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Motilium

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

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Description

Generic Motilium is a medicine that increases the movements or contractions of the stomach and bowel. Generic Motilium is also used to treat nausea and vomiting caused by other drugs used to treat Parkinson's Disease.

Generic Motilium works by blocking the action of a chemical messenger in the brain which causes the feeling of nausea and vomiting, as well as increasing the movement or contractions of the stomach and intestines, allowing food to move more easily through the stomach.

Motilium is also known as Domperidone, Dombax, Vivadone, Motinorm, Costi.

Generic name of Generic Motilium is Domperidone.

Brand name of Generic Motilium is Motilium.

Dosage

The usual dose in adults is one tablet three to four times a day, best taken 15 to 30 minutes before meals or food, and if necessary at bedtime.

Sometimes your doctor may increase the dose to two tablets three to four times a day after you have taken Generic Motilium for 2 weeks.

You should not take more than a total of eight tablets in a single day.

Generic Motilium can be taken for up to 6 months.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Motilium and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Do not store in the bathroom, near the kitchen sink, or in other damp places. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Motilium are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are allergic to Generic Motilium components.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Motilium can harm your baby.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you have a tumour of the pituitary gland called prolactinoma; an increase in stomach or bowel contractions can harm you. For example, if you have had bleeding, a blockage or puncture in your gastrointestinal tract.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient such as ketoconazole, fluconazole or voriconazole which is used to treat fungal infections.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking an antibiotic containing the active ingredient erythromycin, clarithromycin or telithromycin.

Do not take Generic Motilium if you are taking another medicine containing the active ingredient amiodarone, which is used to treat fast heart rate.

Do not stop taking Generic Motilium suddenly.

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Orexin immunoreactive fibres are abundant in the hypothalamus suggesting a neuroendocrine regulatory role. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of orexin A suppressed plasma prolactin in male rats by 71% at 20 min post-injection and 83% at 90 min post-injection (P < 0.005 vs saline at both time points). To investigate whether this effect was through the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) system, a supra-maximal dose of domperidone, a dopamine receptor antagonist, was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) prior to ICV injection of orexin A. ICV orexin A significantly suppressed domperidone (9 mg/kg)-stimulated plasma prolactin levels, by up to 40% (i.p. domperidone + ICV orexin A 3 nmol 34.5 +/- 7.4 ng/ml and i.p. domperidone + ICV orexin A 20 nmol 43.5 +/- 4.3 ng/ml, both P < 0.005 vs i.p. domperidone + ICV saline 57.9 +/- 2.7 ng/ml). Orexin A, 100 nM, significantly stimulated release of neurotensin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, somatostatin, corticotropin releasing factor and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, but had no effect on release of dopamine, thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), vasopressin or melanin-concentrating hormone from hypothalamic explants in vitro. Orexin A did not alter basal or TRH stimulated prolactin release in dispersed pituitary cells harvested from male rats. The data suggest that ICV administration of orexin A suppresses plasma prolactin in part through a pathway independent of the dopaminergic system.

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Thirty asthmatic patients with GERD were randomly divided into two groups (group A and group B). Patients in group A (n=15) only received asthma medication including inhaled salbutamol 200 microg four times a day and budesonide 400 microg twice a day for 6 weeks. Patients in Group B (n=15) received the same medication as group A, and also antireflux therapy including oral omeprazole 20 mg once a day and domperidone 10 mg three times a day for 6 weeks. Pulmonary function tests and histamine bronchoprovocation test were performed before and after the study.

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Subcutaneous apomorphine, administered by continuous waking-day infusion with boluses, or by repeated intermittent injection, was given to 71 parkinsonian patients with severe refractory levodopa related on-off fluctuations for 1-5 years. A mean reduction in daily off period time of approximately 50% was maintained, and the incidence of neuropsychiatric toxicity remained low on long-term follow-up. No clinically significant tolerance or loss of therapeutic effect was seen, although increasingly severe on-phase dyskinesias and postural instability marred the long-term therapeutic response in many patients. Despite these drawbacks, apomorphine, when combined with the peripheral dopamine receptor agonist domperidone, represents a significant therapeutic advance in the management of late-stage Parkinson's disease and should certainly be considered before experimental implantation procedures.

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Obstructive sleep apnea; oximetry; sleepiness; domperidone; pseudoephedrine; pharmacotherapy; desaturation; treatment

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Dopaminergic stimulation by apomorphine causes severe adverse effects such as vomiting and sedation. We compared the effectiveness of the serotonin 5-HT(3) antagonistic antiemetic drug ondansetron in a single oral dose with the standard regimen using domperidone TID 2 days prior to stimulation. In a double blind, randomised parallel group design, 16 previously untreated Parkinsonian patients were investigated, eight patients received domperidone (total dose 140 mg, starting 2 days prior to apomorphine challenge) and eight patients ondansetron (8 mg single dose 2 hr prior to investigation). Adverse events following the injection of 2-3 mg apomorphine were rated on a four-item scale. In an overall analysis, dopaminergic stimulation was significantly better tolerated, if the patients received domperidone, whereas more severe adverse effects were noted after ondansetron. Following ondansetron pre-treatment, seven patients experienced marked nausea or vomiting, all patients yawned, six patients had marked sedation, two patients a blood pressure decrease of more than 20 mmHg, and four patients strong sweating. In contrast, the latter side effect was found only in one patient pre-treated with domperidone, no patient had significant blood pressure decrease, all patients yawned, and seven domperidone patients had slight nausea. We conclude that oral ondansetron is no alternative to domperidone in the pre-treatment regimen of dopaminergic stimulation.

