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Micronase

Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Glucophage, Actos, Glucotrol, Avandia

 

Also known as:  Glyburide.

Description

Generic Micronase is used for treating type 2 diabetes. It is used along with diet and exercise. It may be used alone or with other antidiabetic medicines.

Generic Micronase is a sulfonylurea antidiabetic medicine. It works by causing the pancreas to release insulin, which helps to lower blood sugar.

Brand name of Generic Micronase is Micronase.

Dosage

Take Generic Micronase by mouth with food.

If you are taking 1 dose daily, take Generic Micronase with breakfast or the first main meal of the day unless your doctor tells you otherwise.

High amounts of dietary fiber may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar.

Generic Micronase works best if it is taken at the same time each day.

Continue to take Generic Micronase even if you feel well.

If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.

Overdose

If you overdose Generic Micronase and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Micronase are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Generic Micronase if you are allergic to Generic Micronase components.

Do not take Generic Micronase if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother. Generic Micronase can ham your baby.

Do not take Generic Micronase if you have certain severe problems associated with diabetes (eg, diabetic ketoacidosis, diabetic coma).

Do not take Generic Micronase if you have moderate to severe burns or very high blood acid levels (acidosis) you are taking bosentan.

Do not take Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have had a severe allergic reaction (eg, a severe rash, hives, itching, breathing difficulties, dizziness) to any other sulfonamide medicine, such as acetazolamide, celecoxib, certain diuretics (eg, hydrochlorothiazide), glipizide, probenecid, sulfamethoxazole, valdecoxib, or zonisamide.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of liver, kidney, thyroid, or heart problems.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have stomach or bowel problems (eg, stomach or bowel blockage, stomach paralysis), drink alcohol, or have had poor nutrition.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have type 1 diabetes, very poor health, a high fever, a severe infection, severe diarrhea, or high blood acid levels, or have had a severe injury.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you have a history of certain hormonal problems (eg, adrenal or pituitary problems, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone [SIADH]), low blood sodium levels, anemia, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you will be having surgery.

Be careful with Generic Micronase if you are taking bosentan because liver problems may occur; the effectiveness of both medicines may be decreased; beta-blockers (eg, propranolol) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; they may also hide certain signs of low blood sugar and make it more difficult to notice; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, enalapril), anticoagulants (eg, warfarin), azole antifungals (eg, miconazole, ketoconazole), chloramphenicol, clarithromycin, clofibrate, fenfluramine, insulin, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) (eg, phenelzine), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (eg, ibuprofen), phenylbutazone, probenecid, quinolone antibiotics (eg, ciprofloxacin), salicylates (eg, aspirin), or sulfonamides (eg, sulfamethoxazole) because the risk of low blood sugar may be increased; calcium channel blockers (eg, diltiazem), corticosteroids (eg, prednisone), decongestants (eg, pseudoephedrine), diazoxide, diuretics (eg, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide), estrogens, hormonal contraceptives (eg, birth control pills), isoniazid, niacin, phenothiazines (eg, promethazine), phenytoin, rifamycins (eg, rifampin), sympathomimetics (eg, albuterol, epinephrine, terbutaline), or thyroid supplements (eg, levothyroxine) because they may decrease Generic Micronase 's effectiveness, resulting in high blood sugar; gemfibrozil because blood sugar may be increased or decreased; cyclosporine because the risk of its side effects may be increased by Generic Micronase.

Avoid alcohol.

Do not stop taking Generic Micronase suddenly.

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At 6 months, both rosiglitazone and sulfonylurea resulted in a significant reduction in HbA(1c), fasting glucose and AGE. However, significant increases in total sRAGE and esRAGE were only seen in the rosiglitazone group. As a result, serum esRAGE was higher in the rosiglitazone group than in the sulfonylurea group at 6 months (p < 0.01), whereas the differences in sRAGE between the two groups did not reach statistical significance. Stepwise linear regression analysis showed that treatment modality made a greater contribution than the changes in HbA(1c) to the subsequent changes in esRAGE levels at 6 months.

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Type II diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease. Selection of either insulin or a sulfonylurea agent in addition to diet is usually made empirically. In patients who fail to respond to either agent alone, the potential benefit of combined insulin and sulfonylurea therapy is unclear. We therefore evaluated nine poorly controlled insulin treated type II diabetic patients after addition of a sulfonylurea agent--glyburide--for four weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum glucose, and C-peptide responses to oral glucose were evaluated. Based on a reduction of at least 50 mg/dl in the fasting serum glucose (FSG) at the end of the first week of the combination therapy or a FSG of less than 140 mg/dl, two groups were arbitrarily identified: responders (n = 5) and nonresponders (n = 4). Clinical characteristics including mean age, weight, duration of diabetes, daily dose of insulin, and duration of insulin treatment were not statistically different between the two groups. Mean baseline FSG and HbA1c levels were also not statistically different in both groups. An improvement in mean FSG and glucose tolerance occurred in the responders at the end of four weeks of combined therapy (FSG: 291 +/- 25 vs. 189 +/- 6 mg/dl, p less than 0.05; HbA1c 10.76 +/- 0.80 vs. 9.40 +/- 0.21%, p = NS). The nonresponders had no change in glucose tolerance. The mean fasting and stimulated serum C-peptide levels were significantly higher in the responders at week 4 compared with that of the nonresponders.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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The cardioprotective effects of KR-31761, a newly synthesized K+(ATP) opener, were evaluated in rat models of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) heart injury. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30-min global ischemia/30-min reperfusion, KR-31761 perfused prior to ischemia significantly increased both the left ventricular developed pressure (% of predrug LVDP: 17.8, 45.1, 54.2, and 62.6 for the control, 1 microM, 3 microM, and 10 microM, respectively) and double product (DP: heart rate x LVDP; % of predrug DP: 17.5, 44.9, 56.2, and 64.5 for the control, 1 microM, 3 microM, and 10 microM, respectively) at 30-min reperfusion while decreasing the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). KR-31761 (10 microM) significantly increased the time to contracture during the ischemic period, whereas it concentration-dependently decreased the lactate dehydrogenase release during reperfusion. All these parameters were significantly reversed by 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD, 100 microM) and glyburide (1 microM), selective and nonselective blockers of the mitochondrial K+(ATP) (mitoK+(ATP)) channel and K+(ATP) channel, respectively. In anesthetized rats subjected to 30-min occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery/2.5-h reperfusion, KR-31761 administered 15 min before the onset of ischemia significantly decreased the infarct size (72.2%, 55.1%, and 47.1% for the control, 0.3 mg/kg, i.v., and 1.0 mg/kg, i.v., respectively); and these effects were completely and almost completely abolished by 5-HD (10 mg/kg, i.v.) and HMR-1098, a selective blocker of sarcolemmal K+(ATP) (sarcK+(ATP)) channel (6 mg/kg, i.v.) administered 5 min prior to KR-31761 (72.3% and 67.9%, respectively). KR-31761 only slightly relaxed methoxamine-precontracted rat aorta (IC50: > 30.0 microM). These results suggest that KR-31761 exerts potent cardioprotective effects through the opening of both mitoK+(ATP) and sarcK+(ATP) channels in rat hearts with a minimal vasorelaxant effect.

