined in serum by enzyme immunoassay (Emit, Syva Corp.) and gas-liquid chromatography. The Emit assays were mechanized by the use of an Eppendorf analyzer 5010. The precision of the Emit system was sufficient (coefficient of variation within series 6-13% and from day to day 8-15% with various calibrators and control sera). Moreover the Emit method is rapid, specific and easy to perform. The procedure requires only 10 microliter of serum per determination. A disadvantage however is the high cost of the reagents. A comparison of the results obtained by Emit and gas-liquid chromatography in a series of about 50 patients showed a good correlation between both methods (correlation coefficient r = 0.968 for phenobarbital and 0.978 for phenytoin).
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Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of the parent chemical primidone and its two metabolites phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA) was applied to investigate the differences of primidone metabolism among humans, rats, and mice. The model simulated previously published pharmacokinetic data of the parent chemical and its metabolites in plasma and brain tissues from separate studies of the three species. Metabolism of primidone and its metabolites varied widely among a sample of three human subjects from two separate studies. Estimated primidone metabolism, as expressed by the maximal velocity Vmax, ranged from 0 to 0.24 mg. min-1.kg-1 for the production of phenobarbital and from 0.003 to 0. 02 mg.min-1.kg-1 for the production of PEMA among three human subjects. Further model simulations indicated that rats were more efficient at producing and clearing phenobarbital and PEMA than mice. However, the overall metabolism profile of primidone and its metabolites in mice indicated that mice were at higher risk of toxicity owing to higher residence of phenobarbital in their tissues and owing to the carcinogenic potential of phenobarbital as illustrated in long-term bioassays. This result was in agreement with a recently finished National Toxicology Program (NTP) carcinogenicity study of primidone in rats and mice.
The history of epilepsy dates back to 2000 BC. Yet, it was not until 1912 that the activity of the first antiepileptic, phenobarbital was discovered by accident. After this discovery, the next antiepileptic drugs to be discovered (phenytoin and primidone) were based on the phenobarbital's structure. Then, in 1960, carbamazepine was developed empirically, while in 1962, valproate demonstrated anticonvulsant activity against experimental seizures. The next antiepileptic drugs synthesized were either modifications of the existing drugs (such as oxcarbazepine and pregabalin) or completely novel chemical structures (lacosamide, perampanel and retigabine).
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Retrospective matched cohort study.
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The determination of antiepileptic drugs in human serum by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with direct sample injection is discussed. Nanoliter quantities of patient sera are applied to the beginning of a fused silica capillary filled with a phosphate/borate buffer (pH 9.2) containing 75 mM sodium dodecylsulfate. Upon application of an electric field along the capillary, endogenous and drug substances are transported toward the cathode and separate into distinct zones which are detected by on-column UV absorption. Phenobarbital, ethosuximide, and primidone are shown to elute in front of the solubilized proteins, thus permitting quantitation of these drugs without any sample pretreatment. For phenobarbital and ethosuximide, MECC data obtained using the external standard method and peak areas as the basis for quantitation are shown to be in excellent agreement with those of nonisotopic immunoassays and, for ethosuximide, also with those of high-performance liquid chromatography. The correlation coefficients (n = 50) are between 0.972 and 0.986. Intraday and interday reproducibility data are 2.0-4.5% and 4.5-8.0%, respectively. For primidone, insufficient samples have been available for a comprehensive comparison of MECC data with those of other analytic techniques.
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From a total of 560 different epileptics visited during 16 months, we have practiced 140 plasmatic dosifications of antiepileptic drugs according to EMIT technic. The antiepileptic drugs studied were: PB, DPH, PRM, VPA, CBZ and ESM. In this study only the 70 patients treated with PB in monotherapy or combined with DPH, CBZ, VPA and PRM are considered. From the 70 patients, 45 have been controlled; from them 21 (46,5%) did not reach efficient levels from anyone of the used antiepileptics. From the 70 patients 25 have been partially or bad controlled, 20 of them (80%) had PB in efficient levels, 13 (52%) had the other antiepileptic in efficient levels, 12 (47%) had both antiepileptics in efficient levels and 4 (16%) had no antiepileptic drug in efficient levels in spite of using the efficient dose in mg/Kg/day. The conclusions of this results are: we reached a good effect by using PB alone or combined under the considered efficient levels in a 46.5% of the patients; the bad controlled patients, kept on being bad controlled in spite of having 80% of them PB, the other antiepileptic or both in efficient levels.
