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Karela

Karela is a herbal medication of high-quality which helps regulate blood sugar levels. Karela is a perfect remedy for diabetic patients as it checks the level of sugar in body, regulates the same and stops its recurrence. Karela is also a wonderful herbal remedy indicated for people suffering from heart diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction etc as it helps in thinning of blood.

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Description

Karela is a perfect remedy for diabetic patients as it checks the level of sugar in body, regulates the same and stops its recurrence.

Karela helps to control blood glucose naturally. It is proved to be a boon for patients suffering from high glucose levels.

Karela is known to be a wonderful product for the purification of the blood and increasing immunity to prevent any infection.

Karela is alsox a wonderful herbal remedy indicated for people suffering from heart diseases such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction etc as it helps in thinning of blood.

Karela's main ingredient is: Bitter Lemon.

Dosage

Karela is available in capsules which are taken by mouth.

It is recommended to take 1 Karela capsule twice a day after meals.

Overdose

If you overdose Karela and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.

Storage

Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture, light and heat. Keep this medicine in the original bottle. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Karela are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.

Contraindications

Do not take Karela if you are allergic to Karela components.

Be careful with Karela if you are pregnant. Consult your doctor first.

Always give your health care provider a list of all the medicines, herbs, non-prescription drugs, or dietary supplements you use.

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Hyperglycemia is a pathological condition associated with prediabetes and diabetes. The incidence of prediabetes and diabetes is increasing and imposes great burden on healthcare worldwide. Patients with prediabetes and diabetes have significantly increased risk for cardiovascular diseases and other complications. Currently, management of hyperglycemia includes pharmacological interventions, physical exercise, and change of life style and diet. Food supplements have increasingly become attractive alternatives to prevent or treat hyperglycemia, especially for subjects with mild hyperglycemia. This review summarized current patents and patent applications with relevant literature on five commonly used food supplements with claims of hypoglycemic effects, including emblica officinalis (gooseberry), fenugreek, green tea, momordica charantia (bitter melon) and cinnamon. The data from human clinical studies did not support a recommendation for all five supplements to manage hyperglycemia. Fenugreek and composite supplements containing emblica officinalis showed the most consistency in lowering fasting blood sugar (FBS) or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in diabetic patients. The hypoglycemic effects of cinnamon and momordica charantia were demonstrated in most of the trials with some exceptions. However, green tea exhibited limited benefits in reducing FBS or HbA1c levels and should not be recommended for managing hyperglycemia. Certain limitations are noticed in a considerable number of clinical studies including small sample size, poor experimental design and considerable variations in participant population, preparation format, daily dose, and treatment duration. Future studies with more defined participants, standardized preparation and dose, and improved trial design and size are warranted.

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The Indian traditional system of medicine prescribed traditional plant therapies. Two such plants, i.e. Momordica charantia (MC) and Mucuna pruriens (MP), earlier shown to reduce hyperglycaemia, were assessed for their anti hyperglycaemic effect on varying degrees of hyperglycaemia and diabetic complications. Alcohol and aqueous extracts of MC (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) and only an alcohol extract of MP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day) were evaluated in a pilot study (plasma glucose >180 mg/dL, 21 days), a chronic study in alloxanized rats (plasma glucose >280mg/dL, 120 days) and streptozotocin (STZ) mice (plasma glucose >400 mg/dL, 60 days). In the pilot study, the maximum antihyperglycaemic effect occurred with an aqueous extract of MC at week 3 and an alcohol extract of MP at week 6 at a dose of 200 mg/kg/day. In chronic alloxanized rats, the selected dose of MC led to a significant fall of 64.33%, 66.96%, 69.7% and 70.53% in plasma glucose levels at 1, 2, 3 and 4 months, respectively. MP showed a decrease of 40.71%, 45.63%, 50.33% and 51.01% at the same time period. In chronic STZ diabetic mice, MC led to a mean reduction of 15.37%, 18.68% and 22.86% in plasma glucose levels on days 40, 50 and 60 of sampling while MP had no significant effect. The alteration in hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogen content and hepatic glucokinase, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate and phosphofructokinase levels in diabetic mice were partially restored by MC but not by MP. The mechanism of action of MC and MP is discussed.

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A new inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been isolated and purified to homogeneity from the seeds and fruits of the Momordica charantia. This compound, MAP 30 (Momordica Anti-HIV Protein), is a basic protein of about 30 kDa. It exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of cell-free HIV-1 infection and replication as measured by: (i) quantitative focal syncytium formation on CEM-ss monolayers; (ii) viral core protein p24 expression; and (iii) viral-associated reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in HIV-1 infected H9 cells. The doses required for 50% inhibition (ID50) in these assays were 0.83, 0.22 and 0.33 nM, respectively. No cytotoxic or cytostatic effects were found under the assay conditions. These data suggest that MAP 30 may be a useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of HIV-1 infections. The sequence of the N-terminal 44 amino acids of MAP 30 has been determined.

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The healing of acetic acid induced gastric ulcer was increased by both doses of the extract. In pylorus-ligated rats, the extract showed significant decrease in ulcer index, total acidity, free acidity and pepsin content and an increase in gastric mucosal content. The extract also reduced the ulcer index in stress induced, ethanol induced and indomethacin induced gastric ulcers and cysteamine induced duodenal ulcer.