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H(2)S (derived from NaHS) 25, 50 and 100 micromol/L facilitated CBA, which shifted FCCB to the left and upward. There was a marked increase in peak slope (PS) and peak integral value of carotid sinus nerve charge (PIV) in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with glibenclamide (20 micromol/L), a K(ATP) channel blocker, the above effects of H(2)S on CBA were abolished. Pretreatment with Bay K8644 (an agonist of calcium channels, 500 nmol/L) eliminated the role of H(2)S on CBA. An inhibitor of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), DL-propargylglycine (PPG, 200 micromol/L) inhibited CBA in male rats and shifted FCCB to the right and downward.

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Hepatic blood supply is uniquely regulated by the hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR), counteracting alterations of portal venous blood flow by flow changes of the hepatic artery. Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been recognized as a novel signaling molecule with vasoactive properties. However, the contribution of H(2)S in mediating the HABR is not yet studied. In pentobarbital-anesthetized and laparotomized rats, flow probes around the portal vein and hepatic artery allowed for assessment of the portal venous (PVBF) and hepatic arterial blood flow (HABF) under baseline conditions and stepwise reduction of PVBF for induction of HABR. Animals received either the H(2)S donor Na(2)S, DL-propargylglycine as inhibitor of the H(2)S synthesizing enzyme cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE), or saline alone. Additionally, animals were treated with Na(2)S and the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (K(ATP)) inhibitor glibenclamide or with glibenclamide alone. Na(2)S markedly increased the buffer capacity to 27.4 +/- 3.0% (P < 0.05 vs. controls: 15.5 +/- 1.7%), whereas blockade of H(2)S formation by DL-propargylglycine significantly reduced the buffer capacity (8.5 +/- 1.4%). Glibenclamide completely reversed the H(2)S-induced increase of buffer capacity to the control level. By means of RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry, we observed the expression of both H(2)S synthesizing enzymes (CSE and cystathionine-beta-synthase) in aorta, vena cava, hepatic artery, and portal vein, as well as in hepatic parenchymal tissue. Terminal branches of the hepatic afferent vessels expressed only CSE. We show for the first time that CSE-derived H(2)S contributes to HABR and partly mediates vasorelaxation of the hepatic artery via activation of K(ATP) channels.

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The levels of blood sugar (221 mg/dl), HbA1c(10.2%), triglycerides (496 mg/dl) and cholesterol (323 mg/dl) were raised, while the concentration of somatotropic hormone was diminished, both before and after arginine administration. Fundoscopy revealed concentric diminution of the visual fields with left amblyopia. Visual evoked potentials and colour sense testing revealed bilateral optical atrophy, and the audiogram demonstrated deafness. These findings provided the diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome, namely insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, deafness, optical atrophy and small stature with somatotropic hormone deficiency.

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Although either insulin or oral hypoglycemics may be used in conjunction with diet and exercise in the management of type II diabetes, drug therapy for type I diabetes involves only insulin. C-peptide levels can be tested to assess whether the patient has remaining pancreatic endocrine function. Patients being started on insulin for the first time should receive a single injection of an intermediate-acting insulin of "human" origin at a dose of approximately 0.5 U/kg. Thereafter, fasting, mid-morning, mid-afternoon, bedtime, and possibly early morning blood sugars should be examined periodically to determine if the insulin dose needs to be increased, decreased, split, or if the patient needs to be on a two-insulin regimen. Intensive insulin therapy has become commonplace to control plasma glucose levels in the majority of patients receiving insulin therapy. Proper patient education regarding the insulin regimen, injection techniques, blood glucose monitoring, as well as diet, exercise, and foot care are essential if the patient's diabetes is to be controlled adequately. Guidelines for "adequate" glycemic control are outlined in Table 6. Recent evidence suggests that tight control of plasma glucose levels may decrease the macrovascular complications of diabetes. Although there is also evidence to suggest that the onset of microvascular complications might be delayed with strict glycemic control, the data are conflicting. The benefits of strict control must be weighted against the problems of hypoglycemia experienced by many patients who attempt tight control of their blood glucose levels. Biguanide compounds are available in Europe, but the sulfonylureas comprise the only class of oral agents in the United States commercially available for the treatment of type II diabetes. The two generations of these drugs reflect their potency and possible side-effect profiles. Of the first-generation agents, tolbutamide and chlorpropamide are the most widely prescribed. Tolbutamide is the weakest of the sulfonylureas, possibly making it a good drug for initiating oral therapy in the elderly. Chlorpropamide is becoming a less popular agent because of its long duration of action and its increased incidence of side effects. Of the second-generation agents, glyburide offers a better dosing schedule (once daily compared with twice daily for glipizide); however, glyburide may produce a greater incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly in the elderly or in patients with significant renal impairment. There are few good studies comparing these two drugs so that recommending one over the other is difficult. Drug interactions are numerous with the first-generation drugs, but less so with the newer second-generation agents.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

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This study was aimed at assessing the extent of dispensing prescription-only medications without a prescription in community drug retail outlets (CDROs) of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

micronase dosage

The amplitude of the contraction induced by electrical stimulation was not changed by glibenclamide but was enhanced by tetraethylammonium. The resting tension of the ureter was not changed by either potassium channel inhibitor. Cromakalim did not change the resting tension of the human ureter per se but induced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the contractions induced by electrical stimulation. This inhibitory effect of cromakalim was not changed by tetraethylammonium but was inhibited by glibenclamide. A phasic and tonic contractile response in the isolated human ureteric ring was induced by 60 mM. KCl. The phasic contractions were abolished by cromakalim whereas the tonic contractions were unaffected. Following sustained contraction induced by 25 mM. KCl, the cumulative addition of cromakalim to the organ bath produced a concentration-dependent relaxation. However, in rings precontracted with 60 mM. KCl, cromakalim at a concentration as high as 10(-5) M. did not induce relaxation. The cromakalim-induced relaxation of rings precontracted with 25 mM. KCl was significantly inhibited by glibenclamide.