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A crossover comparative study of valproate sodium and clonazepam in the treatment of 32 adult epileptic patients receiving multiple drug therapy is described. Serum concentrations of other anticonvulsant drugs were unchanged by the addition of clonazepam. However, patients receiving high doses of other anticonvulsant drugs had lower serum concentrations of clonazepam (p less than .01). With valproate sodium, phenobarbital concentrations increased (P less than .05) in patients receiving phenobarbital but not significantly in patients receiving primidone. Phenytoin concentrations were reduced (P less than .05) during treatment with valproate sodium. Both drugs significantly reduced the frequency of minor seizures, with valproate sodium having the greater effect. However, it is important to monitor serum concentrations of other anticonvulsant drugs during treatment with valproate sodium since changes in these may influence seizure control or cause side effects.
Valproate is often administered with other antiepileptic drugs, a practice that can lead to clinically significant pharmacologic interactions. Concomitant administration of such enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs as carbamazepine, phenobarbital, primidone, or phenytoin will markedly accelerate the metabolic conversion of valproate, particularly in children. In response to the effects of enzyme induction, valproate dosage may need to be doubled to maintain therapeutic serum levels. Valproate does not appear to induce enzymatic drug metabolism, but rather acts as a metabolic inhibitor. Because of this inhibition, phenobarbital dosage must often be reduced after valproate is added to the therapeutic regimen. Valproate also may markedly increase concentrations of the active epoxide metabolite of carbamazepine. The interaction between phenytoin and valproate results primarily from displacement from plasma proteins. The resulting increase in the free fraction of phenytoin alters the relationship between total phenytoin concentration and the drug's pharmacologic effect. Thus, clinical evidence of toxicity may be present at concentrations usually considered to be in the therapeutic range.
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The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of levetiracetam on the steady-state serum concentrations of other commonly used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Serum AED concentrations were measured at baseline and after adjunctive therapy with levetiracetam (1000-4000 mg/day) or placebo in four phase III trials in patients with refractory partial epilepsy receiving stable AED dosages. The data were pooled, and repeated measures covariance analysis was used to calculate the ratio (and 90% confidence intervals) of the geometric mean serum drug concentrations during adjunctive levetiracetam therapy relative to baseline. Levetiracetam did not increase or decrease mean steady-state serum concentrations of carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproic acid, lamotrigine, gabapentin, phenobarbital, or primidone. For each of these AEDs, the 90% confidence interval of the geometric mean drug concentrations ratio was included within the 80-125% bioequivalence range. Serum concentrations of these AEDs did not change over time after adjunctive levetiracetam therapy, irrespective of the dosage of levetiracetam used. For vigabatrin, there was no evidence for a significant change in serum drug concentration after the addition of levetiracetam, but the number of observations was too small for the limits of the confidence interval to fall within the 80-125% range. Thus, adjunctive therapy with levetiracetam does not influence the steady-state serum concentrations of concomitantly administered carbamazepine, phenytoin, valproic acid, lamotrigine, gabapentin, phenobarbital, or primidone. Consequently, no need for adjusting the dosages of these AEDs is anticipated when levetiracetam is added on or removed from a patient's therapeutic regimen.
Antiepileptic-antidepressant combinations are frequently used by clinicians; their pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) drug interactions (DIs) have not been well studied but are frequently likely to be clinically relevant.
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We have developed microvolume EMIT procedures for theophylline, phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, primidone, ethosuximide, and gentamicin using a centrifugal analyzer (CentrifiChem and Pipettor 1000) to reduce the manufacturer's recommended manual reagent consumption by one-sixth. In addition to developing the EMIT procedure, the performance of the analyzer and pipettor were verified. The analyzer and pipettor are capable of producing within-run precision at a 3-microliters sample volume and 210-microliters analyzer cuvette volume equal to or less than 1.5%. The performance of the EMIT procedures on the analyzer yielded spike drug recoveries of 90.8 to 106.1% for drug concentrations throughout the calibration concentration range of each assay. The percent error on standard reference material of the National Bureau of Standards ranged from a +12.0% to a -0.6% for ethosuximide, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone. Patient comparison data yielded slopes from 0.930 to 1.110 for all assays. The other important feature of the adapted EMIT assay is its simplicity for use on a routine basis.