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β-Glucan purified from oats (OG) and bitter melon, Momordica charantia Linn (MC), water extracts have shown favorable effects on diabetes and its complications. We investigated to find out the optimal composition showing hypoglycemic and antidiabetic complication effects in variable compositions (OG:MC = 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1, 10:1). Extracts were administered orally once a day for 28 days following 7 days post streptozotocin (STZ) dosing. Five rats per group (total 15 groups; Intact, STZ, OG, MC, and the variable composition groups) were selected according to the blood glucose and body weight at 6 days after STZ dosing. After 28 days of extracts dosing, the changes on the body weight, liver and kidney weight, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and total-cholesterol levels were observed. As the result of STZ-induced diabetes, decreases of body weight, increases of the liver and kidney weights, blood glucose, BUN, creatinine, AST, ALT, LDL, and total-cholesterol levels in STZ control were detected compared with intact control. However, these changes of hyperglycemia, diabetic nephropathy, hepatopathy, and hyperlipemia were dramatically decreased in the OG and MC single-dosing group, and all composition groups. In addition, there were more favorable effects in all composition groups compared with the OG and MC single-dosing groups. Among variable compositions, the OG:MC 1:2 mixed group showed the most synergic effects in this study.

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Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 176 +/- 70 g, were used for this study. The animals, divided randomly into 4 groups (A-D) received daily graded oral doses of 15, 25 and 50 mg/100 g body weight of methanolic seed extract of MC, respectively, while Group D rats had distilled water for 56 days. The weights of the animals in each group were recorded weekly throughout the duration of the experiment. Serum cholesterol levels were assayed from blood obtained from a left ventricular puncture.

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This study sought to investigate the effects of Purendan superfine powder comprised of Momordica charantia, Radix Ginseng, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiae on neuronal apoptosis and expression of bcl-2, bax, and caspase-3, which are retinal apoptosis-associated factors in rats with diabetes mellitus induced by continuous intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The results showed that Purendan superfine powder could upregulate the expression of bcl-2 protein and mRNA, and downregulate the expression of bax and caspase-3 in the retina of diabetes mellitus rats. In addition, Purendan superfine powder was shown to reduce the number of apoptotic neurons. Our experimental findings indicate that Purendan superfine powder can inhibit neuronal apoptosis in the retina of diabetes mellitus rats and has protective effects on diabetic retinopathy.

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Forty-six different species collected in the Mosetene ethnia, dwelling in the Andean Piedmont of Bolivia, were screened for antimalarial properties. Thirty-three extracts were screened for antimalarial activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistant strain (Indo), and forty-seven extracts were evaluated in vivo on the rodent malaria P. vinckei petteri 279BY. Only two plants are specifically used in combination by the Mosetene against malaria attack (Hymenachne donacifolia and Tesseria integrifolia), but they did not display any activity in vivo at 1000 mg/kg. The in vivo most active extracts were Swietenia macrophylla bark, Trema micrantha bark and Triplaris americana bark, not all of them were used for antimalarial purposes by the Mosetene. The following extracts were moderately active: Jacaratia digitata inner bark and Momordica charantia aerial part (both traditionally used as febrifuge), Kalanchoe pinnate aerial part (used in inflammatory processes), Lunania parviflora twigs and leaves, Phyllanthus acuminatus (used as piscicide), Tynanthus schumannianus fruit (used against diarrhoea), Triumfetta semitrilobata (used as febrifuge, to alleviate kidney and gynecological pain) and finally Solanum mammosum fruit (used against scabies). We present here the results of this screening, emphazing on the in vivo antimalarial activity of the selected plants. The antimalarial in vivo activity of the selected species, in relation with their traditional Mosetene use is then discussed.

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The fruit fly, Bactrocera tau (Walker) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an important pest of fruit and vegetable crops. In this study, host preference of B. tau females and the effects of host species and larval density on larval survival, pupal weight, adult emergence, and developmental duration were investigated on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrical L. (Roem)), bitter gourd [Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) L.], guava [Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) L.], and tangerine [Citrus reticulata (Rutaceae) (Blanco)]. The results showed that females preferred to cucumber over other host species. Larval feeding experience affected subsequent host oviposition preference of adult females. Host species and initial larval density affected certain aspects of the biology of B. tau. Larval density negatively affected insect performance. Survival rates at low densities were significantly higher than that at high densities. Total developmental duration reduced at high larval densities. Cucumber was more suitable to larval growth. Larvae on cucumber grew faster and the puparia were heavier than that on other host species. Larval survival, pupation rate and adult emergence were higher on cucumber compared with those in other host species. Oviposition preference of adult females was correlated with performance of their offspring.

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the hypoglycemic effect of the ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia (cucurbitaceae) was investigated in both normal and streptozotocin - induced diabetic mice. The ethanolic extract of Unriped fruits of M. charantia (800mg/kg) reduced the blood glucose of normal mice from 172 ±3 to 136 ± 5 mg/100ml 4 hours after intrapertitoneal administration (P<0.001), and also significantly lowered the blood glucose of streptoxotocin induced diabetic mice from 686± 60 to 407± 35 mg/100ml under similar conditions (p<0.01). The possible mechanism of hypoglycemic action of M.Charantia is due to the increased glucose uptake in liver cells because it markedly lowers the blood glucose levels in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice.

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First, rats were divided randomly into two groups: the control group was fed with control diet, whereas the experimental group was fed with a 60% high-fructose diet for 8 weeks. After the first 6 weeks, the fructose-treated rats were further subdivided into six groups and were orally fed with or without Momordica charantia L. or rosiglitazone (ROS) for 2 weeks while rats were still on fructose diet.

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Chromium reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in a large meta-analysis. Gymnema sylvestre reduced HbA(1c) levels in 2 small open-label trials. Cinnamon improved FBG but its effects on HbA(1c) are unknown. Bitter melon had no effect in 2 small trials. Fibre had no consistent effect on HbA(1c) or FBG in 12 small trials. Green tea reduced FBG levels in 1 of 3 small trials. Fenugreek reduced FBG in 1 of 3 small trials. Vanadium reduced FBG in small, uncontrolled trials. There were no trials evaluating microvascular or macrovascular complications or other clinical end points.