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To clarify the vasodilating mechanism of action of E4080, which possesses vasodilating and bradycardic effects, we investigated its effects on intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i), as measured with fura-2, and force of contraction in canine coronary artery. E4080 reduced the increase in [Ca2+]i and force of contraction induced by 30 and 90 mM KCl physiological salt solution (PSS) in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of E4080 in 30 mM KCl-PSS were inhibited by 10(-5) M glibenclamide. In 30 mM KCl-PSS, the slope of the [Ca2+]i-force relationship in the presence of E4080 was steeper than that of control, suggesting that E4080 decreased the sensitivity of contractile elements to Ca2+, as an effect which was also inhibited by glibenclamide. However, the [Ca2+]i-force curve was not changed by E4080 in 90 mM KCl-PSS. These results suggest that E4080 is a vasodilator in canine coronary artery, having K+ channel opening and Ca2+ channel blocking actions. The membrane hyperpolarization induced by E4080 may reduce the sensitivity of contractile elements to Ca2+.

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The cystic fibrosis gene product (CFTR) is a Cl- channel that possesses specific binding sites for cytosolic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is activated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases. We explored the possibility that CFTR shares a common pharmacology with another ATP-regulated channel protein, the ATP-sensitive K+ channel that is blocked by sulphonylureas and activated by diazoxide. cAMP-stimulated Cl- effluxes were measured with 36Cl- in the epithelial cell line T84 which stably expresses CFTR. Neither glibenclamide (30 microM), tolbutamide (1 mM) nor diazoxide (100 microM) significantly affected forskolin-activated 36Cl- effluxes in T84 cells. In patch-clamp experiments, glibenclamide exerted only weak inhibitory effects on the whole-cell currents through CFTR with an IC50 of around 0.1 mM. Tolbutamide at 1 mM, but not at 0.1 mM, blocked a current of small amplitude which reversed near the equilibrium potential for K+ ions. We conclude that sulphonylureas and diazoxide are not effective antagonists of endogenous CFTR Cl- channels.

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A short term (6-month) cost-effectiveness model has been developed to simulate current medical practice and disease progression in patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus uncontrolled by diet and exercise. The model is based on decision-analytical techniques and includes probabilities of switching between treatments, the reason for the switch and the most common switch options. Effectiveness and economic measures are the 2 main outcomes. In order to assess effectiveness, we use symptom-free days with acceptable control (SFDACs), which represent each day of treatment without adverse events or symptoms, and with acceptable control of glucose and lipids. For the economic evaluation, only incremental costs incurred directly by a health insurance system are considered. This model should prove useful in the evaluation of new oral antidiabetic agents, since the short term aim of antidiabetic therapy is to provide adequate control in the absence of adverse effects and symptoms (a prerequisite for successful long term treatment). Furthermore, short term analysis provides data for comparing initial investment in drug therapy with potential savings over a longer treatment period.

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Vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT) is responsible for vesicular ATP storage in ATP-secreting cells. In the present study, we examined the effects on VNUT-mediated transport of ATP release inhibitors such as ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins, hemichannels, maxi anion channels and P2X7 receptor. The ATP transport activity of proteoliposomes containing purified human VNUT was blocked by glibenclamide, carbenoxolone, 18 α-glycyrrhetinic acid, flufenamic acid, arachidonic acid and A438079 without the formation of Δψ (positive inside) as a driving force being affected. Thus, inhibitors of ATP release may inhibit VNUT and subsequent ATP release, since the previous works proved that inhibitors of ATP release blocked VNUT-mediated ATP release at the cell level.

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Insulin secretion differed significantly between study groups, with marked decreases in the presence of HG plus glibenclamide. Compared with NG, insulin expression decreased significantly with HG, and increased similarly with gliclazide as with glibenclamide. However, exposure to gliclazide, but not glibenclamide, significantly induced expression (at both gene and protein levels) of PDX-1, a fundamental beta-cell differentiation transcription factor, and Ki67, a marker of proliferation. However, gliclazide and glibenclamide did not differ in terms of effects on gene expression of the antiapoptotic molecule Bcl2 (increased significantly with both) and the proapoptotic molecule Bax (decreased significantly with both).

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The direct effects of prolonged exposure to sulphonylureas on the function and survival of human islets are unknown. This study assessed the insulin content, glucose-stimulated insulin release, islet cell apoptosis, and mRNA expression of insulin and GLUT-1 in isolated human islets cultured in the presence of therapeutical concentrations of glimepiride (10 microM), glibenclamide (10 microM), or chlorpropamide (600 microM). Islets were prepared by collagenase digestion and density gradient purification from 18 multiorgan donors and were then exposed for 24 h to the different sulphonylureas. Insulin content decreased significantly following culture with any sulphonylurea compound. In response to an acute challenge with 3.3 and 16.7 mM glucose, insulin release from the control islets accounted for 1.9 +/- 0.5% and 4.9 +/- 1.7% of total insulin content (P<.01), respectively. Glucose responsiveness was preserved in islets precultured in the presence of glimepiride, whereas high glucose level did not elicit any significant increase of insulin secretion from islets preincubated with glibenclamide or chlorpropamide. These alterations were reverted by an additional 48-h incubation in drug-free conditions. The amount of apoptotic cells did not differ significantly among the experimental groups. Quantitative RT-PCR studies showed that, compared with the control islets, cells preincubated with glibenclamide or chlorpropamide had an increased expression of insulin mRNA, with no change in the expression of GLUT-1. In conclusion, prolonged exposure of human islets to different sulphonylureas causes different disturbances of islet cell function, with glimepiride showing milder effects, as compared with chlorpropamide and glibenclamide.

