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To assess whether vardenafil would improve erectile function irrespective of etiology, baseline severity, or patient age. The consistency of the response over time was also evaluated.
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A total of 205 male subjects were randomized to receive a single dose of vardenafil 10 mg (73 men, group B), a single dose of vardenafil 10 mg every other day for 15 days (67 men, group C), and no treatment (65 men, group A). Semen parameters were evaluated before and after the end of the treatment in each of group A, B, and C, respectively. Additionally, an IIEF- 5 questionnaire was administered to all patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) before and after each treatment period.
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Vardenafil is a potent and selective inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) enzyme that has been shown to improve erectile function in several populations of men with ED. Vardenafil has a rapid onset of action, is hepatically metabolized, and has a half-life of 4-6 hours. Clinical trials in otherwise healthy men with ED, men with ED and diabetes, and men with ED and a history of prostatectomy have demonstrated vardenafil's efficacy. Adverse effects appear to be relatively mild in intensity and dose dependent, with 22-61% of subjects reporting adverse effects.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vardenafil vs. placebo in men who had ED and metabolic syndrome.
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Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Previously, we demonstrated that vardenafil, a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, has potential as therapy for PAH, although the mechanism remained uncharacterized. Here, we aimed to determine baseline levels of oxidative stress in PAH and investigate whether vardenafil affects oxidative stress levels while improving PAH.
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The long-term use of vardenafil contributes to the improvement of both erectile and endothelial functions in patients with arteriogenic ED.
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A total of 13 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were included. Vardenafil was administered at a starting dose of 10 mg, adjustable to 5 or 20 mg after 4 weeks. Efficacy analyses were performed on the intent-to-treat (ITT) population, using a last observation carried forward approach. Efficacy was assessed for subgroups of patients with diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, or metabolic syndrome (as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria). Incidence rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were analyzed overall and by subgroup for patients in the safety population.
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Primary efficacy measures were the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-EF), and Sexual Encounter Profile questions 2 and 3 (SEP2, SEP3).
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Vardenafil (VDN) is one of the three commercially available phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and it is mainly used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction. A sensitive and specific gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method for the determination of VDN in blood has been developed and validated. Sample preparation included solid-phase extraction and derivatization with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and 1% tert-butyldimethylsilylchloride (TBDMSCl). Protriptyline was used as the internal standard for this assay. Limits of detection and quantification for VDN were 0.70 and 2.00 µg/l, respectively. The calibration curves were linear within the dynamic range 2.00-200.0 µg/l with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.991. Absolute recovery ranged from 88.6% to 95.7% for the analyte of interest at three quality control levels. Intra- and inter-day accuracy was found to be between - 6.1% to 10.8% and - 9.3% to 11.6%, respectively, whereas intra- and inter-day precision was < 7.8% and 9.7%, correspondingly. The proposed method is the first fully validated GC/MS method for the determination of VDN in blood samples and it can be used in routine every day analysis by clinical and forensic laboratories for pharmacokinetic studies, for therapeutic drug level monitoring or for the investigation of related forensic cases. A few blood samples analyzed using the developed method is reported herein to demonstrate the suitability of the method.
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Vardenafil and sildenafil are potent and specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors. In human penile cavernosal smooth muscle cells, we have previously shown that vardenafil has a lower biochemical inhibition constant (Ki) than sildenafil. In this study, we compared the efficacy of vardenafil and sildenafil in facilitating penile erection in a rabbit model. Penile erections were elicited by submaximal (2.5 or 6 Hz) pelvic nerve stimulation (PNS) repeated every 5 minutes for 30 minutes with or without intravenous (i.v.) administration of vardenafil (1-30 microg/kg) or sildenafil (10-30 microg/kg). Erectile response was assessed by continuously recording intracavernosal pressure (ICP) and systemic arterial pressure (SAP). All data were expressed as a ratio of ICP:SAP. I.v. administration of either PDE 5 inhibitor facilitated PNS-induced erection and increased ICP:SAP in a dose-dependent manner, reaching peak response at approximately 5 minutes. However, the threshold dose at which facilitation of erection occurred was lower for vardenafil (3 microg/kg) than for sildenafil (10 microg/kg). At the 10-microg/kg dose (i.v.), the response duration was significantly greater with vardenafil (169 +/- 23 seconds) than with sildenafil (137 +/- 31 seconds). Direct intracavernosal (i.c.) injection of 1-30 microg/kg vardenafil or sildenafil also caused dose-dependent increases in ICP:SAP in the absence of PNS. Response durations increased in a dose-dependent manner and lasted more than 5 times that of i.v. drug administration coupled with PNS. Irrespective of the route of administration (i.c. or i.v.), at equivalent doses, vardenafil was significantly more efficacious than sildenafil in facilitating pelvic nerve-mediated penile erection and in eliciting erection in the absence of PNS. The increases in ICPs occurred more quickly, were of larger magnitude, and were sustained for longer durations for vardenafil than for sildenafil. On the basis of the biochemical data and physiological responses from this study, further clinical evaluation of vardenafil as treatment for erectile dysfunction is warranted.