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In vitro incubation of macrophages with 10 nM DOMP decreased oxidative burst, after 30 min, whereas the PMA-induced burst was decreased by DOMP 10 nM after 2 and 4 h. Treatment with PRL (10 and 100 nM) for 30 min decreased oxidative burst and rate of phagocytosis (10 nM). After 2 h of incubation, 10 nM PRL decreased oxidative burst and phagocytosis intensity, but increased the rate of phagocytosis. On the other hand, after 4 h, PRL 10 and 100 nM increased oxidative burst and the rate of phagocytosis, but decreased intensity of phagocytosis.

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Prolactin concentration was measured in plasma collected each week for 13 months from lactating and non-lactating Bennett's wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus rufogriseus). In non-lactating animals, prolactin concentrations decreased towards the end of the study but such changes did not appear to fit a seasonal pattern. Prolactin concentrations were low during early lactation and at a similar level to non-lactating animals, increased significantly during late pouch life (February-May), and then returned to non-lactating levels at a time coincident with permanent exit of the joey from the pouch. Temporary removal of joeys from their mothers in April was followed by a rapid decline in prolactin concentrations which remained low for 24 h until the joey was returned to its mother, whereupon prolactin concentrations increased significantly within 2 h. The effect of a single injection of bromocriptine (5 mg/kg) on lactation, embryonic diapause and plasma prolactin concentrations was examined at two stages of lactation. In November (lactational diapause), bromocriptine had no effect on prolactin concentrations but two out of four suckling joeys died on days 13 and 14 after treatment, and three out of four females gave birth on days 27, 27 and 28. Bromocriptine treatment in April (seasonal diapause) was followed by a significant reduction in prolactin concentrations and reduced growth rate of joeys belonging to treated females. New births were not observed. In view of the effect of bromocriptine on plasma prolactin concentrations in late lactation and the demonstration that domperidone (a dopamine antagonist) significantly increases plasma prolactin concentrations, it would seem that dopamine can act as a prolactin inhibitory hormone in this as in other mammalian species.

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Behavioral hyposensitivity to repeated apomorphine administration has been observed in fluctuating parkinsonian patients. To investigate whether a similar phenomenon occurs in patients never treated with levodopa, we studied the response to apomorphine in 20 de novo patients with Parkinson's disease. Six patients showed no or minimal improvement after apomorphine injections (maximal dose 3.5 mg). Fourteen patients responded and were then given up to four repeated subcutaneous injections of apomorphine [minimal effective dose (MED)]. The responses of de novo patients were compared with responses in 10 patients with motor fluctuations previously studied by the same protocol. There was no significant difference in latency and duration of motor responses after repeated apomorphine injections in de novo patients. MED was similar in de novo and fluctuating patients, but duration of improvement induced by each apomorphine bolus was longer in the de novo group. These results indicate that response duration to apomorphine is longer in previously untreated patients and that behavioral tolerance associated with pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation by apomorphine occurs mainly in patients with more advanced disease under chronic levodopa therapy.

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Seventy FD patients were enrolled and divided into 2 groups Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative group (28 patients), and H. pylori-positive group (42 patients). Patients in the H. pylori-positive group were further randomly divided into groups: H. pylori-treatment group (21 patients) and conventional treatment group (21 patients). Seventy two healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The proximal and distal stomach area was measured by ultrasound immediately after patients took the test meal, and at 20, 40, 60 and 90 min; then, gastric half-emptying time was calculated. The incidence of symptoms and gastric half-emptying time between the FD and control groups were compared. The H. pylori-negative and conventional treatment groups were given conventional treatment: domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The H. pylori-treatment group was given H. pylori eradication treatment + conventional treatment: lansoprazole 30 mg once daily, clarithromycin 0.5 g twice daily and amoxicillin 1.0 g twice daily for 1 wk, then domperidone 0.6 mg/(kg/d) for 1 mo. The incidence of symptoms and gastric emptying were compared between the FD and control groups. The relationship between dyspeptic symptoms and gastric half-emptying time in the FD and control groups were analyzed. Then total symptom scores before and after treatment and gastric half-emptying time were compared among the 3 groups.

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The effects of apomorphine on survival time of mice during lethal anoxic hypoxia were studied. Apomorphine induced hypothermia and an increase in survival time. Both these effects were mediated by cerebral dopamine receptors, however with different affinity for the neuroleptics haloperidol and sulpiride. These data suggest that apomorphine's antihypoxic effect is not only mediated by the classical effect of hypothermia but also by slowing of oxydative metabolism.

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Gastrointestinal involvement occurs in most patients with systemic sclerosis. Pathology is characterized by vasculopathy, resulting in tissue ischemia, progressive dysfunction and fibrosis. In its diffuse and visceral pattern, digestive manifestations may involve most of the intestinal tract and are the most frequent before renal, cardiac and pulmonary involvement. Whatever the visceral extension, about 80% of patients have digestive manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux, abnormalities of intestinal motility leading to chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction and small bowel bacterial overgrowth and malnutrition. Long-term treatment of reflux with high-dose proton pump inhibitors appears safe and effective for symptom relief and may prevent recurrence of esophagitis and stricture. Prokinetic agents effective in pseudoobstruction include metoclopramide, domperidone, octreotide, and erythromycin.

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Combination therapy and comorbidity relevant to cardiac QT prolongation are common in patients with Parkinson's disease. Strategies to reduce the proportion of patients at risk from iatrogenic adverse cardiac events are warranted.

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Patients were given domperidone (20 mg by mouth three times a day) to prevent nausea and apomorphine (1-3 mg by subcutaneous injection), apomorphine in glycerol (10-30 mg sublingually) or their usual levodopa regimen.