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Cardioprotection by K(ATP) channel openers during ischemia is well documented although ill understood. Proarrhythmic effects may be an important drawback. K(ATP) channel modulation influences neurotransmitter release during ischemia in brain synaptosomes. Therefore, we studied the effects of K(ATP) channel modulation on myocardial noradrenaline release and arrhythmias in ischemic rabbit hearts. Isolated rabbit hearts were perfused according to Langendorff and stimulated. Local electrograms were recorded and K+-selective electrodes were inserted in the left ventricular free wall. Cromakalim (3 microM) or glibenclamide (3 microM) was added 20 min prior to induction of global ischemia. After 15, 20, or 30 min of ischemia, hearts were reperfused and noradrenaline content of the first 100 ml of reperfusate was measured. Cromakalim (n = 16) prevented the second rise of extracellular [K(+)] in accordance with its cardioprotective effect. Cromakalim significantly reduced noradrenaline release after 15 min (mean, 169 +/- SEM 97 pmol/gr dry weight vs. control 941 +/- 278; p < 0.05) and 20 min of ischemia (230 +/- 125 pmol/gr dry wt vs. control 1,460 +/- 433; p < 0.05), but after 30 min of ischemia, the difference in noradrenaline release was no longer significant (cromakalim 2,703 +/- 1,195 pmol/gr dry wt vs. control 5,413 +/- 1,310; p = 0.08). Ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia occurred in 10 of 13 control hearts (77%) (n = 19), in six of 10 glibenclamide-treated hearts (60%) (n = 15), and in six of 14 cromakalim-treated hearts (43%) (p = NS). Cromakalim significantly accelerated onset of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (mean +/- SEM onset after 12.5 +/- 1.6 min ischemia vs. control 16.2 +/- 0.7 min; p < 0.05). Noradrenaline release occurred only in cromakalim-treated hearts with early-onset arrhythmias whereas no noradrenaline release was observed in cromakalim-treated hearts without ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Our results show that activation of the K(ATP) channel by cromakalim during ischemia reduces myocardial noradrenaline release and postpones the onset of irreversible damage, contributing to the cardioprotective potential of K(ATP) openers during myocardial ischemia.

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Anesthetized male rats received a balloon catheter into the right atrium and a gastrostomy cannula. The next day, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), and cardiac output (CO) were continuously monitored. After the first 20min of monitoring (basal interval), the balloon was either distended or not (control) with 30, 50, or 70μl saline for 5min. Fifteen minutes later, the rats received the test meal (glucose solution with phenol red), and fractional gastric dye retention was determined 10, 20, or 30min later.

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1. The effect of glyburide treatment on glutathione peroxidase activity and glutathione levels of non-insulin diabetic rats has been studied. 2. Hepatic glutathione and glutathione peroxidase concentrations were significantly reduced in diabetic animals. 3. Glyburide treatment of diabetic rats for 4 weeks corrected the changes on the glutathione levels observed in diabetic liver. 4. High blood glucose levels of untreated diabetic rats were decreased following glyburide treatment as well. 5. Administration of glyburide to diabetic rats reversed the diabetes-induced changes suggesting that glyburide may directly increase liver glutathione concentrations.

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Multiple studies have been published illustrating the use of oral hypoglycemic agents in pregnancy. Glyburide and metformin have been shown to be as effective as insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. Both are safe with breastfeeding. Although both glyburide and metformin appear safe for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, more studies are needed to support this practice.

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A retrospective observational cohort study was performed on a consecutive series of 568 outpatients (282 women, 286 men) with type 2 diabetes treated with either glibenclamide (n = 378) or gliclazide (n = 190). Information on all-cause mortality and on causes of death up to 31 December 2004 was obtained by the City of Florence Registry Office. Non-fatal cases requiring hospitalization were identified through the regional hospital discharge system using International Classification of Diseases.

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micronase dosage 2015-03-12

Published data suggest that the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) can stimulate osteoblastic bone formation; however, interest has focused on activation of cAMP-dependent signaling pathways in osteogenic cells without full consideration of the importance of cAMP-independent signaling. We have now examined the effects of buy micronase CGRP on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](int)) and membrane potential (E(m)) in preosteoblastic human MG-63 cells by single-cell fluorescent confocal analysis using fluo 4-AM-fura red-AM and bis(1,3-dibarbituric acid)-trimethine oxanol [DiBAC(4)(3)] bis-oxonol assays. CGRP produced a two-stage change in [Ca(2+)](int): a rapid transient peak and a secondary sustained increase. Both responses were dose dependent with an EC(50) of approximately 0.30 nM, and the maximal effect (initially approximately 3-fold over basal levels) was observed at 20 nM. The initial phase was sensitive to inhibition of Ca(2+) mobilization with thapsigargin, whereas the secondary phase was eliminated only by blocking transmembrane Ca(2+) influx with verapamil or inhibiting cAMP-dependent signaling with the Rp isomer of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPS). These data suggest that CGRP initially stimulates Ca(2+) discharge from intracellular stores by a cAMP-independent mechanism and subsequently stimulates Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels by a cAMP-dependent mechanism. In addition, CGRP dose-dependently polarized cellular E(m), with maximal effect at 20 nM and an EC(50) of 0.30 nM. This effect was attenuated with charybdotoxin (-20%) or glyburide (glibenclamide; -80%), suggesting that E(m) hyperpolarization is induced by both Ca(2+)-activated and ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. Thus CGRP signals strongly by both cAMP-dependent and cAMP-independent signaling pathways in preosteoblastic human MG-63 cells.

micronase drug class 2016-12-08

The Na(+)-K(+) pumps in the transverse tubular (T) system of a muscle buy micronase fiber play a vital role keeping K(+) concentration in the T-system sufficiently low during activity to prevent chronic depolarization and consequent loss of excitability. These Na(+)-K(+) pumps are located in the triad junction, the key transduction zone controlling excitation-contraction (EC) coupling, a region rich in glycolytic enzymes and likely having high localized ATP usage and limited substrate diffusion. This study examined whether Na(+)-K(+) pump function is dependent on ATP derived via the glycolytic pathway locally within the triad region. Single fibers from rat fast-twitch muscle were mechanically skinned, sealing off the T-system but retaining normal EC coupling. Intracellular composition was set by the bathing solution and action potentials (APs) triggered in the T-system, eliciting intracellular Ca(2+) release and twitch and tetanic force responses. Conditions were selected such that increased Na(+)-K(+) pump function could be detected from the consequent increase in T-system polarization and resultant faster rate of AP repriming. Na(+)-K(+) pump function was not adequately supported by maintaining cytoplasmic ATP concentration at its normal resting level ( approximately 8 mM), even with 10 or 40 mM creatine phosphate present. Addition of as little as 1 mM phospho(enol)pyruvate resulted in a marked increase in Na(+)-K(+) pump function, supported by endogenous pyruvate kinase bound within the triad. These results demonstrate that the triad junction is a highly restricted microenvironment, where glycolytic resynthesis of ATP is critical to meet the high demand of the Na(+)-K(+) pump and maintain muscle excitability.

