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Clostridium difficile strains were detected in 14 of 210 (6.7 %) faecal samples from children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by cultivating faeces on cycloserine/cefoxitin/fructose agar after alcohol-shock. Two main groups of children were studied: inpatients (n = 96) and outpatients (n = 114). The inpatient group consisted of children on antibiotics or immunosuppressors who presented with diarrhoea and other children who did not present with diarrhoea and were not under an antibiotic or chemotherapeutic regimen. Among the outpatients, two groups were examined: namely, a group that comprised children who presented with diarrhoea and were occasionally under an antibiotic regimen and another group that comprised patients who were not taking antibiotics. After cytotoxic assay, toxigenic C. difficile (Cd tox+) strains were detected in 4.2 % of inpatients and 3.5 % of outpatients. Exclusion of other infectious causes of diarrhoea indicated a typical case of C. difficile-associated paediatric diarrhoea in the community. Among Cd tox+ isolates, no variations were detected by PCR for toxin A that employed primers NK9 and NKVO11. No resistance was found to metronidazole or vancomycin among strains that were isolated from children who presented with diarrhoea, but the MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for clindamycin were 6-8 and 16 microg ml(-1), respectively. Resistance to clindamycin seems to be more disseminated in strains from outpatients than in those from inpatients (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these data suggest that investigation for C. difficile infection should be taken into account in paediatric diarrhoea in both inpatients and outpatients in developing countries.
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A total of 200 Helicobacter pylori infected patients were retrospectively included (female 57.5%; average age: 53.2 ± 15.7) and received either 10-day sequential therapy (Proton-Pump Inhibitor + Amoxicillin 1 g bid for 5 days and Proton-Pump Inhibitor + Clarithromycin 500 mg + Metronidazole/Tinidazole 500 mg bid/tid in the following 5 days; group A) or a 10-day modified sequential therapy with Levofloxacin 500 mg id instead of Clarithromycin (group B). Eradication was confirmed with urea breath test. Variables that could influence success rate were analyzed.
Bevezetés: A Clostridium difficile az antibiotikum asszociálta hasmenések leggyakoribb kórokozója, aminek kezelésére az elmúlt évtizedekben kevés új szer került kifejlesztésre, és a tudományos bizonyítékok korlátozott mértékben és nehezen összehasonlítható módon állnak rendelkezésre. Célkitűzés: A Clostridium difficile okozta fertőzés terápiájának hatásossági és biztonságossági végpontjainak elemzése a metronidazol, vancomycin és a fidaxomicin alkalmazása esetén. Módszer: A szakirodalom áttekintése és az eredmények metaanalízise. Eredmények: A metaanalízis szerint a klinikai gyógyulás végpontban nincs szignifikáns különbség a három terápia között (esélyarányok: fidaxomicin vs. vancomycin 1,19, vancomycin vs. metronidazol 1,69 és fidaxomicin vs. metronidazol 2,00). A rekurrencia és a globális gyógyulás végpontokban a fidaxomicin szignifikánsan hatásosabbnak bizonyult, mint a vancomycin és a metronidazol (esélyarányok: fidaxomicin vs. vancomycin 0,47, vancomycin vs. metronidazol 0,91 és fidaxomicin vs. metronidazol 0,43). A biztonságossági végpontokat tekintve nem volt szignifikáns különbség az antibiotikumok között. Következtetések: A klinikai gyógyulás esetében a vizsgált antibiotikumok hatásossága hasonló. A rekurrens fertőzések megakadályozásában jelenleg a fidaxomicin a leghatásosabb terápiás alternatíva. Orv. Hetil., 2013, 154, 890–899.
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To evaluate the efficacy of a strategy combining ranitidine-bismuth citrate triple therapy followed by a proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in a pilot study.
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Our data indicate a very high primary resistance rate towards the most used antibiotics in H. pylori isolates. The efficacy of standard eradication therapies is expected to further decrease in the next years.
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These data demonstrate that the use of IVIG in severe CDAD remains unsubstantiated. This study, although limited by a small sample size, does not support the use of IVIG at this dose for severe CDAD outside of a controlled trial.
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Based on our study results, azithromycin can be used in HP eradication regimen because of its similar efficacy to clarithromycin but also have lower cost, side effects and resistance.
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These data support the clinical observation of augmented ototoxicity in patients receiving combined gentamicin and metronidazole. Caution should be used when administering these two agents together. Clinicians should consider other antibiotic strategies whenever possible.
Production of reactive oxygen species by redox cycling in the presence of low levels of oxygen has been studied as a possible approach to anti-protozoal chemotherapeutic strategy. Incubation of the diplomonad flagellate Giardia intestinalis with 2-methy-1,4-naphthoquinone (menadione), under anaerobic conditions, gave UV absorption changes characteristic of reduction to menadiol; partial reversal was observed on admitting O(2). Under microaerobic conditions, similar to those on the surface of the jejunal mucosa, trophozoites consumed O(2) rapidly in the presence of menadione; reaction products included singlet O(2) (monitored by single photon counting of O(2)-dependent low-level chemiluminescence) and H(2)O(2) (measured by the formation of Complex I of microperoxidase). Trophozoites became swollen and incapable of regulatory volume control; these irreversible responses led to loss of motility, cessation of flagellar activity and cell death. Comparison of the sensitivities of trophozoites to metronidazole and menadione gave LC(50) values ( microg x ml(-1)) of 1.2 and 0.7, respectively; corresponding values for cysts (measured by in vitro excystation capacities) were >50 and 1.3. Menadione (LD(50) in mice, 0.5 g kg(-1)) is therefore a potentially more useful and general anti-giardial agent than metronidazole, as it is active against cysts as well as trophozoites.