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Bitter melon (Momordica charantia L.) is rich in a variety of biologically active ingredients, and has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat various diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity.

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Twenty-one species of anti-diabetic plants were recorded, Momordica charantia (score: 0.71), Azadirachta indica (score: 0.64), Trigonella foenum-graecum (score: 0.63), Capparis decidua (score: 0.60), Withania coagulans (score: 0.54), Gymnema sylvestre (score: 0.52) and Syzygium cumini (score: 0.51) were the most significant anti-diabetic plants of the area of study, having DCI more than 0.5.

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During diabetes, structural and functional changes in the alimentary tract are known to take place resulting in increased absorption of intestinal glucose and alterations in the activities of brush border disaccharidases. Similar observations are also reported in the renal cortex. In the present investigation, we examined the effect of feeding bitter gourd fruit devoid of seeds on activities of intestinal and renal disaccharidases, viz., maltase, sucrase, and lactase in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Normal and diabetic rats were fed either with basal diet or a diet containing 10% bitter gourd powder. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were significantly increased during diabetes, and supplementing bitter gourd in the diet clearly indicated amelioration in the activities of maltase and lactase during diabetes. However, a significant change was not observed with sucrase activity by feeding of bitter gourd. During diabetes, renal disaccharidase activities were significantly lower than those in the control rats. Bitter gourd supplementation was beneficial in alleviating the reduction in maltase activity during diabetes. However, not much change in the activities of sucrase and lactase was observed upon feeding. This positive influence of feeding bitter gourd on intestinal and renal disaccharidases clearly indicates their beneficial role in the management of diabetes, thus making diabetic animals more tolerant to hyperglycemia.

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We report that PHF pretreatment downregulated the expression of intestinal Pgp and this downregulated intestinal Pgp would result in decreased functional activity. In addition, this downregulated Pgp expression might affect the bioavailability of antidiabetic Pgp substrate drugs.

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Natural products isolated from plants used in traditional medicine, which have potent anti-plasmodial action in vitro, represent potential sources of new anti-malarial drugs.

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The weightof transdermal patches of M. charantia (2 cm(2); 10 mg/patch) and was found to be 0.03 gm.Thickness of patches of M. charantia (2 cm(2); 10 mg/patch) was found to be satisfactory. The percentage release of active constituents from transdermal patches of M.charantia (2 cm(2); 10 mg/patch) was found to be 47.59% in 10% hydroalcoholic phosphate buffer pH 7.4 at the end of 6 h.The transdermal route exhibited negligible skin irritation and in vivo results revealed that the patches successfully decrease the blood glucose level.

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The study was conducted to analyze the effect of plant growth regulators on callogenesis and direct and indirect organogenesis of Memordica charantia. Callus cultures were induced from leaf, stem and cotyledonary explants of Momordica charantia, at different auxin and cytokinin concentrations either in single or in combination in MS medium. The best callogenic response was observed from all three explants (leaf, stem and cotyledon) on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 and 1.5 mg L(-1) BAP with 1.5 mg L(-1) NAA and 1.0 mg L(-1) 2,4-D, respectively. The callus produced was hard, green and compact. These totipotent cells were failed to give rise shooting response when transferred to same or different growth regulator containing medium as second subculture. Indirect organogenesis response was very low or absent due to hardening of callus and habitutation. Best shooting was observed at 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.1 TDZ and 1.5 mg L(-1) BAP + 0.2 mg L(-1) NAA from shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants. While root formation was achieved when generated shoots were transferred to MS medium both full and half strength supplemented with different auxin concentrations.

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Plants are an invaluable source of potential new anti-cancer drugs. Momordica charantia is one of these plants with both edible and medical value and reported to exhibit anticancer activity. To explore the potential effectiveness of Momordica charantia, methanol extract of Momordica charantia (MCME) was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity on four human cancer cell lines, Hone-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells, HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells, and CL1-0 lung adenocarcinoma cells, in this study. MCME showed cytotoxic activity towards all cancer cells tested, with the approximate IC(50) ranging from 0.25 to 0.35 mg/mL at 24 h. MCME induced cell death was found to be time-dependent in these cells. Apoptosis was demonstrated by DAPI staining and DNA fragmentation analysis using agarose gel electrophoresis. MCME activated caspase-3 and enhanced the cleavage of downstream DFF45 and PARP, subsequently leading to DNA fragmentation and nuclear condensation. The apoptogenic protein, Bax, was increased, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased after treating for 24 h in all cancer cells, indicating the involvement of mitochondrial pathway in MCME-induced cell death. These findings indicate that MCME has cytotoxic effects on human cancer cells and exhibits promising anti-cancer activity by triggering apoptosis through the regulation of caspases and mitochondria.

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The in vivo effect of the administration of extracts of Momordica charantia on certain biochemical parameters of Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated. It was observed that there was an increase in muscle and liver protein levels, while there was a reduction in the levels of brain protein, muscle and liver glycogen. The activities of plasma L-alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were reduced. The L-aspartate transaminase and adenosine triphosphatase activities were slightly elevated in whole plant extract treated rats while the L-aspartate transaminase was unaffected by the ethanol extract but reduced the adenosine triphosphatase activity.

