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It was found that all these nine drugs significantly decreased BP in SAD rats. Six of these drugs (nifedipine, nitrendipine, amlodipine, clonidine, prazosin and atenolol) significantly decreased BPV in SAD rats, but the remaining three drugs did not. Clonidine and atenolol increased the heart period and the others did not. No drugs affected the heart period variability.
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Our objective was to evaluate immediate acute changes in myocardial function during the autonomic storm of brain death (BD). Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n = 8/group): controls without any treatment, β-blocker (Esmolol®, 10 mg/kg), calcium channel blocker (Diltiazem®, 10 mg/kg), or alpha-blocker (Prazosin®, 0.3 mg/kg). Treatments were administered intravenously 5 min before BD induction. Echocardiography (ATL-5000, 8 MHz) was performed to measure left ventricular (LV) dimensions and fractional shortening at baseline, during BD induction and 5 min and 15 min after BD. In controls, BD was immediately associated with an increase in wall thickness and a decrease in LV cavity dimension. This myocardial wall hypertrophy was completely prevented by β-blockers, but not with calcium- and alpha-blockers. Extensive myocardial interstitial edema was found in all groups, except in the β-blocker group. Myocardial wall hypertrophy was also prevented during a longer follow-up of 180 min after BD in β-blocker group as opposed to controls. In conclusion, BD is associated with an immediate and severe myocardial damage related to an important interstitial edema which is prevented by β-blockers.
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Enzymatic digestions were used to dissociate ICCs from mouse small intestine tissues. All experiments on ICCs were performed on within 12h after culture. A whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record potentials (current clamp) from cultured ICCs. Intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) increase was studied in cultured ICCs using fura-2AM. All of the experiments were performed at 30-32°C.
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The efficacy and safety profiles were different among the alpha-1 blockers at standard doses. Tamsulosin appears to be safer than the others for aged patients or patients with hypertension who have impaired blood pressure regulation, while terazosin is significantly effective in improving symptomatic score when compared with the others examined. It is recommended that the alpha-1 blocking agent and its optimal dose are selected on the basis of the baseline characteristics of the patients with symptomatic BPH.
The contractile responses of the longitudinal smooth muscle layer of the isolated guinea-pig ileum which were elicited by long-lasting (40 sec train duration) electrical field stimulation (0.8 msec, 20 V), applied at a frequency of either 5 or 30 Hz, comprised an initial phasic component followed by a secondary tonic contraction, were studied against the background of postsynaptically-acting receptor antagonists. Atropine and apamin reduced both components of the responses while prazosin produced no change. Propranolol induced a slight reduction, decreasing mainly the responses evoked by stimulation at a frequency of 5 Hz. The simultaneous application of cholinoceptor and adrenoceptor blockers revealed a non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic component of the responses. The putative prostaglandin antagonist, SC 19220 was found to reduce mainly the tonic component of the non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic contractions evoked by stimulation at both frequencies used. These results demonstrated that the two-component contractile responses of the guinea pig ileum to long-lasting electrical stimulation were due to the release of more than one neurotransmitter and/or spasmogenic substance. It is concluded that the initial phasic component was evoked by acetylcholine and by a non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic neurotransmitter, while the tonic component was maintained predominantly by prostaglandins released during stimulation.
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In the present study, Wistar rats, which received a streptozotocin injection to induce diabetes (STZ-diabetic rats), a model similar to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type 1 diabetes mellitus, were used to investigate the effect of prostaglandin (PG) E2 on plasma glucose. Intravenous injection of PGE2 produced a dose-dependent lowering of plasma glucose level in fasting STZ-diabetic rats after 60 min. In addition to the blockade of this hypoglycemic effect by guanethidine (a noradrenergic nerve terminal-blocking agent), prazosin at a dose effective to block alpha1-adrenoceptors abolished the action of PGE2. An increase of plasma norepinephrine (NE) was also observed in STZ-diabetic rats receiving PGE2 injections. Participation of sympathetic stimulation by PGE2 may thus be speculated. Also, the plasma glucose-lowering effect of PGE2 was also blocked by pretreatment with naloxone or naloxonazine at doses sufficient to block opioid mu-receptor. Injection of PGE2 increased plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER) in STZ-diabetic rats, and this action was abolished by prazosin. Bilateral adrenalectomy resulted in the loss of this PGE2 effect, and no increase was seen in plasma BER with PGE2 in STZ-diabetic rats. Therefore, beta-endorphin from the adrenal gland appears to be responsible for the lowering of plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic rats by PGE2 through an increase of NE release to activate alpha1-adrenoceptors.