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Owing to their vasodilatory effects, the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have become widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. Among the reported adverse events of these agents are epistaxis, variceal bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, and hemorrhoidal bleeding. We report a case of vocal fold hemorrhage that occurred after vardenafil use in a 31-year-old man who was a professional singer.
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Signaling through cGMP has therapeutic potential in the colon, where it has been implicated in the suppression of colitis and colon cancer. In this study, we tested the ability of cGMP and type 2 cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG2) to activate forkhead box O (FoxO) in colon cancer cells and in the colon epithelium of mice. We show that activation of PKG2 in colon cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, inhibited AKT, and activated FoxO. Treatment of colon explants with 8Br-cGMP also activated FoxO target gene expression at both RNA and protein levels, and reduced epithelial reduction-oxidation (redox) stress. FoxO3a was the most prominent isoform in the distal colon epithelium, with prominent luminal staining. FoxO3a levels were reduced in Prkg2(-/-) animals, and FoxO target genes were unaffected by 8Br-cGMP challenge in vitro. Treatment of mice with the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor vardenafil (Levitra) mobilized FoxO3a to the nucleus of luminal epithelial cells, which corresponded to increased FoxO target gene expression, reduced redox stress, and increased epithelial barrier integrity. Treatment of human colonic biopsy specimens with 8Br-cGMP also activated catalase and manganese superoxide dismutase expression, indicating that this pathway is conserved in humans. Taken together, these results identify a novel signaling pathway in the colon epithelium, where FoxO tumor suppressors could provide protection from redox stress. Moreover, this pathway is regulated by endogenous cGMP/PKG2 signaling, and can be targeted using phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.
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PDE5 inhibitors are widely used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, these drugs have recently become popular among men without erectile dysfunction as a means of enhancing sexual performance and improving sexual desire. The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathological and ultrastructural effects of PDE5 inhibitors on the corpus cavernosum in young, healthy male rats.
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Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) may be associated with reduced central sensitivity for sexual cues. A single dose of testosterone might induce an increase in sensitivity for sexual stimuli, which in turn allows a PDE5 inhibitor to be effective in boosting the physiological sexual response. Negative sexual experience-like childhood sexual abuse (CSA)-might be an important intervening factor in these drugs-induced alterations.
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To investigate the effect of early postoperative dosing with vardenafil, administered either nightly or on demand, compared with placebo on recovery of erectile function in men with ED following bilateral nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy (NSRP) surgery.
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Vehicle-treated (control, n=8) and vardenafil-treated (30 microgkg(-1) intravenous (IV); n=8) anaesthetised dogs underwent hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with 60 min of hypothermic cardiac arrest. Left and right ventricular end-systolic pressure volume relationship (E(es)) was measured by a combined pressure-volume conductance catheter at baseline and after 60 min of reperfusion. Left anterior descending coronary blood flow and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine were determined. Isolated coronary arterial rings were investigated for vasomotor function using an in vitro organ bath system.
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Recently, the infarct reducing and cardioprotective effects of phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors were described. In this study, we investigated these effects on ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model of heart transplantation. Three groups were assigned for our study: a vardenafil preconditioning group, an ischemic control, and a nonischemic control. Hemodynamic parameters were significantly increased in the vardenafil group (Pmax: 82+/-4 vs. 110+/-12 vs. 127+/-13 mm Hg; dP/dtmax: 1740+/-116 vs. 3197+/-599 vs. 4397+/-602 mm Hg/sec; ischemic control vs. vardenafil vs. nonischemic control; P<0.05 vs. ischemic control). Furthermore, we recorded increased ATP levels and significantly less apoptosis in the treatment group after terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (apoptosis index: 27.23%+/-1.54% vs. 16.77%+/-1.42% vs. 18.86%+/-1.07%; ischemic control vs. vardenafil vs. nonischemic control; P<0.05 vs. ischemic control). Our current results support the concept that the cGMP-PKG-pathway plays an important role in ischemia/reperfusion injury. We could show that up-regulating this pathway has a preconditioning-like effect and can effectively reduce ischemia/reperfusion injury.