micronase tablets 2016-09-07

Gain-of-function mutations of KCNJ11 can cause permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, but only rarely after 6 months of age. Specific uncommon mutations KCNJ11give rise to a syndrome defined as developmental delay, epilepsy, and neonatal diabetes (DEND), or - more frequently - to a milder sub-type lacking epilepsy, denoted as intermediate-DEND (iDEND). Our aim was to consider a possible monogenic etiology in a 12-yr-old boy with early onset diabetes and mild neurological features. We studied a subject diagnosed with diabetes at 21 months of age, and negative to type 1 diabetes autoantibodies testing. He had learning difficulties during primary school, and a single episode of seizures at the age of 10 yr. We performed direct DNA sequencing of the KCNJ11 gene with subsequent functional study of mutated channels in COSm6 cells. The patient's clinical response to oral glyburide (Glyb) was assessed. Motor coordination was evaluated before and after 6 and 12 months of Glyb therapy. Sequencing of the KCNJ11 gene detected the novel, spontaneous mutation S225T, combined with deletion of amino acids 226-232. In vitro studies revealed that buy micronase the mutation results in a K(ATP) channel with reduced sensitivity to the inhibitory action of ATP. Glyb improved diabetes control (hemoglobin A1c on insulin: 52 mmol/mol/6.9%; on Glyb: 36 mmol/mol/5.4%) and also performance on motor coordination tests that were impaired before the switch of therapy. We conclude that KCNJ11/S225T, del226-232 mutation caused a mild iDEND form in our patient. KCNJ11 should be considered as the etiology of diabetes even beyond the neonatal period if present in combination with negative autoantibody testing and even mild neurological symptoms.

micronase 50 mg 2015-09-17

A methanolic extract and its chromatographic fractions (A1 -A6 ) were tested for glucose-reducing and in vitro insulin-stimulating abilities using glucose-loaded rats and INS-1 cells, respectively. In vivo insulin-releasing activities for the significantly (P<0.05) active antihyperglycemic A5 and A6 and in vitro insulinotropic activity of buy micronase the C1 fraction and its isolated constituents were also similarly determined.

micronase dosing 2017-10-27

The mode of action of prostaglandin E2 was investigated on the rat femoral arterial vascular bed in vivo and buy micronase on the isolated femoral artery in vitro. In in vivo preparations, prostaglandin E2 (0.01-0.3 microgram), as well as acetylcholine (0.01-0.3 microgram) and nicardipine (0.1-3 micrograms), administered into the femoral artery (i.a.), elicited a dose-dependent increase (vasodilatation) in femoral blood flow, without markedly influencing systemic blood pressure or heart rate. The vasodilator response to prostaglandin E2 was not affected by i.v. pretreatment with atropine (0.5 mg/kg), propranolol (0.5 mg/kg), glibenclamide (20 mg/kg) or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (100 mg/kg), whereas it was significantly attenuated, like that to acetylcholine, by i.a. infusion of methylene blue. However, methylene blue did not affect the vasodilator response to nicardipine even at a dose sufficient to attenuate the responses to prostaglandin E2 and acetylcholine. In isolated femoral arterial strips, prostaglandin E2 (3 x 10(-8) - 3 x 10(-4) M), phenylephrine (3 x 10(-8) - 1 x 10(-4) M) and U46619 (1 x 10(-9) - 1 x 10(-6) M) induced a concentration-dependent vasoconstriction. The vasoconstrictor responses to prostaglandin E2 and phenylephrine were significantly potentiated by removal of the endothelium and by the presence of methylene blue (3 microM) or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (100 microM), whereas those to U46619 remained unaffected in the same conditions. The present results indicate that the endothelium may play a role in the vascular response to prostaglandin E2.

dosage of micronase 2015-05-22

Glipizide GITS and glibenclamide treatment are effective agents for improving fasting plasma glucose and HbA(1c). Each possessed a suppressive effect on basal HGP and improved postprandial glycemia, but only buy micronase glipizide GITS AM was effective without causing a persistent elevation in insulin. This profile of glipizide GITS AM is therapeutically attractive, as it is consistent with the potential for a reduced risk of hypoglycemia.

micronase drug form 2017-07-10

Baseline plasma glucose levels in the group treated with insulin were higher. The mean birth weight (SD) of the neonates in women treated with insulin was 3021.3 g (604.19) as compared to 3104.6 g (499.35, P = 0.07) in the group treated with glyburide. Neonatal outcomes such as hypoglycemia (4.9%, 3.6%, P = 0.44), hypocalcemia (1.3%, 0.7%, P = 0.48), polycythemia (1.7%, 0.7 buy micronase %, P = 0.31), macrosomia (11.6%, 8.7%, P = 0.26), congenital anomalies (2.1%, 2.3%, P = 0.87), birth trauma (1.4%, 1.2%, P = 0.79) were similar in both groups. Neonates of women treated with insulin were more likely to have hyperbilirubinemia (11.5%, 6.5%, P = 0.03).

micronase 10 mg 2016-06-26

The antidiabetic effect of an alcohol extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves was investigated in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The oral administration of the olive leaves extract (0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg body wt) for 14 days significantly decreased the serum glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, uric acid, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) while it increased the serum insulin in diabetic rats but not in normal rats (p < 0.05). A comparison was made between the action of olive leaves extract and glibenclamide (600 microg/kg), a known antidiabetic drug. The antidiabetic effect of buy micronase the extract was more effective than that observed with glibenclamide.

micronase drug interactions 2017-05-08

The efficacy of the new intestinal alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, miglitol, and glibenclamide were compared in a 6-month double-blind controlled protocol involving 100 non-insulin dependent diabetic patients under diet alone. HbA1c levels (initially between 7 and 11%) were reduced (p < 0.05): -0.78 +/- 0.21% after miglitol and -1.18 +/- 0.20% after glibenclamide. The difference between the two treatments was not significant, although glibenclamide appeared to be more active than miglitol at 8 (p = 0.002) and 16 weeks (p = 0.01) but not at 24 weeks. Fasting glycaemia decreased after miglitol (8.7 +/- 0.3 vs 9.6 +/- 0.3 mmol/l, p = 0.005) and after glibenclamide (8.0 +/- 0.3 vs buy micronase 9.1 +/- 0.3, p = 0.007). After miglitol, a decrease was noted after breakfast (p < 0.001) and lunch (p < 0.001). The same was true for glibenclamide (p = 0.004 and p < 0.001 respectively). A significant reduction in glucose incremental area during a standard meal test was noted at the end of miglitol (p = 0.008) or glibenclamide treatment (p = 0.04). Subgroups of nonresponders to both treatments were identified (10/49 with miglitol, 9/47 with glibenclamide). Side effects were recorded in 10 patients treated with miglitol (flatulence and meteorism, diarrhoea, 1 discontinued therapy) and in 10 treated with glibenclamide (asthenia, sensation of hunger). This study indicates that miglitol is suitable for initial application in diet-resistant Type 2 diabetic patients, providing, a persistent effect and acceptable side effects.