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and transport. Ligands/activators of PPARalpha, like fibrate-type drugs, may have hypolipidemic effects. To identify food that contains activators of PPARalpha, a transactivation assay employing a clone of CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with a (UAS)(4)-tk-alkaline phosphatase reporter and a chimeric receptor of Gal4-rPPARalpha LBD was used to screen ethyl acetate (EA) extracts of a large variety of food materials. It was found that the EA extract of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia), a common oriental vegetable, activated PPARalpha to an extent that was equivalent to or even higher than 10 microM Wy-14643, a known ligand of PPARalpha. This extract also activated PPARgamma to a significant extent which was comparable to 0.5 microM BRL-49653. The activity toward PPARalpha was mainly in the soluble fraction of the organic solvent. The EA extract prepared from the whole fruit showed significantly higher activity than that from seeds or flesh alone. The bitter gourd EA extract was then incorporated into the medium for treatment of a peroxisome proliferator-responsive murine hepatoma cell line, H4IIEC3, for 72 h. Treated cells showed significantly higher activity of acyl CoA oxidase and higher expressions of mRNA of this enzyme and fatty acid-binding protein, indicating that the bitter gourd EA extract was able to act on a natural PPARalpha signaling pathway in this cell line. It is thus worth further investigating the PPAR-associated health benefits of bitter gourd.

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Liriomyza sativae Blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is one of the important pests harming a wide variety of vegetables and ornamental plants throughout the world. The leaf ethanol extract of Momordica charantia at the concentration of 2000-4000 microg x ml(-1) displayed significant antifeedant and antioviposition activities against L. sativae adults. For further purifying the extract, four solvents, i. e., cyclohexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water, were used to extract the ethanol extract, and the antifeedant and antioviposition activities of the extracts against L. sativae adults were tested. The results showed that after treated with the extracts at the concentration of 1000 microg x ml(-1) for 2 days, the antifeedant index (AFI) of cyclohexane-, ethyl acetate-, n-butanol- and water extracts against L. sativae adults was 11.08%, 34.89%, 22.99% and 0, and the antioviposition index (AOI) was 0, 30.91%, 6.45% and 0, respectively. Ethyl acetate extract had the highest bioactivity. At the concentration of 4000 microg x ml(-1), the AFI and AOI of ethyl acetate extract were 70.95% and 69.49%, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract was then isolated by silica gel column chromatography, and three compounds, i.e., (19S, 23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxy-cucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta and 25-diol (compound 1), (19R, 23E)-5beta,19-epoxy-19-methoxy-cucurbita-6,23-dien-3beta and 25-diol (compound 2), and 3beta, 7beta,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23-dien-19-al-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (compound 3), were obtained. These three compounds at concentration of 100-400 microg x ml(-1) all had inhibitory effects on the feeding and oviposition of L. sativae. At the concentration of 400 microg x ml(-1), the AFI and AOI were 66.89% , 53.53% and 78.02% , and 76.32%, 58.36% and 78.36% for compound 1, 2 and 3, respectively.

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It has been reported that the water extract of the whole unripe fruit of Momordica charantia can significantly reduce blood glucose levels. However the safety of its use during pregnancy has not been fully investigated. The aim of this investigation is to determine the safety of this extract during pregnancy. The water extract of the unripe fruit was given to pregnant Sprague Dawley rats on days 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 of gestation. The litter size was determined for each group and the litters were examined for gross malformations. The gross and histological examinations of various organs of the litters were also carried out. Results show that 8.65% of the litters from experimental animals were malformed as against 1.62% of control. It also showed that 31.2% of all the malformed litters had multiple congenital malformations. It also showed that the experimental rats had nine resorption sites while control had none. This demonstrates that the water extract of Momordica charantia is teratogenic in Sprague Dawley rats and should be used with caution in man.

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Native and exotic Brazilian plants collected in the State of Minas Gerais were evaluated for their anticancer potential. Methanol extracts from leaves of 51 plant species were tested for cytotoxicity against four tumor cell lines: B16 (murine skin), HL-60 (human leukemia), MCF-7 (human breast), and HCT-8 (human colon). Plant extracts that exhibited IC(50) values less than 30 microg/ml against any tumor cell line were tested on sea urchin egg development and mouse erythrocytes. In addition, all extracts were evaluated for their general toxicity using the brine shrimp lethality assay. The most active extracts against the tumor cells were those obtained from Lantana fucata, Copaifera langsdorffii, and Momordica charantia. These three extracts inhibited sea urchin development from the first cleavage, but those from C. langsdorffii and M. charantia were very active against mouse erythrocytes. Only the L. fucata extract presented no hemolytic activity. Consequently, although the extracts of L. fucata, M. charantia, and C. langsdorffii could be useful in the development of new anticancer products, the first of these extracts is the most promising since it did not present unspecific toxicity, as suggested by negative results obtained with brine shrimp lethality and mouse erythrocytes assays.

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karela tablets 2015-09-27

In the absence of ER stress, BME exhibited no cell toxicity up to 2.0% w/v and no significant effect on the basal mRNA expression of ER stress markers in LS174T cells. In contrast, pre-treatment of LS174T cells with BME followed by induction of ER stress resulted in a significant decrease in mRNA expression of ATF6, XBP1, GRP78, CHOP and PERK and protein expression of GRP78 and CHOP. Co- buy karela treatment during induction of ER stress and post- treatment following induction of ER Stress in LS174T cells resulted in a lower but still significant reduction in mRNA expression levels of most ER stress markers.