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This study is registered as PROSPERO CRD42013005289.
A new derivative of vardenafil was detected in an alleged herbal dietary supplement and identified as 2-(2-ethoxy-5-(4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazin-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)-5-methyl-7-propyl-imidazo[1,5-f][1,2,4]triazin-4(3H)-thione. Structure elucidation was carried out by LC-UV-MS/MS and NMR. Results obtained with high resolution MS and IR spectroscopy confirmed the proposed chemical structure. The compound was distinguished from hydroxyvardenafil, a second active substance identified in the same product, by the conversion of the oxo group to a thio group on the imidazo-triazin moiety. Hydroxythiovardenafil was therefore suggested as a proprietary name for the new molecule. This is the first paper to describe a thio-analog of vardenafil in a commercially available product.
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Diabetic rats had proteinuria, increased renal transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 expression and podocyte damage when compared with controls. Vardenafil treatment resulted in preserved podocyte cGMP levels, less proteinuria, reduced renal TGF-β1 expression, desmin immunostaining in podocytes and restored both nephrin and podocin mRNA expression. Diabetes led to increased glomerular nitrotyrosine formation and renal neuronal nitric oxide synthase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression, but vardenafil did not influence these parameters.
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Reports of deaths associated with PDE5-i remain around 5% of total reported events. Despite inherent limitations from evaluating FDA reports of AEs, it is important that these reports be reviewed outside pharmaceutical industry support in order to provide due diligence and transparency. Lowe G and Costabile RA. 10-year analysis of adverse event reports to the Food and Drug Administration for phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors. J Sex Med 2012;9:265-270.
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Sildenafil and vardenafil, two selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) are able, when applied by intraperitoneal injection, to activate chloride transport in cystic fibrosis (CF) mice homozygous for the F508del mutation. Oral treatment with the drugs may be associated with adverse haemodynamic effects. We hypothesised that inhaled PDE5 inhibitors are able to restore ion transport in F508del CF airway epithelium. We developed a restraint-free mouse chamber for inhalation studies. PDE5 inhibitors were nebulised for 15 min at concentrations adjusted from recommended therapeutic oral doses for male erectile dysfunction. We measured in vivo nasal transepithelial potential difference 1 h after a single inhalation of sildenafil, vardenafil or tadalafil in F508del CF and normal homozygous mice. After nebulisation with the drugs in F508del mice, chloride transport, evaluated by perfusing the nasal mucosa with chloride-free buffer containing amiloride followed by forskolin, was normalised; the forskolin response was increased, with the largest values being observed with tadalafil and intermediate values with vardenafil. No detectable effect was observed on sodium conductance. Our results confirm the role of PDE5 inhibitors in restoring chloride transport function of F508del CF transmembrane conductance regulator protein and highlight the potential of inhaled sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil as a therapy for CF.
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One hundred twenty-nine testosterone deficient (serum total testosterone ≤ 3.4 ng/mL) patients aged 56 ± 3.9 years received intramuscular injections of long-acting parenteral testosterone undecanoate at 3-month intervals for 8 months mean follow-up.
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The results of this study demonstrate that subjects under the influence of cannabis were impaired in all memory tasks, in critical tracking, divided attention and the stop signal task. Pretreatment with rivastigmine attenuated the effect of cannabis on delayed recall and showed a trend towards significance on immediate recall. When cannabis was given in combination with vardenafil, there were no significant interaction effects in any of the tasks.
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To study effects of different treatments on erectile and endothelial functions in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) and age-related hypogonadism (HG).
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This open-label, prospective study, conducted in 6,740 U.S. centers, included an initial visit and one or two follow-up visits within a 2-month period of the first vardenafil dose. Vardenafil was administered in 5-20 mg doses.
The data were analyzed for the number of AE reports, number of objective cardiovascular events, and reported deaths.
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Sildenafil, vardenafil, and tadalafil are safe and effective PDE5 inhibitors for the treatment of ED.
The rate of erectile dysfunction after radical retropubic prostatectomy is from 10% to 100%. The prevalence of erectile dysfunction after nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy is more than one third. In the patients who had undergone bilateral NS, 72% responded to sildenafil, 71.7% and 59.7% responded to 20 mg and 10 mg of vardenafil respectively. For all randomized patients who received tadalafil, the mean percentage of successful penetration attempts was 54% and the mean percentage of successful intercourse attempts was 41%. For the subgroup with evidence of postoperative tumescence these values were 69% and 52%, respectively. No head-to-head trials have been performed with sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil in treatment of erectile dysfunction after radical prostatectomy.