Intact chest preparation; adult mongrel cats.
Alpha-adrenergic blockers are an established form of medical treatment for symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Several medications of the class are available, each with its own characteristics. The authors attempted to define the differences between the currently available medications (Terazosin, Doxazosin, Alfuzosin, and Tamsulosin), and to present an evidence-based recommendation for choosing the best treatment option. A literature search was conducted, using Medline queries and the references of review papers, in search of pertinent studies. These included controlled studies comparing the results of treatment with alpha blockers to placebo, or direct comparative studies of alpha blockers, and real life practice, community studies of each of the medications. A similar efficacy emerged from the reviewed articles, but with a different adverse events profile. A higher rate of vasodilatatory, cardiovascular side effects (dizziness, fatigue, and hypotension) was observed with terazosin and doxazosin, when compared with the uroselective alfuzosin and tamsulosin. Of the latter two, hypotension was more frequent with alfuzosin, while ejaculatory dysfunction was more frequent with tamsulosin. In conclusion, each of the four medications is a possible treatment option for BPH, but we believe alfuzosin and tamsulosin are the better choice. In light of an identical efficacy, these medications offer better tolerability, and ease of use of a once daily treatment without dose titration. The choice between the two should be tailored to the individual patient, with alfuzosin associated with hypotensive side effects, and tamsulosin causing ejaculatory dysfunction.
The effect of four calcium antagonists (nifedipine, nitrendipine, nisoldipine, and verapamil) on hypoxia-induced changes in right ventricular parameters were examined in anesthetized closed-chest rats using an ultraminiature catheterization technique. The effect of the calcium antagonists was compared to the alpha-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin, the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril, and the vasodilator nitroglycerin. The animals were exposed to two successive 5-min hypoxic periods separated by a normoxic interval of 60 min, during which the animals received an intravenous (i.v.) infusion of the substances tested. Hypoxia caused a marked rise in right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and a moderate increase in RVdP/dtmax. Heart rate (HR) was only slightly enhanced. The functional response to the second hypoxic period did not differ from the first one in NaCl-infused animals. All calcium antagonists reduced the hypoxic pressure increase in a dose-dependent manner and ultimately abolished it. Nisoldipine was the most effective substance, followed by nifedipine, nitrendipine, and verapamil. In contrast, prazosin and propranolol did not influence the hypoxic pressure response. Administration of captopril and nitroglycerin attenuated the increase in RVSP. Thus, as compared with the other substances tested, calcium antagonists were the most effective drugs that antagonized the hypoxia-induced increase in RVSP.
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Pre-eclampsia is still a very prevalent disease with critical hemodynamic changes. This study was evaluated the major anti-hypertensive schemes used at the Materno Perinatal Hospital "Monica Pretelini" (HMPMP) hospitalized at the Obstetric Intensive Care Unit (OICU) for at least seven days. In other group of patients we compared hemodynamic monitoring with Swan-Ganz catheter versus transthoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) and gasometric formulas. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software, version 17. Amlodipine + temisartan + prazocin was the preferred anti-hypertensive drug combination used in our intensive care unit. Sodium nitroprusside is required in 25% of patients until reaching control. There was no statistically significant difference in cardiac output calculated with gasometric formulas compared to thermodilution with Swan-Ganz catheter. Calcium antagonists + angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) + α-blockers offer the best option to control hypertension in puerperal women that followed pre-eclampsia, but oral and IV drugs to control hypertension is required in 20% of cases, in a Mexican Intensive Care Unit specialized in obstetrical patients. Hemodynamic monitoring with gasometric formulas is still usefull in this set of patients, without discarding TEB with a correction factor due to the accumulated extravascular water in these patients.