In 1979, the College of American Pathologists introduced a Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Interregional Daily Quality Control Program. Each participant uses lyophilized, reconstituted control material at normal and elevated levels. Nine drugs are provided at each level. These include phenobarbital, primidone, carbamazepine, ethosuximide, phenytoin, theophylline, digoxin, quinidine, and gentamicin. These specimens are run daily in the individual participating laboratory as part of a routine quality control program. Results are submitted for data processing to the CAP Computer Center. This report presents preliminary data and observations from the Program.
Essential tremor usually presents as action tremor with postural tremor as the most prominent feature. It typically starts in the arms, but may spread and include head tremor in one third of the patients. Tremor in other parts of the body is seen less frequently. Ethanol may relieve the tremor. Essential tremor usually starts in adults and progresses with age. The prevalence is unknown, but is probably in the range 0.4-3.9%. The cause is unknown, but many families seem to have an autosomal dominant inheritance. Three associated loci have been found, but genes have not been identified. Essential tremor is often considered a neurodegenerative disorder, but receptor mechanisms may also be important. Some patients also show other neurological signs like cerebellar ataxia. New findings indicate that there are two neuropathological types of essential tremor, one is associated with cerebellar Purkinje cell pathology and one with brain stem Lewy bodies. Treatment is only symptomatic. Propranolol and primidone are the first choice drugs, but at least 30% of the patients have insufficient symptomatic relief from drug therapy. Neurosurgical treatment with thalamic deep brain stimulation is an effective alternative for the most severely disabled patients.
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Acute dose--response studies were conducted to determine if ethosuximide had anticonvulsant activity against seizures evoked by stroboscopic stimulation of epileptic fowl and to correlate the observed effects with the concentration of the drug in the plasma. Ethosuximide, in doses that produced mean plasma concentrations of 366 microgram/ml and signs of sedation, did not reduce seizure susceptibility. Twice daily administration of ethosuximide produced mean plasma concentrations of 430 microgram/ml after 36 h without affecting seizure susceptibility even in the presence of marked sedation. Previous studies have shown that epileptic fowl are sensitive to the anticonvulsant effects of phenobarbital, phenytoin, and primidone at plasma concentrations similar to those required in humans. Since ethosuximide has a high specificity against petit mal seizures in humans, the failure of ethosuximide to provide protection indicates that epileptic fowl represent a relatively specific pharmacological model for drugs effective against generalized tonic--clonic and focal cortical epilepsies in humans.
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A MEDLINE search was conducted for journal articles published through December 1997. Additional sources were obtained from Current Contents and citations from the references obtained. Search terms included phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, primidone, valproic acid, oral contraceptives, clomiphene, drug-induced abnormalities, spina bifida, anencephaly, neural tube defect, folate, folic acid, and folic acid deficiency.
Classification of seizure types and evaluation and treatment of seizure disorders are discussed. Once the diagnosis of a seizure is made, the seizure type must be identified; this will help in determining the treatment. In partial seizures, the electrical discharge occurs focally, while generalized seizures involve both cerebral hemispheres simultaneously. Magnetic resonance imaging is the preferred test in the evaluation of patients with seizures, although computed tomography and electroencephalography can also be helpful. Selection of an antiepileptic drug (AED) is based on efficacy, toxicity, and, to a lesser degree, cost. Adverse reactions occur in up to 50% of patients. First-line AEDs include carbamazepine, ethosuximide, phenobarbital, primidone, phenytoin, and valproic acid. Serum AED concentrations can be helpful in managing patients with epilepsy. The serum concentrations required to control seizures or resulting in toxicity may vary among patients. Most seizures are manageable with oral AEDs. Medications of choice in status epilepticus include diazepam, lorazepam, phenytoin, and phenobarbital. The key to treating epilepsy is correct diagnosis of the seizure type and, when possible, the type of epilepsy. Most patients with epilepsy respond to one of the first-line AEDs; second-line agents may be useful in patients who do not respond to one or a combination of the first-line agents.