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Many biologic effects of TRH seem to be mediated via a dopaminergic mechanism. The present study examined the effects of chronic TRH administration on the properties of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Ten days, continuous subcutaneous TRH administration via an osmotic minipump led to a significant rise in striatal level of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, but not of homovanillic acid or dopamine. These treatments also did not elicit any significant changes in the maximal binding capacity (Bmax) or affinity (KD) of either D1- or D2-dopamine receptor. By contrast, TRH administration led to a significant increase in both Bmax and KD of striatal mazindol binding. This effect of TRH, however, was not observed in in vitro studies. In conclusion, these data suggest that in vivo administration of TRH may modulate dopaminergic activities by altering, directly or indirectly, dopamine release and reuptake.

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A convenient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the rapid assay of granisetron (GRN) in biological fluids, such as serum, urine, and pleural effusion, from cancer patients. Extrelut-1 was used for the solid-phase extraction. HPLC was carried out using a LiChroCART cartridge column packed with Lichrospher 100 CN and a mobile phase consisting of 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 3.5) and acetonitrile (7:3). A fluorescence detector of 290 nm for excitation and 365 nm for emission was used. The standard curve was linear over the range of 2 to 100 ng/ml of GRN. Assay precision, expressed as a coefficient of variation (C.V.), was in the range of 0.9-5.4% in the within-day assay and 2.5-6.9% in the between-day assay, respectively. GRN was well separated on the HPLC chromatogram from drugs such as etoposide, metclopramide, ondansetron, and domperidone which are often used together with GRN. It was suggested that the present method is useful for the rapid monitoring of GRN in the serum, urine, and pleural effusion of patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

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In unanaesthetized dogs iv administration of the cholinesterase inhibitor eserine (0.5 mg) induced a clear-cut rise in plasma canine growth hormone (cGH) levels. Diphenhydramine and meclastine, two antagonists of histamine (H) H1 receptors completely suppressed the GH-releasing effect of eserine, while cimetidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, only blunted and delayed it. Two long-lasting serotonin (5-HT) receptor antagonists, metergoline and pizotifen, partially or completely suppressed, respectively, GH release evoked by eserine, whereas fenfluramine, a releaser of neuronal stores of 5-HT and hence a functional activator of 5-HT neurotransmission, was ineffective in this context. Pimozide, a long-acting dopamine receptor antagonist, abolished the effect of eserine, whereas domperidone, which has the same pharmacological properties but does not cross the blood brain barrier, failed to do so. Finally, phentolamine, an antagonist of alpha-adrenoceptors, and propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, were completely ineffective in preventing the rise in plasma cGH levels induced by eserine, as was naloxone, an antagonist of opiate receptors. All these data demonstrate that, although cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the mechanism(s) underlying cGH release, the final common pathway for GH secretion is not cholinergic. Preservation of dopaminergic and H1 neurotransmission, probably within the blood barrier, is needed to allow the neuroendocrine transduction of cholinergic inputs, whereas the role of 5-HT neurotransmission remains uncertain.

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To review data regarding the efficacy of galactogogues available in the US to increase breast milk production in postpartum mothers.

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To investigate the hypothesis of an altered hypothalamic dopaminergic activity in primary hypothyroidism, eight patients with hypothyroidism and seven normal subjects, all female, were studied. All of them were submitted to two tests: TRH stimulation and after the administration of dopamine receptor-blocking drug, Domperidone. The hypothyroid patients with basal TSH values less than or equal to 60 mU/L (4 cases--group 1) had lower PRL levels than the remaining 4 subjects with TSH greater than 60 mU/L (group 2) (p less than 0.001), despite all patients presenting the PRL levels within the normal range. A significant increase occurred for both TSH and PRL after the administration of TRH and Domperidone in normal as well as in the hypothyroid subjects, except for TSH in group 1 after the administration of Domperidone. The area under the curve for PRL response to THR was not different between the normal subjects and both hypothyroid groups, while that under the curve for TSH was greater in the hypothyroidism as a whole than in the normal subjects (p = 0.006) and between the hypothyroid groups, being greater in group 2 than in 1 (p less than 0.009). In relation to Domperidone, the area under the curve for TSH was significantly higher in group 2 when compared to the normal controls (p less than 0.001), while for PRL it was not different between hypothyroid groups in relation to normal controls and when groups I and II were compared. These results suggest that the hypothalamic dopamine activity is not altered in primary hypothyroidism and favor the small relevance of dopamine on the control of TSH secretion.

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In rats, cisplatin (6mg/kg, i.p.) increased kaolin intake (+2257%, p<0.001). The cisplatin effects were not reversed by the combination of aprepitant/ondansetron (2mg/kg, p.o./2mg/kg, i.p.) or by aprepitant (30mg/kg, p.o.). Apomorphine (10mg/kg, i.p.) did not induce pica behavior. In ferrets, cisplatin (8mg/kg, i.p.) induced acute and delayed emesis (371.8±47.8 emetic events over 72h) which was antagonized by aprepitant (1mg/kg, p.o.). Apomorphine (0.25mg/kg, s.c.) induced acute emesis (38.8±8.7 emetic events over 2h) which was abolished by domperidone (0.1mg/kg, s.c.). In dogs, apomorphine (100μg/kg, s.c.) induced emesis and tachycardia which were decreased by domperidone (0.2mg/kg, i.v.).