micronase generic name 2017-02-17

1. The contribution of the relaxant mechanisms of nicorandil (NIC) were analysed by comparing its effects with those of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), levcromakalim (LEM) and mixtures (1:10, 1:30 and 1:100) of SNP:LEM in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aorta. 2. In rings precontracted with KCl (25 mM), the relative inhibitory potency of the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the K(ATP) channel inhibitor glibenclamide (GLI) on SNP:LEM mixtures showed a good correlation with the relative proportion of SNP and LEM in the mixtures. Furthermore, the degree of the inhibition by ODQ and GLI of the effects of the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture varied as a function of the relative potency of SNP and LEM in KCl-, noradrenaline- (NA) or NA plus nifedipine-treated arteries. 3. The inhibitory effects of ODQ, GLI and ODQ plus GLI on NIC-induced relaxation was similar to that for the 1:30 SNP:LEM mixture in NA plus nifedipine-contracted arteries, but the inhibition of GLI or ODQ plus GLI was smaller in buy micronase KCl-contracted arteries. 4. In conclusion, the relative importance of activation of the cyclic GMP pathway and K(ATP) channel opening in mixtures of SNP and LEM could be predicted by the proportion of the drugs in the mixtures and by the relative potency of SNP vs LEM in different experimental conditions. Furthermore, the present results suggest that besides these two mechanisms, a third ODQ- and GLI-insensitive mechanism, possibly involving Ca2+ channel blockade, also participates in the relaxant effects of NIC in KCl-induced contractions.

micronase 5 mg 2016-08-10

Prospective, randomized, multicenter, double-blind trial with a 16-week titration period and a 40-week buy micronase maintenance period.

micronase buy cheap 2016-02-25

This study in isolated rabbit superior artery (RMA) investigated the interactions between glyburide, a known blocker of vascular ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP), and several chemically diverse potassium channel openers (PCOs): minoxidil sulfate (MNXS; 5 microM), pinacidil (1 microM), cromakalim (0.5 microM) and RP-49356 (1 microM; a PCO from Rhône Poulenc). Relaxation time courses for these PCOs were obtained in norepinephrine (NE; 5 microM)-precontracted RMA, and the concentrations of PCOs found to be equipotent to each other in terms of the degree of maximum relaxation (about 80%) and the time course of relaxation (within 15 min) were chosen for further study. This was taken as a functional indicator of a similar degree as well as similar kinetics of K+ channel opening by these PCOs. Pretreatment with glyburide (10-500 nM) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the PCO relaxation time course. The glyburide IC50s against pinacidil, MNXS and RP-49356 were statistically similar and ranged from 72-79 nM. The glyburide IC50 against cromakalim was a modest 2-fold higher, at 148 nM. In contrast, pretreatment with charybdotoxin (200 nM) produced no significant inhibition of the maximum relaxation produced by these PCOs. Furthermore, glipizide, a sulfonylurea that is 10- to 25-fold less potent than glyburide for insulin secretion, was found to be 20- to 30-fold less potent than glyburide as a vascular KATP antagonist. These data suggest a mechanistic model in which these structurally diverse PCOs share a common critical step in the sequence of events leading to the KATP opening, and that glyburide interferes with this common critical step to produce a similar type of blockade against all four PCOs. Interaction studies with glyburide and pinacidil demonstrated 15 min to be the optimal pretreatment time for glyburide to produce maximal inhibition. Glyburide also reversed existing pinacidil relaxation regardless of the degree of pre-existing relaxation. These data suggest that glyburide is able to produce its blockade regardless of the state of K+ channel activation. Studies on the effect of pH (6.4 vs. 7.3) showed that at acidic pH, pinacidil became less effective and the effectiveness of glyburide was significantly enhanced, whereas the actions of D600 remained unchanged. These data suggest the effects of both openers and blockers of buy micronase the KATP are strongly pH dependent.

micronase medication 2015-08-16

K(ATP) channels contribute to iNOS-mediated relaxation. However, the ability of sulphonylurea receptor- buy micronase binding agents, but not those binding directly to the pore, to inhibit K(ATP) channels, is greatly diminished in the presence of endotoxin.

micronase brand name 2017-05-28

The objective of the present study was to assess the relative efficacy of insulin buy micronase or glibenclamide treatment for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) over 42 months. We performed a randomised, controlled trial allocating patients treated with diet and oral antihyperglycaemic agents to treatment with glibenclamide or insulin to achieve HbAlc levels under 7.5%. We included 36 subjects with established NIDDM of more than 2 years' duration. Mean HbAlc levels were significantly reduced in patients allocated to insulin treatment from 9.1 +/- 1.4% before the start to 7.8 +/- 1.3% (p < 0.05) after 1 year, and did not change significantly thereafter throughout the study period. Mean HbAlc levels increased during the study in the patients allocated to glibenclamide treatment, and 11 of 18 patients had to be switched to insulin treatment due to increasing hyperglycaemia (HbAlc > 10%). Mean body weight increased in the subjects allocated to insulin by 7.2 +/- 4.1 kg during the study period. In conclusion, insulin was more effective than glibenclamide treatment in obtaining control over hyperglycaemia in these patients, and once improved, glycaemic control did not deteriorate over 42 months in the insulin-treated group. Two thirds of the patients allocated to glibenclamide treatment had to be given insulin due to inadequate glycaemic control.

micronase cost 2016-12-28

Intermittent limb ischaemia prior to cardiac ischaemia is a cardioprotective stimulus. This study was to investigate whether this peripheral stimulus had any effects on basal coronary blood Levitra Cost Comparison flow and resistance, and to explore its potential mechanisms by studying the effect of femoral nerve transection and Katp blockade by glibenclamide.

micronase drug information 2017-02-25

The innate immune Cozaar Normal Dosage response is important in ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) but the exact pathways involved are not elucidated. The authors studied the role of the intracellular danger sensor NLRP3 inflammasome.