The cardiovascular effects of the new histamine H2 receptor agonist amthamine were studied in the anaesthetized rat, with particular reference to a possible interaction with the adrenergic system. Amthamine (0.03-3 mumol/kg i.v.) caused vasodepressor responses which were antagonized by famotidine (3 mumol/kg i.v.). At higher doses (30-100 mumol/kg i.v.), amthamine induced a modest increase in the mean arterial pressure, which was significantly enhanced by the blockade of H2 receptors and significantly reduced by the alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mumol/kg i.v.). The vasopressor response to amthamine was not modified in rats pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine, and was only minimally modified in adrenalectomized animals, thus suggesting a predominant interaction with postjunctional alpha 2 adrenoceptors in the vascular muscle. The H2 receptor agonist dimaprit (0.3-100 mumol/kg i.v.) caused a reduction in arterial pressure, which was antagonized by famotidine, no pressor response being unmasked. Dimaprit (0.1-30 mumol/kg i.v.) did not modify heart rate but caused a modest bradycardia at 100 mumol/kg i.v. Amthamine (1-100 mumol/kg i.v.) induced a dose-dependent tachycardia, which was only partially (approximately 20%) reduced by famotidine and was totally blocked by propranolol (0.3 mg/kg i.v.). This effect was significantly reduced in rats pre-treated with reserpine or 6-hydroxydopamine and was further reduced by cocaine, thus suggesting a tyramine-like action of amthamine. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that the H2 receptor agonist amthamine can also interact with the adrenergic system when used at doses higher than those necessary to activate H2 receptors. Whereas the increase in blood pressure induced by amthamine seems to be mainly mediated by a direct activation of postjunctional alpha 2 adrenoceptors, the increase in heart rate is predominantly due to neuronal release of catecholamines. These effects should be considered when using amthamine in cardiovascular or other studies when high doses are employed.
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A total of 52 pigs were anesthetized. A double lumen 6Fr catheter was inserted through each renal pelvis and into the ureter, allowing perfusion of saline or drug solution into the renal pelvis and the recording of contractions from the mid portion of the ureter.
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This study confirmed prostate hyperplasia in the SHR model. Doxazosin exposure did not reduce the volume of glandular epithelium and contributed to protecting against caspase-induced apoptosis. The SHR model may be not a valid option to study doxazosin-induced apoptosis in BPH.
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Alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction was studied in the in situ, autoperfused pulmonary circulation of the open-chest anesthetized dog under conditions of normal and elevated pulmonary vascular tone. Under conditions of normal pulmonary vascular tone (10 +/- 1 mm Hg), methoxamine, a selective alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist, and B-HT 933, a selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, elicited maximal increases in lobar perfusion pressure of 5 and 2 mm Hg above resting pulmonary tone, respectively. When pulmonary vascular tone was elevated progressively with the thromboxane mimetic, U-46619, serotonin or PGF2 alpha, alpha-1 adrenoceptor-mediated pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses to methoxamine were unaffected, whereas alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated pulmonary pressor responses to B-HT 933 were enhanced. Overall the response to B-HT 933 was enhanced 4-fold when pulmonary perfusion pressure was elevated to 19.8 +/- 0.8 mm Hg with U-46619 and almost 5-fold when elevated to 27.0 +/- 1.2 mm Hg. Pulmonary vasoconstrictor responses to angiotensin II were unaffected by elevated pulmonary vascular tone. Enhanced responsiveness of B-HT 933 to elevated pulmonary vascular tone was antagonized by the selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, rauwolscine (100 micrograms/kg i.v.), and unaffected by the selective alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (100 micrograms/kg i.v.). When canine intralobar pulmonary veins were studied in vitro they contracted to B-HT 933 whereas intralobar pulmonary arteries did not respond. These data indicate that alpha-2 adrenoceptor responsiveness is enhanced markedly and selectively under conditions in which pulmonary vascular tone is elevated.