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After 4 weeks of treatment there was improvement of gastrointestinal symptoms in Group I (55 ± 12 vs 29 ± 8.8; P = 0.001) and Group II (50.5 ± 10.2 vs 46 ± 10.5; P = 0.001). Quality of life was significantly better in Group I than group II (93.4 ± 7.3 vs 102.4 ± 5.1; P = 0.001). Anxiety (93.3% vs 0%; P = 0.001) and depression (46.7% vs 0%; P = 0.004) were significantly lower in Group I than group II. When comparing the two groups after 4 weeks of treatment, gastrointestinal symptoms (29 ± 8.8 vs 46 ± 10.5; P<0.001) and quality of life (102.4 ± 5.1 vs 96 ± 6.1; P = 0.021) were significantly better in Group I than group II. Three months after the treatment, gastrointestinal symptoms remained better only in Group I, when compared to the pre-treatment values (38 ± 11.3 vs 55 ± 12; P = 0.001).

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1. The involvement of different components of the autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced damage and the adaptive cytoprotection of mild irritants were studied in the gastric mucosa of male rats. 2. Capsaicin, yohimbine, and domperidone aggravated the 100% ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage and attenuated the cytoprotective action of 20% ethanol, but not of 5% NaCl and 0.3 M HCl. Butoxamine and prazosin blocked the adverse actions of yohimbine and domperidone respectively. 3. Atropine, pirenzepine, and lidocaine lessened the severity of 100% ethanol-induced mucosal injury and further increased the cytoprotective action of 5% NaCl and 0.3 M HCl, but not of 20% ethanol. 4. Our results demonstrated that sensory afferent neurones, alpha 2-adrenoceptors and D2-dopaminergic receptors all play a significant role in the defensive mechanism of the gastric mucosa and the adaptive cytoprotection of 20% ethanol, while the M1- and M2-muscarinic receptors and sensory chemoreceptors on the gastric mucosa contribute only to the former action. The adverse effect of yohimbine and domperidone on lesion formation is probably mediated through the release of catecholamines, which subsequently act on the beta 2- and alpha 1-adrenoceptors respectively.

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Domperidone, a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist, is a tool for uncovering the tonic and dynamic effects of the peripheral dopaminergic system in unanesthestized animals. The hypothesis was that domperidone effects would vary between strains of the same species. Ventilatory behavior -- frequency and minute ventilation -- was measured by the plethysmographic method in unrestrained adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD: n=8) and Brown Norway (BN: n=8) rats before, during and after rapid transition to 100% O(2) after 5 min of 13% O(2)/3% CO(2). Tests were done 60 min after intraperitoneal injection of either vehicle (0.1% lactic acid in saline) or a dose of domperidone (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 5.0mg/kg) dissolved in vehicle, each on a separate day. Resting frequency and minute ventilation (mean+/-standard deviation) decreased after domperidone in the BN strain (e.g. 94.63/min+/-4.99 versus 87.37/min+/-9.59, p=0.42; 77.3 ml/min+/-9.25 versus 62.13 ml/min+/-11.5, p=0.019, respectively), but did not change in the SD. With increasing doses of domperidone the ventilatory response to hypoxia and reoxygenation became similar owing to a decrease in frequency and minute ventilation in the SD. At a dose altering SD hypoxic responses, the hypercapnic ventilatory response was not significantly affected. In conclusion, breathing frequency and minute ventilation over a challenge with hypoxia and reoxygenation differ with domperidone depending upon genetic background. We speculate that hypoxic ventilatory responses may be differently configured even among strains of the same species.

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The present study was aimed at evaluating the possible use of inter polymer complexed (IPC) films of xanthan gum (XG) and cationic guar gum (CGG) for formulating domperidone bioadhesive films. Formation of bonds between -COO¯ groups of XG and -N(+)(CH(3))(3) groups of CGG was evident in the FTIR spectra of IPC films. Bioadhesive strength of the films was evaluated employing texture analyser. Water uptake studies indicated swelling to be a function of XG concentration in the interpolymer complexes. The bioadhesive films were found to possess neutral pH. In vitro drug release studies and residence time studies indicated that the film comprising CGG:XG (80:20) released 98% of domperidone in 8 h and exhibited a residence time of approximately 8 h. Enhanced bioavailability of domperidone was observed from bioadhesive films as compared to orally administered conventional tablets. Overall, the findings suggest that IPC films of XG and CGG, exhibiting desired bioadhesive strength and enhanced bioavailability of domperidone, can be prepared.

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The goal of this study was to develop a new approach to study the pharmacology of the dopamine D(4) receptor that could be used in comparative studies with dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptors. Stable HEK-293 cell lines co-expressing recombinant human D(2L), D(3) or D(4) receptors along with Galpha(qo5) cDNA were prepared. Dopamine induced a robust, transient calcium signal in these cell lines with EC(50)s for D(2L), D(3) and D(4) of 18.0, 11.9 and 2.2 nM, respectively. Reported D(4)-selective agonists CP226269 and PD168077 were potent, partial D(4) agonists exhibiting 31-1700-fold selectivity for D(4) over D(3) or D(2). Non-selective D(2)-like agonists apomorphine and quinpirole showed full efficacy but did not discriminate across the three receptors. D(3)-selective agonists 7-hydroxy-DPAT and PD128907 were potent but non-selective D(2)-like agonists. The reported D(3) partial agonist BP-897 exhibited minimal agonist activity at D(3) but was a potent D(3) antagonist and a partial D(4) agonist. Other D(2)-like antagonists, haloperidol, clozapine, and domperidone showed concentration-dependent inhibition of dopamine responses at all three receptors with K(i) ranging from 0.05 to 48.3 nM. The D(3) selective antagonist S33084 and D(4)-selective antagonist L-745870 were highly selective for D(3) and D(4) receptors with K(b) of 0.7 and 0.1 nM, respectively. Stable co-expression of D(2)-like receptors with chimeric Galpha(qo5) proteins in HEK-293 cells is an efficient method to study receptor activation in a common cellular background and an efficient method for direct comparison of ligand affinity and efficacy across human D(2L), D(3) and D(4) receptors.