micronase dosage 2017-05-30

Troglitazone is a thiazolidinedione insulin sensitizer drug for the treatment of type 2 non- Paxil Online insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Based on an increasing number of reports on troglitazone-associated liver toxicity, the cholestatic potential of troglitazone and its major metabolite troglitazone sulfate has been investigated. In isolated perfused rat livers troglitazone (10 microM) reduced the bile flow by 25% (female) to 50% (male) within 60 min. After single intravenous administrations of troglitazone to rats of both genders, rapid and dose-dependent increases in the plasma bile acid concentrations were observed, with male rats being more sensitive than female rats. In male rat liver tissue fivefold higher troglitazone sulfate levels were measured as compared to female rat liver tissue. This difference was due to the formation rate of troglitazone sulfate, which was four times faster in cytosolic fractions of male rat liver as compared to female rat liver (Clint=132 and 35 microl min(-1) mg(-1), respectively). Troglitazone sulfate strongly inhibited the ATP-dependent taurocholate transport mediated by the canalicular bile salt export pump (Bsep) in isolated canalicular rat liver plasma membrane preparations of both genders (IC(50) value of 0.4-0.6 microM), while troglitazone was 10 times less potent (IC(50) values of 3.9 microM). This high Bsep inhibition potential and the efficient formation and accumulation of troglitazone sulfate in liver tissue, suggested that troglitazone sulfate was mainly responsible for the interaction with the hepatobiliary export of bile acids at the level of the canalicular Bsep in rats. Such an interaction might lead potentially also in man to a troglitazone-induced intrahepatic cholestasis, potentially contributing to the formation of troglitazone-induced liver injuries.

micronase drug class 2017-10-15

Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone) is an active Arava Medication component of many herb-based laxatives. However, its mechanism of action is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of mast cells and enteric neurons in emodin-induced ion secretion in the rat colon.

micronase tablets 2017-03-29

Renal ischemic reperfusion (IR) injury is a significant clinical problem in anesthesia and surgery. Recently, it was demonstrated that both renal ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and systemic adenosine pretreatment protect against renal IR injury. In cardiac IPC, pertussis toxin-sensitive G-proteins (i.e., G(i/o)), protein kinase C (PKC), and ATP-sensitive potassium (K+(ATP)) channels are implicated in this protective signaling pathway. The aim of this study was to elucidate the signaling pathways that are responsible for renal protection mediated by both IPC and adenosine pretreatment. In addition, because A1 adenosine receptor antagonist failed to block renal IPC, whether activation of bradykinin, muscarinic, or opioid receptors can mimic renal IPC was tested because these receptors have been implicated in cardiac IPC. Rats were acutely pretreated with chelerythrine or glibenclamide, selective blockers of PKC and K+(ATP) channels, respectively, before IPC or adenosine pretreatment. Some rats were pretreated with pinacidil (K+(ATP)channel opener), bradykinin, methacholine, or morphine before Omnicef 300 Mg renal ischemia. Twenty-four h later, plasma creatinine was measured. Separate groups of rats received pertussis toxin intraperitoneally 48 h before being subjected to the above protective protocols. IPC and adenosine pretreatment protected against renal IR injury. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin and chelerythrine abolished the protective effects of both renal IPC and adenosine. However, glibenclamide pretreatment had no effect on either renal IPC or adenosine-induced renal protection, indicating no apparent role for K+(ATP) channels. Moreover, pinacidil, bradykinin, methacholine, and morphine failed to protect renal function. Therefore, the conclusion is that cellular signal transduction pathways of renal IPC and adenosine pretreatment in vivo involve G(i/o) proteins and PKC but not K+(ATP) channels. Unlike cardiac IPC, bradykinin, muscarinic, and opioid receptors do not mediate renal IPC.

micronase 50 mg 2016-06-17

Twenty-one open-chest, anesthetized (fentanyl-midazolam) dogs were studied. The left anterior descending coronary artery was perfused at controlled pressure (80 mmHg) with normal arterial blood or Amoxil Mg arterial blood equilibrated with either sevoflurane or desflurane. Series 1 (n = 16) was divided into two groups of equal size on the basis of whether sevoflurane (1.2, 2.4, and 4.8%) or desflurane (3.6, 7.2, and 14.4%) was studied. The concentrations for the anesthetics corresponded to 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), respectively. Coronary blood flow (CBF) was measured with an ultrasonic, transit-time transducer. Local coronary venous samples were obtained and used to evaluate changes in myocardial oxygen extraction (EO2). In series 2 (n = 5), changes in CBF by 1 MAC sevoflurane and desflurane were assessed before and during intracoronary infusion of the KATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide (100 microg/min).

micronase dosing 2017-11-06

Patients recorded a mean of 272 glucose values. Sixty-seven percent of the patients experienced no blood glucose values in the hypoglycemic range. 33% had 1-7% of their total blood glucose values within the hypoglycemic range. All recordings of hypoglycemic episodes were asymptomatic; no patient reported a severe or symptomatic hypoglycemic episode. A significant association was found between the incidence of asymptomatic hypoglycemia and mean blood glucose (P<.001). No association was found between glyburide dose and incidence of asymptomatic hypoglycemia. No association between glyburide dose or mean blood glucose Tegretol Bipolar Dosage value and the incidence of neonatal hypoglycemia was found.

dosage of micronase 2015-10-16

The effect of glibenclamide treatment on insulin action in isolated fat cells was studied in eight moderately obese patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Insulin receptor binding and the effect of insulin on glucose transport and lipogenesis were determined before and after 3 months of glibenclamide therapy. At the end of the treatment period, mean daytime plasma glucose concentrations were reduced (10.8 +/- 0.4 versus 7.0 +/- 0.3 mmol/L, p less than 0.001) whereas mean daytime plasma insulin level was increased (40 +/- 12 versus 71 +/- 9 mU/L, p less than 0.001). Adipocyte insulin receptor binding as well as basal glucose transport and metabolism were unaffected by drug treatment. In contrast, insulin-stimulated glucose transport and lipogenesis were both significantly enhanced (p less than 0.05). These findings are comparable to those of another study involving seven moderately obese subjects with NIDDM who had biopsies of the lateral vastus muscle taken for measurement of insulin receptor function and glycogen synthase activity before and during 2 months of gliclazide treatment. In that study insulin receptors purified with wheatgerm agglutinin showed unchanged insulin binding and receptor kinase activity. Moreover, gliclazide had no impact on maximal glycogen synthase activity. However, under physiologic hyperinsulinemic conditions gliclazide therapy was associated with an increased sensitivity of glycogen synthase for its allosteric activation by glucose-6-phosphatase (p less than 0.04). In conclusion, sulfonylurea treatment of NIDDM enhances insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose utilization in part through a potentiation of insulin action on adipose tissue glucose transport and lipogenesis and skeletal muscle glycogen synthase.