karela powder dosage 2017-12-29

Eleostearic acid (alpha-ESA) is a conjugated linolenic acid that makes up approximately 60% of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) seed oil. Prior work found that water extract from bitter melon was able to inhibit breast cancer. Here, we investigated effects of alpha-ESA on both estrogen receptor (ER)-negative MDA-MB-231 (MDA-wt) and ER-positive MDA-ERalpha7 human breast cancer cells. We found that alpha-ESA inhibited proliferation of both MDA-wt and MDA-ERalpha7 cells, whereas conjugated linoleic acid had comparatively weak antiproliferative activity at 20 to 80 micromol/L concentrations. We also found that alpha-ESA (40 micromol/L) treatment led to apoptosis in the range of 70% to 90% for both cell lines, whereas conjugated linoleic acid (40 micromol/L) resulted in only 5% to 10% apoptosis, similar to results for control untreated cells. Addition of alpha-ESA also caused loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor as well as endonuclease G from the mitochondria to the nucleus. Additionally, alpha-ESA caused a G(2)-M block in the cell cycle. We also investigated the potential for lipid peroxidation to play a role in the inhibitory action of alpha-ESA. We found buy karela that when the breast cancer cells were treated with alpha-ESA in the presence of the antioxidant alpha-tocotrienol (20 micromol/L), the growth inhibition and apoptosis effects of alpha-ESA were lost. An AMP-activated protein kinase inhibitor (Dorsomorphin) was also able to partially abrogate the effects of alpha-ESA, whereas a caspase inhibitor (BOC-D-FMK) did not. These results illustrate that alpha-ESA can block breast cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through a mechanism that may be oxidation dependent.

karela medicine 2016-02-16

Although many studies have demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic activity of Momordica charantia, also called bitter gourd fruit (BGF), the relative hypocholesterolemic mechanism is not fully understood. In the present study, we hypothesized that BGF alters hepatic gene expression of cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating proteins to improve blood cholesterol profiles. To clarify the mechanism, we fed 7-week-old male Wistar rats a high-cholesterol (HC) diet containing 5% BGF for 4 weeks and determined the cholesterol levels in the serum, liver and feces, concentrations of the fecal total bile acid, and the expression level of cholesterol- and bile acid-regulating genes. The HC diet with BGF supplementation showed a significant serum hypocholesterolemic activity compared with the HC diet without BGF. BGF intake also significantly increased the levels of fecal total bile acid, suggesting that BGF inhibited the reabsorption of bile buy karela acids into the intestine. Hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of small heterodimer partner (SHP) and liver receptor homolog-1, which are both involved in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) regulation, were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, by BGF intake. In addition, BGF tended to increase the hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA level. Taken together, these results suggest that BGF not only decreases the reabsorption of bile acids into the intestine but also increases the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids by CYP7A1 up-regulation through the down-regulation of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor/SHP pathway.

karela herbal capsules 2016-06-09

The purpose of the study was to evaluate hypolipidemic and buy karela hypocholesterolemic activities of conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) isomers, present in bitter gourd and snake gourd seed, in terms of amelioration of plasma lipid profile, lipoprotein oxidation and erythrocyte membrane fluidity after oral administration.

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In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant-based insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, this study was undertaken to assess the larvicidal potential of the various fruit wall buy karela extracts of Momordica charantia (cucurbitaceae) against two species of mosquito vectors, Anophels stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. Among the extracts tested, petroleum ether (LC(50) = 27.60; 17.22 ppm and 41.36; 15.62 ppm) extract was found more effective than carbon tetrachloride (LC(50) = 49.58; 16.15 ppm and 80.61; 27.64 ppm) and methanol (LC(50) = 142.82; 95.98 ppm and 1,057.49; 579.93 ppm) extracts towards anopheline and culicine larvae after 24 and 48 h of exposure respectively. Thus, all fruit wall extracts of M. charantia are toxic to both the larval species. M. charantia may, therefore, act as an effective biolarvicide against mosquitoes in the future.

karela pills 2015-04-07

Aqueous extract of the green fruits of the Indian plant Momordica charantia and purified Momordicatin structurally established as 4-(o-carboethoxyphenyl) butanol were evaluated in vitro and in vivo against buy karela kala-azar caused by Leishmania donovani. 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) against Leishmania promastigotes in vitro for the crude extract and momordicatin were 0.6mg/L and 0.02mg/L, respectively. When administered in the hamster model of visceral leishmaniasis, 100% parasite clearance was achieved at a dose of 300mg/kg body weight of crude extract and 10mg/kg body weight of Momordicatin. Fe containing parasite superoxide dismutase (SOD) was totally inhibited when treated with 0.72mg/L crude extract and 0.20mg/L Momordicatin, respectively, whereas Cu-Zn containing SOD present in host remained unaffected. Results reveal that the mode of action of these newly found antileishmanial agents is mediated through inhibiting parasite SOD which is one of the key enzymes of the oxidative burst. It may be proposed from the present study that both crude extract of Momordica charantia and Momordicatin obtained from the fruits of the said plant may be considered as potential candidates towards developing new chemotherapeutics against leishmaniasis.

karela powder online 2016-10-04

Using a lambda gt11 cDNA buy karela library constructed from the seeds of the bitter melon (Momordica charantia), we have obtained a full length cDNA containing the entire sequence of alpha-momorcharin by immunoscreening. The length of this cDNA is 1044 basepairs long and it consists of an open reading frame coding for a polypeptide of 286 amino acids. The first 23 residues of this polypeptide probably code for a signal sequence. The N-terminal sequence of the deduced protein is exactly identical to that determined by peptide sequencing. The sequence identity between alpha-momorcharin and other ribosome inactivating proteins, such as trichosanthin and ricin A chain, is high, i.e., 34-63%. Examination of the predicted secondary structure of alpha-momorcharin and trichosanthin indicates that these proteins have regions of high structural similarities and this may account for the common biological activities that they share, viz., abortificant, immunosuppressive, antitumor and inhibition of HIV-1.