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The growth rate of piglets is limited by sow milk yield, which reflects the extent of epithelial growth and differentiation in the mammary glands (MG) during pregnancy. Prolactin (PRL) promotes both the growth and differentiation of the mammary epithelium, where the lactational success of pigs is absolutely dependent on PRL exposure during late gestation. We hypothesized that inducing hyperprolactinemia in primiparous gilts during late gestation by administering the dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) would increase MG epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, subsequent milk yield, and piglet growth. A total of 19 Yorkshire-Hampshire gilts were assigned to receive either no treatment (CON, n = 9) or DOM (n = 10) twice daily from gestation d 90 to 110. Serial blood sampling during the treatment period and subsequent lactation confirmed that plasma PRL concentrations were increased in DOM gilts on gestation d 91 and 96 (P < 0.001). Piglets reared by DOM-treated gilts gained 21% more BW during lactation than controls (P = 0.03) because of increased milk production by these same gilts on d 14 (24%, P = 0.02) and 21 (32%, P < 0.001) of lactation. Milk composition did not differ between the 2 groups on d 1 or 20 of lactation. Alveolar volume within the MG of DOM-treated gilts was increased during the treatment period (P < 0.001), whereas epithelial proliferation was unaffected by treatment. Exposure to DOM during late gestation augmented the postpartum increase in mRNA expression within the MG for β-casein (P < 0.03), acetyl CoA carboxylase-α (P < 0.01), lipoprotein lipase (P < 0.06), α-lactalbumin (P < 0.08), and glucose transporter 1 (P < 0.06). These findings demonstrate that late gestational hyperprolactinemia enhances lactogenesis within the porcine MG and increases milk production in the subsequent lactation.

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Comparative study of antiemetic effect on vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy was performed in 62 children with various malignant diseases. Twenty-one children were treated with metoclopramide, 23 children with domperidone and remaining 18 children received methylprednisolone. Each drug was administered intravenously after administration of anticancer agents, and repeated if necessary. The most effective antiemetics was methyl-prednisolone with effective rate of 89% in comparison with 51% of domperidone and 17% of metoclopromide treated group, respectively. Methyl-prednisolone may be useful for severe vomiting due to anticancer drugs. Safer and significantly better therapeutic efficacy was observed in the group treated with domperidone than that with metoclopromide.

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The curative group had better effects than the control group in lowering the blood sugar and the level of 5-HT(2A)R content (P < 0.01). And there was significant difference between the curative group and control group (P < 0.05).

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medicine motilium 10mg 2017-10-25

Prolactin (PRL) responses to dopamine (DA) blockers and to direct and indirect DA agonists have been studied in 23 healthy women, 17 women with catamenial migraine and 17 with non-catamenial migraine in both their follicular and luteal phases. PRL responses to the DA blockers were greater in the follicular phase of both migraine groups than in controls. The inhibitory effect of nomifensine on PRL secretion was dampened in the follicular phase of both migraine groups. These findings demonstrate an increased PRL reserve in migraine and suggest the existence of a dopaminergic supersensitivity of the lactotrophic postsynaptic DA receptors. The impaired inhibitory effect of nomifensine on PRL secretion hints at a decrease of the presynaptic DA content in tuberoinfundibular DA neurons. In migrainous women 17-beta-oestradiol levels are higher in both ovarian phases, whereas progesterone concentrations and the progesterone buy motilium to oestradiol ratio are lower than in healthy subjects in the luteal phase. These data suggest the existence of a change in the oestrogen-dependent modulation of pituitary DA receptors.

motilium suspension 2016-05-09

Male and female preweanling rats (PD 5-PD 20) had a significantly greater percentage of dorsal striatal D2(High) receptors than adolescent or adult rats. Likewise, preweanling rats (PD 20) were more sensitive to the behavioral effects of cocaine than the two older age groups. Adolescent and adult rats responded in a generally similar manner; however, analysis of the buy motilium untransformed locomotor activity data suggested that adolescent rats were hyporesponsive to 2.5 and 20 mg/kg cocaine when compared to adults.

motilium lactation dosage 2015-04-10

Apomorphine was about 30 times more potent in inducing gastric relaxation when applied intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) than when injected intravenously (i.v.) in the conscious dog. In the anesthetized dog, the dose of apomorphine producing gastric relaxation via the vertebral artery was at least 10 times lower than that needed to produce gastric relaxation via the i.v. route. For morphine, similar doses had to be given i.c.v. and i.v. to obtain the same degree of gastric relaxation in the conscious dog; in the anesthetized dog, morphine was 3 times more potent via the vertebral artery than i.v. The results suggest that apomorphine-induced gastric relaxation in the dog is mediated via a central site located in the region supplied by the vertebral artery, but that the gastric relaxatory effect of morphine is mediated by both a peripheral and buy motilium a central site of action.

motilium cost 2015-06-18

Mothers were randomised to receive domperidone or metoclopramide for 10 days (10 mg buy motilium three times a day).

motilium domperidone dosage 2017-01-12

The serum free T4 index (FT4I) was at or below the lower limit of normal in 8 of 55 unselected patients with hyperprolactinemia. Serum levels of T3 were normal and none of the patients had clinical evidence of hypothyroidism. In patients with low FT4I the serum TSH was within the normal range buy motilium and TSH was released normally after administration of TRH, indicating normal pituitary TSH reserve. Serum TSH also increased after administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. The TSH response to domperidone was significantly greater in the hyperprolactinemic group with low FT4I compared with either normal subjects or hyperprolactinemic patients with normal FT4I, suggesting that depression of FT4I was due to increased dopaminergic activity. Administration of the dopamine antagonist metoclopramide for 4 days led to a supranormal rise in FT4I in 3 of 5 patients with low FT4I. Thus, a minority of hyperprolactinemic patients have a low FT4I which appears due to excessive hypothalamic production of dopamine.