micronase drug form 2015-10-24

Predicting glyburide failure is difficult, but failure does not appear to be associated with increased adverse pregnancy outcomes.

micronase 10 mg 2017-06-20

A new member of the tandem-pore K+ (K(2P)) channel family has been isolated from mouse testis complementary DNA. The new K(2P) channel was named TRESK-2, as its amino acid sequence shares 65% identity with that of TRESK-1. Mouse TRESK-2 is a 394-amino acid protein and possesses four putative transmembrane segments and two pore-forming domains. TRESK-2 has a long cytoplasmic domain joining the second and third transmembrane segments and a short carboxyl terminus. In the rat, TRESK-2 mRNA transcripts were expressed abundantly in the thymus and spleen and at low levels in many other tissues, including heart, small intestine, skeletal muscle, uterus, testis, and placenta, as judged by Northern blot analysis. TRESK-2 mRNA was also expressed in mouse and human tissues. In COS-7 cells transfected with TRESK-2 DNA, a time-independent and noninactivating K+-selective current was recorded. TRESK-2 was insensitive to 1 mm tetraethylammonium, 100 nm apamin, 1 mm 4-aminopyridine, and 10 microm glybenclamide. TRESK-2 was inhibited by 10 microm quinidine, 20 microm arachidonate and acid (pH 6.3) at 49, 43, and 23%, respectively. Single channel openings of TRESK-2 showed marked open channel noise. In symmetrical 150 mm KCl, the current-voltage relationship of TRESK-2 was slightly inwardly rectifying, with the single channel conductance 13 picosiemens (pS) at +60 mV and 16 pS at -60 mV. In inside-out patches, TRESK-2 was unaffected by the intracellular application of 10 microm guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate). These results show that TRESK-2 is a functional member of the K(2P) channel family and contributes to the background K+ conductance in many types of cells.

micronase drug interactions 2017-03-13

We have used hamster insulinoma tumor (HIT) cells, an insulin-secreting tumor cell line, to investigate modulation of the Na/K-ATPase and of the ATP-sensitive K channel (K(ATP)) by the sulfonylurea glyburide. Membrane proteins from cells cultured in RPMI with 11 mM glucose have at least two glyburide receptor populations, as evidenced by high and low binding affinity constants, (K(d) = 0.96 and 91 nM, respectively). In these cells K(ATP) channel activity was blocked by low glyburide concentrations, IC(50) = 5.4 nM. At 12.5 nM glyburide the inhibition developed slowly, tau = 380 s, and caused reduction of channel activity by 75 percent. At higher concentrations, however, inhibition occurred at a fast rate, tau = 42 s at 100 nM, and was almost complete. Na/K-ATPase activity measured enzymatically and electrophysiologically was also suppressed by glyburide, but higher concentrations were needed, IC(50) = 20-40 nM. Inhibition occurred rapidly, tau = 30 s at 50 nM, when maximum, activity was reduced by 40 percent. By contrast, cells cultured in RPMI supplemented with 25 mM glucose exhibit a single receptor population binding glyburide with low affinity, K(d)= 68 nM. In these cells inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase by the sulfonylurea was similar to that observed in cells cultured in 11 mM glucose, but K(ATP) channel inhibition was markedly altered. Inhibition occurred only at high concentrations of glyburide and at a fast rate; maximum inhibition was observed at 100 nM. Based on these data, we propose that glyburide binding to the high affinity site affects primarily K(ATP) channel activity, while interaction with the low affinity site inhibits both Na/K-ATPase and K(ATP) channel activities. The latter observation suggests possible functional interactions between the Na/K-ATPase and the K(ATP) channel.

micronase generic name 2015-10-25

Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 3 post STZ injection (from one group serum glucose level significantly elevated < or = 300, p < or = 0.05) and at day 30 post-treatment in other groups. Liver function, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were significantly increased, while superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK) were inhibited after STZ treatment. Histological examination of diabetic liver showed necrosis and degenerative changes of hepatocytes. Treatment of diabetic rats with ZnCI2, selenium and vitamin E or their combination blunted the increment in serum glucose induced by STZ, preserved liver architecture and ameliorated all the previous mentioned biochemical parameters.

micronase 5 mg 2016-12-30

Sulfonylurea and metformin are used in the treatment of diabetes. Their chronic effects on β cells are not well known. We have shown that sustained exposure of rat β cells to glibenclamide increased their protein synthesis activity, while metformin caused an inhibition. The effect of glibenclamide was attributed to an activation of translation factors. This study examines whether both drugs interact at the level of protein translation in β cells. Purified rat β cells were cultured with and without glibenclamide and metformin before measurement of protein and insulin synthesis, abundance of (phosphorylated) translation factors, and cell viability. A 24 h exposure to metformin stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), suppressed activation of translation factors- both the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin, MTOR)-dependent ones (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 and ribosomal protein S6) and the mTOR-independent eukaryotic elongation factor 2-, and inhibited protein synthesis; a 72 h exposure resulted in 50% dead cells. These effects were counteracted by addition of glibenclamide, the action of which was blocked by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPs. In conclusion, metformin activates AMPK in β cells leading to suppression of protein translation through mTOR-dependent and -independent signaling. Glibenclamide antagonizes these metformin effects through activation of mTOR- and PKA-dependent signaling pathways.

micronase buy cheap 2017-06-18

Aldosterone (0.001-1 microM) reduced vasoconstrictor response to EFS in a dose- and time-dependent manner only in SHR. Thus, the rest of experiments were performed only in SHR. Aldosterone did not affect either noradrenaline response or release. Effect of aldosterone (1 microM) on EFS response was not affected by NG-nitro-arginine-methyl esther (100 microM), and was abolished by capsaicin (0.5 microM) and the calcitonin gene-related peptide antagonist (CGRP 8-37, 0.5 microM). Calcitonin gene-related peptide (0.1 nM-0.1 microM) induced a concentration-dependent relaxation, which was enhanced by aldosterone (1 microM). Incubation with either spironolactone (1 microM), glibenclamide (10 microM), RU 486 10 microM, ODQ (10 microM) or cycloheximide (10 microM) significantly reduced the enhancement of CGRP-relaxation produced by aldosterone, while remained unmodified by SQ 22,536.