karela capsule 2015-03-11

Protein-ligand docking is a commonly used method for lead identification and refinement. While traditional structure-based docking methods represent the receptor as a rigid body, recent developments have been moving toward the inclusion of protein flexibility. Proteins exist in an interconverting ensemble of conformational states, but effectively and efficiently searching the conformational space available to both the receptor and ligand remains a well-appreciated computational challenge. To this end, we have developed the buy karela Flexible CDOCKER method as an extension of the family of complete docking solutions available within CHARMM. This method integrates atomically detailed side chain flexibility with grid-based docking methods, maintaining efficiency while allowing the protein and ligand configurations to explore their conformational space simultaneously. This is in contrast to existing approaches that use induced-fit like sampling, such as Glide or Autodock, where the protein or the ligand space is sampled independently in an iterative fashion. Presented here are developments to the CHARMM docking methodology to incorporate receptor flexibility and improvements to the sampling protocol as demonstrated with re-docking trials on a subset of the CCDC/Astex set. These developments within CDOCKER achieve docking accuracy competitive with or exceeding the performance of other widely utilized docking programs.

karela 1250 mg 2016-05-12

Functional and health endorsing benefits of various foods are often attributed to their phytochemistry. The bitter gourd holds potential in improving the health of the individuals owing to its incredible versatility in phytochemistry. However, the efficacy of different parts of bitter gourd needs attention of the researchers. In the current exploration, different parts of bitter gourd were evaluated for their cholesterol lowering potential in cholesterol fed Sprague dawley rats. For the purpose, four types of bitter gourd part i.e. whole fruit, seedless fruit, seeds, and seed extracts were used and compared with placebo buy karela in hypercholesterolemic rats. In placebo, momentous increase in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL levels was observed. All parts attenuate the cholesterol 18.79 to 40.17% triglycerides 25.97 to 37.01% and LDL 14.49 to 26.09%. However, 1% extract powder was most effective in reducing the cholesterol and triglycerides. From the present study, it is deduced that bitter gourd extract can be supplemented in food products for the management of hypercholesterolemia. However, future studies in human subjects needs to be conducted for meticulousness of the present findings.

karela tablets himalaya 2015-12-07

Diabetic groups showed delayed wound closure rates compared to the control group. The wound closure rate in the MC ointment group was significantly faster than that of buy karela the untreated diabetic group (p<0.05). The MC ointment group also showed intense TGF-β expression and a high level of total protein content.

karela capsule benefits 2017-09-25

500g of M. charantia powder were macerated in methanol and the extract administered to two groups of alloxan-induced diabetic buy karela rats. The first group received 125mg/kg, the second 375mg/kg and a third group 7mg/kg of metformin. A fourth group received 1ml normal saline. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels were measured at 0.5,1,2,3,5,8 and 12 hours and compared using one-way ANOVA.

karela capsules uk 2016-06-14

Owing to the use of porphyrins in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of malignant tumors, and the preferential interaction of lectins with tumor cells, studies on lectin-porphyrin interaction are of significant interest. In this study, the interaction of several free-base and metalloporphyrins with Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) lectin (MCL) was investigated by absorption spectroscopy. Difference absorption spectra revealed that significant changes occur in the Soret band region of the porphyrins on binding to MCL. These changes were monitored to obtain association constants (Ka) and stoichiometry of binding. The tetrameric MCL binds four porphyrin molecules, and the stoichiometry was unaffected by the presence of the specific sugar, lactose. In addition, the agglutination activity of MCL was unaffected by the presence of the porphyrins used in this study, clearly indicating that porphyrin and carbohydrate ligands bind at different sites. Both cationic and anionic porphyrins bind to the lectin with comparable affinity (Ka =10(3)-10(5) m(-1)). The thermodynamic parameters associated with the interaction of several porphyrins, obtained from the temperature dependence of the Ka values, were found to be in the range: DeltaH degrees = -98.1 to -54.4 kJ.mol(-1) and DeltaS degrees =-243.9 to -90.8 J.mol(-1).K(-1). These results indicate that porphyrin binding to MCL is governed by enthalpic forces and that the contribution from binding entropy is negative. Enthalpy-entropy compensation was observed in the buy karela interaction of different porphyrins with MCL, underscoring the role of water structure in the overall binding process. Analysis of CD spectra of MCL indicates that this protein contains about 13%alpha-helix, 36%beta-sheet, 21%beta-turn, and the rest unordered structures. Binding of porphyrins does not significantly alter the secondary and tertiary structures of MCL.

karela tablets 2016-02-24

Lipoxygenases (LOX) form a heterogeneous family of lipid peroxidizing enzymes, which catalyze specific dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. According to their positional specificity of linoleic acid oxygenation plant LOX have been classified into linoleate 9- and linoleate 13-LOX and recent reports identified a critical valine at the active site of 9-LOX. In contrast, more bulky phenylalanine or histidine residues were found at this position in 13-LOX. We have recently cloned a LOX-isoform from Momordica charantia and multiple amino acid alignments indicated the existence of a glutamine (Gln599) at the position were 13-LOX usually carry histidine or phenylalanine residues. Analyzing the pH-dependence of the positional specificity of linoleic acid oxygenation we observed that at pH-values higher than 7.5 this enzyme constitutes a linoleate 13-LOX whereas at lower pH, 9-H(P)ODE was the major reaction product. Site-directed mutagenesis of glutamine 599 to histidine (Gln599His) converted the enzyme to a pure 13-LOX. These data confirm previous observation suggesting that reaction specificity of certain LOX-isoforms is not an absolute enzyme property but may be impacted by reaction conditions such as pH of the reaction mixture. We extended this concept by identifying glutamine 599 as sequence determinant for such pH-dependence of the reaction specificity. Although buy karela the biological relevance for this alteration switch remains to be investigated it is of particular interest that it occurs at near physiological conditions in the pH-range between 7 and 8.

karela powder dosage 2015-08-05

α-amylase and α-glucosidase digest the carbohydrates and increase the postprandial glucose level in diabetic patients. Inhibiting the activity of these two enzymes can control postprandial hyperglycemia, and reduce the risk of developing diabetes. Bitter gourd or balsam pear is one of the important medicinal plants used for controlling postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetes patients. However, there is limited information available on the presence of α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting compounds. In the current study, the buy karela protein extracts from the fruits of M. charantia var. charantia (MCC) and M. charantia var. muricata (MCM) were tested for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibiting activities in vitro, and glucose lowering activity after oral administration in vivo.