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In dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (30 mg/kg iv), infusions of phenylephrine (PE; 1-3 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 iv for 30 min and longer) caused sustained elevations in blood pressure and suppressed depressor responses to acetylcholine (ACh; 1 microgram/kg iv) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The dose-response curve for ACh (0.01-100 micrograms/kg iv)-induced depressor responses was shifted to the right by approximately 80-fold after an intravenous infusion of PE (3 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) for 120 min. Similar suppression was observed when infusions of methoxamine (5 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 iv), norepinephrine (3 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 iv under blockade of beta-adrenoceptors), or angiotensin II (0.3 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 iv) were carried out. However, in dogs treated with prazosin (1 mg/kg iv) or hydralazine (1 mg/kg iv) to prevent elevations in blood pressure over the baseline level, PE (3 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 iv) failed to attenuate depressor responses to ACh. The suppression observed after PE infusion was specific to ACh-induced depressor responses; i.e., no suppression was observed on the depressor responses to other drugs, such as histamine, sodium nitroprusside, carbachol, and methacholine. Furthermore, neostigmine (bolus injection of 30 microgram/kg iv followed by an infusion of 15 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 iv) greatly diminished the suppressive effect of PE. Except for a slight increase in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in renal arterial segments, activities of both AChE and butyryl-cholinesterase in plasma, erythrocytes, and pulmonary and renal arterial segments were unchanged after PE infusion. These results suggest that prolonged elevation in blood pressure and/or vasoconstriction selectively attenuates depressor responses to ACh through accelerated degradation of this material.
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To study the effect of phentolamine on L-type calcium currents (ICa) and ATP-sensitive K+ currents (IK,ATP) in ventricular myocytes.
The effects of cocaine were studied in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac, using the two-electrode voltage-clamp method. The RP4 neuron generated spontaneous action potentials and bath application of cocaine (0.3-1 mM) reversibly elicited action potential bursts of the central RP4 neuron in a concentration-dependent manner. The action potential bursts were not blocked when neurons were immersed in high-Mg(2+)solution, Ca(2+)-free solution, nor after continuous perfusion with atropine, d-tubocurarine, propranolol, prazosin, haloperidol, or sulpiride. Similarly, the action potential bursts were not abolished by pretreatment with N-[2-(p-bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride, (9S,10S,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid hexyl ester or anisomycin. Injection of hyperpolarizing current at an intensity of greater than 2 nA effectively suppressed the cocaine-elicited action potential bursts and no postsynaptic potentials were observed under these conditions. These results suggest that the generation of action potential bursts elicited by cocaine was not due to (1) the synaptic effects of neurotransmitters, (2) the cholinergic, adrenergic or dopaminergic receptors of the excitable membrane, or (3) the cAMP second messengers and new protein synthesis of the RP4 neuron. Notably, the induction of action potential bursts was blocked by pretreatment with 1-[6-[((17beta)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5-trien-17-yl)amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione. Voltage-clamp studies conducted on the RP4 neuron revealed that cocaine at 0.3 mM decreased (1) the Ca(2+) current, (2) the delayed rectifying K(+) current, (3) the fast-inactivating K(+) current and (4) the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current, but had no remarkable effects on the Na(+) current. Perfusion with Ca(2+)-free solution, which may abolish the Ca(2+) current and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current, did not cause any bursts of action potentials in control RP4 neurons. Application of 4-aminopyridine, an inhibitor of fast-inactivating K(+) current, and paxilline, an inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current, failed to elicit action potential bursts, whereas tetraethylammonium chloride, a blocker of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) current and delayed rectifying K(+) current, and tacrine, an inhibitor of delayed rectifying K(+) current, successfully elicited action potential bursts. Further, while 1-[6-[((17beta)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5-trien-17-yl)amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione did not affect the delayed rectifying K(+) current of the RP4 neuron, 1-[6-[((17beta)-3-methoxyestra-1,3,5-trien-17-yl)amino]hexyl]-1H-pyrrole-2,5-dione decreased the inhibitory effect of cocaine on the delayed rectifying K(+) current. It is concluded that cocaine elicits action potential bursts in the central snail RP4 neuron and that the effect is closely related to the inhibitory effects on the delayed rectifying K(+) current.