motilium 10mg tablets 2017-10-19

Domperidone, a novel buy motilium dopamine receptor blocking substance, unable to cross the blood brain barrier, was tested in twenty euthyroid volunteers of both sexes and in seven women with autonomous nodular goiter. Oral administration of 20 mg domperidone was followed by marked increase in serum PRL in all subjects; the response, being significantly greater in women as compared to men, was maintained in patients with autonomous goiter. The PRL response after oral domperidone was significantly greater than after 200 micrograms TRH intravenously. The PRL response obtained with oral domperidone followed by 200 microgram TRH i.v. was similar to the response obtained with domperidone alone before TRH administration. In euthyroid men the TSH response to 200 microgram TRH administered intravenously 120 min after oral domperidone was significantly greater than in a control TRH test. The data of the present study suggest that dopamine blockade at pituitary (or median eminence) level is able to stimulate maximally the lactotrophs and emphasize the important role of the dopaminergic system in the interrelated regulation of TSH and PRL secretion at the pituitary level.

motilium v tablets 2015-11-26

Autonomic dysfunction, including orthostatic hypotension (OH), sialorrhea, buy motilium sexual dysfunction, urinary dysfunction and constipation is a common feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Even though its treatment has been recognized as a major unmet need in PD, there is a paucity of clinical trials to assess their treatment.

motilium tablets 10mg 2016-02-05

1 The effects of local administration of the selective DA1-receptor agonist fenoldopam into the isolated autoperfused rat hindquarters were studied in order to investigate the site of action of fenoldopam in this vascular bed. 2 buy motilium Bolus injections of fenoldopam produced reductions in perfusion pressure in the preconstricted, constant flow perfused rat hindquarters vascular bed. 3 The vasodilator effect of fenoldopam was abolished by sectioning of the lumbar sympathetic nerves and by pretreatment with the ganglion-blocker hexamethonium or the alpha-adrenoreceptor antagonists phentolamine and prazosin. At the same concentration, local infusion of fenoldopam had no effect on vasoconstrictor responses to locally administered noradrenaline and phenylephrine. 4 The vasodilator effect of fenoldopam was antagonized by the non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist RS-sulpiride and by the selective DA1-receptor antagonist SCH 23390, but not by the selective DA2-receptor antagonist domperidone. 5 These results provide no evidence for the presence of postsynaptic DA1-receptors in the rat hindquarters vascular bed; they show that fenoldopam induces neurogenic vasodilatation in this vascular bed, probably via stimulation of ganglionic DA1-receptors.

motilium pills 2017-10-25

Four patients receiving platinum-containing chemotherapy were treated with domperidone (20 mg) by slow intravenous injection followed by a continuous infusion for 24 h at a dose of 10 mg 24 h-1 kg-1. Cardiac monitoring and plasma potassium and domperidone concentration measurements were performed. Severe buy motilium cardiac arrhythmias occurred in two patients. A control group of 14 patients treated with similar chemotherapy, without domperidone, also underwent cardiac and plasma potassium monitoring. No significant arrhythmias were seen. The electrophysiologic effects of domperidone are discussed. It is concluded that treatment with intravenous domperidone is associated with the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias.

motilium 80 mg 2017-04-13

The role of peripheral and central dopaminergic mechanisms in respiratory control was studied in anesthetized cats. In buy motilium one series, we simultaneously measured carotid chemoreceptor and ventilatory responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia before and after a saturation dose of intravenous domperidone, a peripheral dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist. Both carotid chemoreceptor and ventilatory responses were augmented by domperidone essentially in proportion, suggesting that they reflected the increase of peripheral chemoreceptor activity. Haloperidol which crosses into the brain from blood, given subsequent to domperidone, did not further affect carotid chemoreceptor responses but attenuated ventilatory responses to hypoxia without significantly altering those to hypercapnia. Thus, the additional ventilatory effect of haloperidol is mediated through central dopaminergic mechanisms involving peripheral chemoreflex pathway alone. In another series, the anesthetized cats were paralyzed and artificially ventilated to study carotid chemoreceptor responses to step increases in the end-tidal PCO2 before and after domperidone. Domperidone significantly augmented the responses to CO2. The results support the hypothesis that both peripheral and central dopaminergic mechanisms play a significant modulatory role in chemoreflex respiratory control.

motilium domperidone medicine 2016-12-14

The actions of rac. 3,5-cis-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methylamino-1-benzoxepine-5-ol hydrochloride (prop. INN exepanol-HCl, KC 2450), metoclopramide and domperidone on the resting pressure of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) were studied in anesthetized and conscious beagle dogs using pull-through manometrical methods. Exepanol-HCl proved to enhance the LES pressure (LESP) significantly both in anesthetized and conscious dogs. The action of domperidone which was used as reference compound buy motilium in the anesthetized dog experiments was less pronounced. In conscious dogs the actions of exepanol-HCl and metoclopramide were comparable. Domperidone was not active in this test.

motilium tablets breastfeeding 2017-02-01

There have been reports of buy motilium transient psychosis in women medicated for gynecologic conditions.