karela medicine 2017-09-16

We recently showed that bitter melon-derived triterpenoids (BMTs) activate AMPK and increase GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in vitro, and improve glucose disposal in insulin resistant models in vivo. Here we interrogated the mechanism by which these Buspar Reviews 2015 novel compounds activate AMPK, a leading anti-diabetic drug target. BMTs did not activate AMPK directly in an allosteric manner as AMP or the Abbott compound (A-769662) does, nor did they activate AMPK by inhibiting cellular respiration like many commonly used anti-diabetic medications. BMTs increased AMPK activity in both L6 myotubes and LKB1-deficient HeLa cells by 20-35%. Incubation with the CaMKKβ inhibitor, STO-609, completely attenuated this effect suggesting a key role for CaMKKβ in this activation. Incubation of L6 myotubes with the calcium chelator EGTA-AM did not alter this activation suggesting that the BMT-dependent activation was Ca(2+)-independent. We therefore propose that CaMKKβ is a key upstream kinase for BMT-induced activation of AMPK.

karela herbal capsules 2016-09-26

The FTIR results implied that AgNPs were successfully synthesized and capped with bio-compounds present in the extract. The result showed that death times of worm were 35.12 ± 0.5 and 59.3 ± 0.3 minutes for M. charantia extract and Ag- Amoxil Brand Name nanoparticles individually. But when these two combined together, paralysis and death time fall drastically which were only 6.16 ± 0.6 and 9.1 ± 0.4 minutes respectively. Albendazole tablet was used as standard, which made worms death in 3.66 ± 0.1 minutes.

karela capsules 2017-09-15

Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including diabetes Prandin Diabetes Medicine mellitus.

karela pills 2016-03-09

Alpha- and beta-momorcharins, ribosome-inactivating proteins from Momordica charantia seeds, were utilized in this investigation. Ribonucleolytic cleavage was observed after naked rRNA was incubated with either momorcharin. Beta-momorcharin, and to a lesser extent alpha-momorcharin Bactrim Dosage Weight , also acted on tRNA to release acid-soluble UV-absorbing products. Such activity was optimal at pH around 5.5. Using polyhomoribonucleotides as substrate, it was found that the momorcharins preferentially acted on polyU, but exerted negligible effects on polyA, polyC and polyG. Chromatographic analysis of the reaction product indicated that mono and/or oligo-ribonucleotides, but not free base, were generated from polyU, suggesting that the enzymatic action involved ribonucleolytic cleavage. Similar to the results obtained with tRNA as substrate, beta-momorcharin was about 15-fold more active than alpha-momorcharin on polyU.

karela powder online 2017-10-06

Use of anti-diabetic plants is prevalent diabetic patients of the area. C. decidua, W. coagulans and G. sylvestre are recommend the further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation due to high Micardis Y Alcohol DCI score and relatively unexplored status.

karela capsule 2016-07-25

Twenty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 176 +/- 70 g, were used for this study. The animals, divided randomly into 4 groups (A-D) received daily graded oral doses Celebrex Vs Generic of 15, 25 and 50 mg/100 g body weight of methanolic seed extract of MC, respectively, while Group D rats had distilled water for 56 days. The weights of the animals in each group were recorded weekly throughout the duration of the experiment. Serum cholesterol levels were assayed from blood obtained from a left ventricular puncture.

karela 1250 mg 2016-03-21

BME functions as a natural AMPK activator in the inhibition of ovarian cancer cell growth and might be useful as a supplement to improve the efficacy of cisplatin-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer Cipro 800 Mg .

karela tablets himalaya 2017-01-01

Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) is type-1 ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) with molecular weight of 29 kDa and has lots of biological activity. Our recent study indicated that the α-MMC purified from seeds of Momordica charantia exhibited distinct antiviral and antifungal activity. Tobacco plants pre-treated with 0.5 mg/mL α-MMC 3 days before inoculation with various viruses showed less-severe symptom and less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation compared to that inoculated with viruses only. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the replication levels of viruses were lower in the plants treated with the α-MMC than control plants at 15 days post inoculation. Moreover, the coat protein expression of viruses was almost completely inhibited in plants which were treated with the α-MMC compared with control plants. Furthermore, the SA-responsive defense-related genes including non-expressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1), PR1, PR2 were up-regulated and activities of some antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) were increased after the α-MMC treatment. In addition, the α-MMC (500 μg/mL) revealed remarkable antifungal effect against phytopathogenic fungi, in the growth inhibition range 50.35-67.21 %, along with their MIC values ranging from 100 to 500 μg/mL. The α-MMC had also a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The α-MMC showed a remarkable antiviral and antifungal effect and hence could possibly be exploited in crop protection for controlling certain Urispas Tablet important plant diseases.

karela capsule benefits 2017-12-09

This review describes the nature and applications of ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) from Momordica charantia (bitter melon). RIPs from the plant kingdom have received much attention in biomedical research because they target conserved host protein synthesis machinery and show specificity towards human and animal cell targets. Recent studies aimed at unravelling the enzymatic activities of the M charantia RIPs provide a structural basis for their activities. It has been reported that RIPs are member of the single chain ribosome inactivating protein (SCRIP) family which act irreversibly on ribosome by removing adenine residue from eukaryotic ribosomal RNA. Various activities of RIPs include anti-tumor, broad anti-viral, ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease. MAP30 (Momordica Anti-HIV Protein), alpha- and beta-momorcharins inhibit HIV replication in acutely and chronically infected cells and thus are considered potential therapeutic agent in HIV infection and AIDS. Further, MAP30 improved the efficacy of anti-HIV therapy when used in combination with other anti Avodart Generic Brand -viral drugs. MAP30 holds therapeutic promise over other RIPs because not only it is active against infection and replication of both HSV and HIV but is non toxic to normal cells. Here we review the nature, action, structure function relationship and applications of RIPs from Momordica charantia and evaluate their potential for anti-cancer and anti-viral therapy.