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A pharmacological approach was employed in order to visualize a Ca2(+)-dependent component of the extracellularly recorded nerve terminal impulse in the secretory regions of the sympathetic postganglionic nerves in the rat tail artery. Application of potassium-channel-blocking agents within the recording electrode caused the nerve terminal impulse to acquire a delayed negative deflection, which we have termed the late negative component (LNC) of the nerve terminal impulse. The time course and the latency of the LNC differed from that of the postjunctional transmitter-induced excitatory junction current, and the LNC persisted when the excitatory junction current was blocked by adenosine [alpha,beta-methylene]triphosphate, and was resistant to the alpha 1-antagonist prazosin and the alpha 2-antagonist yohimbine. Probably, therefore, the LNC was exclusively prejunctional in origin. For the following reasons it seems likely that the LNC, at least in part, was caused by influx of Ca2+ into the secretory regions of these nerves: (a) the LNC occurred only when potassium-blocking agents were present within the recording electrode; (b) the LNC amplitude increased with the Ca2+ concentration inside the recording electrode and was reduced by the removal of Ca2+; (c) the LNC was enhanced by replacing Ca2+ in the medium inside the recording electrode with Ba2+; (d) the LNC was depressed by the inorganic Ca2(+)-channel blocker cadmium or the Ca2(+)-channel-blocking peptide omega-conotoxin added within the recording electrode only, or by addition of cadmium or cobalt (but not the organic Ca2(+)-channel blocker nifedipine) inside and outside the recording electrode.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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The rats were divided into 6 groups: Control, DOCA, L-NAME, L-NAME+DOCA, L-NAME+ prazosin, and L-NAME+DOCA+prazosin. Tail systolic BP was measured twice a week. After a 6-week evolution, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured, along with selected metabolic, morphological and renal variables.
The gigantocellular depressor area (GiDA) is a functionally defined subdivision of the medullary gigantocellular reticular formation where vasodepressor responses are evoked by glutamate nanoinjections. The GiDA also contains reticulospinal neurons that contain the alpha2A-adrenergic receptor (alpha2A-AR). In the present study, we sought to determine whether nanoinjections of the alpha2-AR agonist clonidine into the GiDA evoke cardiovascular responses and whether these responses can be attributed to the alpha2-AR. We found that nanoinjections of clonidine into the GiDA evoke dose-dependent decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. These responses were equivalent in magnitude to responses produced by clonidine nanoinjections into the sympathoexcitatory region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Furthermore, the vasodepressor and bradycardic responses produced by clonidine injections into the GiDA were blocked in a dose-dependent fashion by the highly selective alpha2-AR antagonist 2-methoxyidazoxan, but not by prazosin, which is an antagonist at both the alpha1-AR and the 2B subtype of the alpha-AR. The antagonism by 2-methoxyidazoxan was site specific because injections of the antagonist into the rostral ventrolateral medulla failed to block the responses evoked by clonidine injections into the GiDA. These findings support the notion that clonidine produces sympathoinhibition through multiple sites within the medullary reticular formation, which is consistent with the wide distribution of the alpha2A-AR in reticulospinal neurons. These data also suggest that clonidine may have multiple mechanisms of action because it evokes a cardiovascular depressive response from regions containing neurons that have been determined to be both sympathoinhibitory and sympathoexcitatory.
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These findings indicate that: (i) radioligand binding can be applied in intact arterial segments to quantify and characterize alpha 1-AR; (ii) although differences seem to exist between rat strains, alpha 1B-AR and alpha 1D-AR predominate in rat thoracic aorta and alpha 1A-AR and alpha 1B-AR in mesenteric small arteries; and (iii) alpha 1-AR density is not reduced in the poorly innervated aorta and the densely innervated mesenteric small arteries of rats with heart failure due to myocardial infarction.
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The alpha(1)-adrenergic mediated contraction, Ca(2+) signaling and the subcellular receptor distribution were evaluated using the Fluo-4, BODIPY-FL prazosin and subtype-specific antibodies.