motilium syrup children 2015-02-02

Intracerebroventricular injection of dopamine (0.5-4.0 mg) produced dose-dependent and short-lasting emesis (1-8 min) in cats, which was abolished after ablation of the area postrema. Relatively selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists (yohimbine and idazoxan) and a mixed alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist (tolazoline), but not a non-selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist (prazosin), injected intracerebroventricularly inhibited the emesis induced by intracerebroventricular dopamine. However, dopamine receptor antagonists (chlorpromazine, droperidol, spiperone, domperidone, triflupromazine, sulpiride and metoclopramide), an antimuscarinic drug (atropine), a ganglionic blocking agent (mecamylamine), an opioid receptor antagonist (naloxone) and a 5-HT receptor antagonist (methysergide), all injected intracerebroventricularly, buy motilium had no significant effect on emesis evoked by intracerebroventricular dopamine. The emetic response to intracerebroventricular dopamine was attenuated in cats pretreated with intracerebroventricular reserpine, 6-hydroxydopamine, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine and hemicholinium-3. It is postulated that dopamine-induced emesis is mediated through the release of noradrenaline acting at alpha 2-adrenoceptors and that it depends on the integrity of monoaminergic and possibly cholinergic structures within the area postrema. It appears, therefore, that the emetic effect of intracerebroventricular dopamine is mediated by adrenergic rather than dopaminergic mechanisms in the area postrema, at least in the cat.

motilium and alcohol 2015-07-13

Migraine is a common and debilitating condition routinely managed in primary care. A number of treatment options--both acute and prophylactic--are currently available but may differ in terms of efficacy, tolerability and cost. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and tolerability of a fixed combination of domperidone and paracetamol (Domperamol buy motilium ; Servier), which has anti-nauseant and anti-emetic activity, with sumatriptan 50 mg in moderate to severe migraine. To do this, 120 patients were recruited from 23 primary care practices throughout the UK and were enrolled into the six-month trial. Patients were randomised at entry to one of the comparator regimens (used to treat their first migraine attack) and then crossed over to the alternative treatment for their second attack. Detailed diary cards were completed for each attack using a scale of pain severity. At two hours and four hours post-dose, the two treatments showed comparable efficacy (< or = 15% difference) in relieving headache and reducing nausea and vomiting. Both were well tolerated and there were no serious adverse effects. In the management of migraine patients typically seen in routine general practice, this trial showed that the effects of Domperamol and sumatriptan 50 mg were broadly comparable. Since Domperamol is considerably less expensive than sumatriptan (and other triptans), a first-line role for this agent appears appropriate.

motilium syrup dosage 2015-11-09

After an overnight fast, 20 mg domperidone was administered to the volunteers, either alone or after 6 days pretreatment with a once daily dose of 600 mg rifampicin. Serum concentrations of domperidone were estimated by reverse phase HPLC. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined based on non-compartmental model analysis using the computer program kinetica. Allegra Mg

motilium medication use 2016-06-05

Dopaminergic binding sites were studied in slices from rat striatum incubated in a physiological medium and using the two highly selective ligands 3H-apomorphine and 3H-domperidone. The clearly biphasic or stretched inhibition of the specific binding of these two ligands by domperidone or apomorphine, respectively allowed to define three distinct classes of binding site. It was demonstrated, by comparing the binding of the 3H-ligand added at the beginning of slice incubation or just before homogenisation of tissue and filtration, that the "specific" bindings only occurred during the incubation of slices. The inhibition constants (Ki values) of dopaminergic agents for the three classes of binding site as also the dissociation constants (Kd values) of 3H-ligands and the maximal capacity (Bmax) of the three classes of binding site were closely similar to those of binding sites previously demonstrated on rat striatal membranes, namely D-2, D-3 and D-4 sites (Sokoloff et al. 1980 a, b). Their identification on a preparation in which the cellular organisation is largely preserved rules out the possibility that these sites represent an artifact due to membrane preparation. Unexpectedly the addition of guanyl nucleotides like GTP or GppNHp to the slice preparation decreased the binding of 3H-apomorphine to the high affinity sites (particularly to the D-2 sites) while D-4 site binding was correspondingly increased. The guanyl nucleotide effect apparently took place before cell disruption and occurred at concentrations similar to those required in striatal membrane preparations. These observations, together with those indicating the presence of high affinity binding sites for dopaminergic agonists in intact striatal cells, suggest that a putative nucleotide regulatory unit of dopamine receptors, is not fully Canada Cialis Generic occupied by intracellular GTP but could be interacted with from the external face of the cell membrane.

motilium 40 mg 2017-10-18

The trial was curtailed after only eight participants could be recruited in 3 years. Cardura Maximum Dosage The mean age of patients was 57.1±9.9 years, the male:female ratio was 1:7 and mean body mass index (kg/m(2)) was 25.2±1.2. There was no change in any of the outcome parameters after treatment with domperidone. Acupuncture was associated with a decrease in scores for almost all cardinal symptoms of the GCSI, as well as in increased total score on the SWLS (p=0.002) and the social functioning domain of the SF-36 (p=0.054). Acupuncture did not lead to an improvement in gastric emptying, or glucose control from baseline.

motilium medicine 2015-01-16

Gastroparesis is a chronic gastric motility disorder in which there is delayed gastric emptying of solids plus or minus liquids. Symptoms of gastroparesis may range from early satiety and nausea in mild cases to chronic vomiting, dehydration, and nutritional compromise in severe cases. Diagnosis of gastroparesis is based on demonstration of delayed gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid meal in the absence of mechanical obstruction. A number of gastrointestinal and systemic disorders may impair gastric motility with resultant gastroparesis. Approximately one third of patients with gastroparesis have no identifiable underlying cause (so called idiopathic gastroparesis). Management of gastroparesis involves four areas: (1) nutritional support, (2) antiemetic drugs, (3) prokinetic drugs, and (4) surgical therapy (in a very small subset of patients). Gastroparesis is often a chronic, relapsing condition; 80% of patients require maintenance antiemetic and prokinetic therapy and 20% require long-term nutritional supplementation. In the near future, the most promising advances in the treatment of patients with gastroparesis will most likely come from the area of combination pharmacological therapy. In the long term, developments in the area of intestinal pacing and intestinal transplantation may offer further treatment options Adalat Retard Dose in this difficult disorder.