karela capsules uk 2015-02-13

Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ(9,11,13), lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ(9,12,15)). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis)) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ(9cis,11trans,13trans)). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation.

karela tablets 2015-05-30

In this study the ethanol extract (EEMC) of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) was tested for its modifying antibiotic activity against a MRSA strain. The growth of an MRSA (SA358) in the absence and presence of aminoglycosides was evaluated. A potentiating effect between this extract and all aminoglycosides was demonstrated. Similarly, the same effect was shown by chlorpromazine on kanamycin, gentamicin and neomycin, indicating the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to these aminoglycosides. Extracts from M. charantia could be used as a source of plant-derived natural products with resistance-modifying activity. This is the first report about the modifying antibiotic activity of M. charantia, constituting a new weapon against multi-resistant bacteria such as MRSA.

karela powder dosage 2017-07-21

In this study, we aimed to evaluate the inhibitory effect of wild bitter melons (WBM; Momordica charantia Linn. var. abbreviata Ser.) on Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammation and to identify the bioactive components. Our results showed that ethyl acetate (EA) extract of WBM fruit in vitro potently suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels in P. acnes-stimulated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, concomitant intradermal injection of WBM EA extract in mice effectively attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. To further investigate the bioactive components, we found that both saponifiable (S) and nonsaponifiable (NS) fractions of WBM EA extract significantly suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine and MMP-9 levels. Phytol and lutein, identified in the NS fraction, also inhibited cytokine production. Moreover, S and NS fractions of EA extract, phytol and lutein, activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and β in the transactivation assay. Our results suggested that PPARα or PPARγ signalling may contribute, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity of WBM.

karela medicine 2017-09-26

A multitude of plants have been used extensively for the treatment of cancers throughout the world. The protein, α, β momorcharin has been extracted from the plant Momordica charantia (MC), and it possesses anti-cancer and anti-HIV properties similar to the crude water and methanol soluble extract of the plant. This study investigated the anti-cancer effects and the cellular mechanisms of action of α, β momocharin (200-800 μM) on 1321N1, Gos-3, U87-MG, Sk Mel, Corl-23 and Weri Rb-1 cancer cell lines compared to normal healthy L6 muscle cell line measuring cell viability using MTT assay kit, Caspase-3 and 9 activities, cytochrome c release and intracellular free calcium concentrations [Ca(2+)]i. The results show that α, β momorcharin can evoke significant dose-dependent (P < 0.05; Student's t test) decreases in the viability (increases in cell death) of 1321N1, Gos-3, U87-MG, Sk Mel, Corl-23 and Weri Rb-1 cancer cell lines compared to healthy L6 muscle cell line and untreated glioma cells. α, β momorcharin (800 μM) also evoked significant (P < 0.05) increases in caspase-3 and 9 activities and cytochrome c release. Similarly, α, β momorcharin elicited significant (P < 0.05) time-dependent elevation in [Ca(2+)]i in all five glioma cell lines compared to untreated cells. Together, the results have demonstrated that α, β momorcharin can exert its anti-cancer effect on different cancer cell lines by intracellular processes involving an insult to the mitochondria resulting in cellular calcium over loading, apoptosis, cytochrome release and subsequently, cell death.

karela herbal capsules 2016-04-23

Momordica charantia L. is a vegetable widely cultivated around the world. Its fruits have been used in Asian countries as a folk medicine for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Here we report eight compounds isolated from the fruits of M. charantia. On the basis of NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses, these compounds were identified as momordicolide ((10E)-3-hydroxyl-dodeca-10-en-9-olide, 1), monordicophenoide A (4-hydroxyl-benzoic acid 4-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1 --> 2)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2), dihydrophaseic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), 6,9-dihydroxy-megastigman-4,7-dien-3-one (blumenol, 4), guanosine (5), adenosine (6), uracil (7) and cytosine (8). Among them, 1 and 2 are new compounds. Compounds 3-5 were isolated from this plant for the first time.

karela capsules 2015-09-04

PEGylation is a well-established and effective strategy to decrease immunogenicity, which can increase the stability and in vivo half-life time. However, the generation of multi-site modified products is inevitable due to the lysine chemistry, which will bring difficulties in subsequent research, such as purification and quantification. Site-specific modification by mPEG-succinimidyl carbonate (mPEG-SC) is a widely used method for N-terminal conjugation. In this study, we used it for site-directed modification on two ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) and momordica anti-HIV protein (MAP30), from Momordica charantia L. According to the optimization of previous modification conditions, we compared Macro-Cap SP with SP-Sepharose FF chromatography for separating the final mPEGylated RIPs. Two kinds of methods both can obtain homogenous mPEGylated RIPs which were identified by sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), isoelectric focusing electrophoresis (IEF), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis. We also used iodine staining method to detect the amount of unmodified PEG. Furthermore, the inhibition activity of both mPEGylated and non-PEGylated RIPs against human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial A549 cells was detected. All of the results suggested that the mPEGylated α-MMC/MAP30 might be potentially developed as new anti-tumor drugs.

karela pills 2015-11-20

The most frequently mentioned family is Cucurbitaceae. The mode of preparation and recommended dosages are enumerated in this paper. The results of the study call for an urgent need of the introduction of a strategy for the conservation of indigenous medicinal plants in the area.