90 mg motilium 2016-01-08

GRD patients were found to have significant disturbances of a motor-evacuatory function of the gastroduodenal complex. Addition of domperidon and mebeverin to routine combined treatment of GRD raises clinical efficacy of GRD treatment and promotes recovery of gastric and duodenal function though therapeutic efficacy of the above drugs depended on Abilify And Alcohol concomitant pathology.

motilium tablets indications 2015-05-01

Both oral domperidone and yohimbine induced a significant increase in both plasma norepinephrine and plasma dopamine. Norepinephrine infusion induced a significant decrease in plasma dopamine. Pretreatment with domperidone only partially counteracted this inhibitory effect of norepinephrine infusion, whereas yohimbine Amalaki Rasayan Tablets fully counteracted it.

motilium domperidone tablets 2015-09-26

Prokinetic therapy has been shown to improve patients' symptoms associated with gastrointestinal motility disorders and quality of life. This study investigated the correlation between clinical improvement and quality of life after 12 months of treatment with cisapride or domperidone in patients with severe dyspepsia. Psychological and quality-of-life measures were assessed at baseline and after 12 months of therapy using three patient-administered, standardized questionnaires: the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Requip Yellow Pill , the Millon Behavioral Health Inventory, and the Sickness Impact Profile. Changes in clinical symptoms were correlated with changes in these measures. Twenty-seven patients with symptoms of severe dyspepsia were treated with cisapride or domperidone (60-80 mg/day) for 12 months. Symptoms and quality-of-life measures were improved at the end of therapy. There were significant correlations between improvement in clinical symptoms and improvement in quality of life parameters. Patients with more marked symptom improvement had more significant improvements in quality of life measures. We conclude that prokinetic therapy improved symptoms and quality of life. Standardized questionnaires can be used to quantify response to prokinetic therapy and to individualize treatment regimens for patients with dyspepsia who have specific psychologic or behavioral characteristics.

motilium generic 2016-05-30

Incubation of cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells with dopamine caused an increase in cyclic AMP formation in a concentration-dependent manner (Ka apparent 2.2 microM). The selective dopamine D1 receptor agonists, fenoldopam, SKF 38393 and (+/-)-2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (6,7-ADTN) also produced concentration-dependent increases in cyclic AMP with mean Ka apparent values of 0.04 microM, 0.02 microM and 1.02 microM, respectively. Although fenoldopam and SKF 38393 were more potent than dopamine, they were partial agonists with efficacies, relative to dopamine, of approximately 60 and 35%, respectively. The dopamine analogue, 6,7-ADTN, in contrast, behaved as a full agonist. Dopamine-stimulated cAMP formation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by the D1-selective antagonist, SCH 23390, with a Ki of 0.06 nM. In contrast, the D2-selective antagonist, domperidone, was four orders of magnitude less potent than SCH 23390, having a Ki of 2072 nM. In addition, SCH 23388, the stereoisomer of SCH 23390, was observed to be two orders of magnitude less potent than SCH 23390, indicating the stereoselective nature of the receptor. The potency series for the selective agonists and antagonists is the same as that described, using identical experimental conditions, for the D1 receptor expressed by a cell line of central origin confirming that the peripheral DA1 and the central D1 dopamine receptor are pharmacologically similar.

motilium drug dosage 2015-09-23

Sixteen healthy male subjects (mean age 30.3 years) participated in a randomized, two-way crossover clinical trial. Treatment A consisted of transdermal rotigotine patch (2 mg (24 h)(-1), 10 cm(2), total drug content 4.5 mg) applied daily for 4 days, and concomitant oral domperidone (10 mg t.i.d.) for 5 days. For treatment B, subjects received only transdermal rotigotine treatment (daily for 4 days). Pharmacokinetic variables describing systemic exposure and renal elimination of rotigotine and metabolites, and safety and tolerability of the treatment were assessed.

motilium drug interactions 2015-11-15

1. The in vivo effect of estradiol and domperidone (a hypophysis stimulator of prolactin secretion) in immature ovariectomized-adrenalectomized and hypophysectomized rat mammary gland was studied. 2. gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase activity was used to evaluate the role of estradiol in the specific response of the gland to prolactin. 3. Our results suggest that the activity of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, like casein and lactose synthetase, is part of the specific response of the gland to prolactin.

motilium buy canada 2015-06-19

Rifampicin pretreatment decreased Cmax, AUCo-∞, AUMC, MRT and t1/2 by 25.11%, 37.76%, 64.97%, 43.71% and 44.48%, respectively. This may be due to increased induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and/or increased expression of P-glycoprotein.

motilium review 2017-05-05

The effects of domperidone, a peripheral dopamine receptor blocker which poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, on copulatory and exploratory behaviour were studied in apomorphine (oestrogen + progesterone) treated ovariectomized rats. The dose of domperidone (1.0 mg/kg) which clearly prevented the inhibitory action of apomorphine on the lordotic response did not influence the effect of apomorphine in an exploratory test situation. This finding indicates that peripherally (intraperitoneally) administered domperidone influences dopaminergic mechanisms implicated in the copulatory behaviour of the female rat, but not dopaminergic mechanisms involved in exploratory behaviour. The possibility that domperidone reaches the brain region responsible for the lordotic behaviour, e.g. the hypothalamus, is discussed.