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While addition of metronidazole to the omeprazole-amoxycillin combination has been shown to be advantageous, the optimal dosage and drug distribution of the antimicrobials has not been sufficiently evaluated.
The objective of this work was to develop a novel (99m) Tc complex bearing the 5-nitroimidazol-1-yl moiety with recognised selectivity towards hypoxic tissue, as a potential radiopharmaceutical for imaging tumour hypoxia. The new metronidazole derivative (2-amine-3-[2-(2-methyl-5-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethylthio]propanoic acid) (L) containing adequate groups to coordinate technetium through the formation of a Tc(I)-tricarbonyl complex was synthesised with adequate yield (33%) and characterised by spectroscopy. Labelling was performed by substitution of three labile water molecules of the technetium tricarbonyl precursor, fac-[(99m)Tc(CO)3 (H2O)3](+) with the ligand. A radiochemical purity higher than 90% was achieved and remained unchanged for more than 4 h. The complex has a high stability in plasma, a moderate plasma protein binding and a moderate hydrophilicity. In vitro cell uptake studies showed a ratio between the activity taken up by cells in hypoxia/normoxia of 1.6 ± 0.4 (p < 0.5). Biodistribution in normal mice showed rapid depuration and low uptake in all organs and tissues except liver. Biodistribution in mice bearing induced tumours showed a low tumour uptake, but tumour/muscle ratio was favourable thanks to depuration. Comparison with biological results of other metronidazole derivatives clearly shows that modifications of the chelator are very important and contribute to improve the biological behaviour.
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The authors report a case of Lemierre's syndrome. This uncommon clinical entity is characterized by a septic internal jugular vein thrombosis with secondary metastatic abscesses and Fusobacterium necrophorum septicemia, following an acute oropharyngeal infection. The diagnosis is primarily clinical and it should be suspected when a severe septicaemic illness, with pulmonary symptoms, occurs after an acute pharyngotonsillar infection. This article reviews the clinical picture, microbiology and treatment of this forgotten complication of acute tonsillitis.
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Sources were Medline (1964-2004), Embase (1966-2004), the Cochrane Central (1971-2004) and 526 references of 3 textbooks, 2 recent reviews and 30 papers on perioral dermatitis. Thirty English and German articles were selected. These studies were evaluated according to principles of evidence-based medicine and related criteria. Evaluation of 28 papers was carried out by the authors and of our own 2 papers by 2 other reviewers. Consistency of results was qualitatively assessed by the authors.
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National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first degree relatives to patients with gastric cancer, in NSAID-naive patients, who need long-term NSAID therapy, and in patients presenting with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms. Non-endoscoped patients can be tested with a urea-breath test or a faecal antigen test. Endoscoped patients can be tested with a rapid urease test. Proton pump inhibitor therapy should be stopped at least 1 week prior to Hp testing. All infected patients should be offered Hp eradication therapy. First-line treatment is 7-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycine in combination with metronidazole or amoxicilline. Quadruple therapy for 2 weeks with bismuthsubsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole and a proton pump inhibitor is recommended in case of treatment failure. Hp testing should be offered to all patients after eradication therapy but is mandatory in patients with ulcer disease, noninvasive gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma. Testing after eradication should not be done before 4 weeks after treatment has ended.
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The trend of increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among Helicobacter pylori strains has been suggested as a cause of the failure of treatment of H. pylori infections. In this study, 120 of 211 antral biopsy specimens from patients with dyspeptic symptoms were found to harbor H. pylori. The isolates from the 120 specimens were tested by the agar dilution method, and 38 (31.7%) were found to be metronidazole resistant. Among the 211 subjects, 81 of 115 (70.4%) patients with peptic ulcer (PU) were infected with H. pylori, whereas 39 of 96 (40.6%) patients with nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD) were infected with H. pylori. Interestingly, significantly more NUD patients than PU patients harbored metronidazole-resistant H. pylori (22 of 39 [56.4%] and 16 of 81 [19.8%], respectively; P < 0.001). A similar pattern was also observed among NUD patients of different ethnicities but not between male and female patients (23 of 78 [29.5%] and 15 of 42 [35.7%], respectively; P = 0.54). In the posttreatment follow-up, five of six patients who had positive urea breath test results, indicating treatment failure, were NUD patients. Of these, four harbored metronidazole-resistant H. pylori strains. This further illustrates the relevance of metronidazole-resistant H. pylori in NUD patients. The significantly higher percentage of metronidazole-resistant H. pylori isolates in NUD patients may be attributed to the protection offered by the mucus layer of the nonulcerated stomach to the bacteria that reside below it, resulting in organism exposure to sublethal concentrations of metronidazole and leading to the induction of metronidazole resistance. The results demonstrate that the H. pylori isolates colonizing NUD patients are more likely to be resistant to metronidazole. It will therefore be useful to reevaluate the use of metronidazole in the treatment of NUD patients infected with H. pylori.
Including 308 patients, the intention-to-treat (ITT) eradication rates for OAC and OMC as first-line regimens were 72% (95% CI: 63-80%) and 73% (95% CI: 67-79%) respectively. A per protocol (PP) analysis on the 283 patients who completed follow-up gives an initial eradication rate of 78% (95% CI: 69-86%) for OAC and 79% (95% CI: 73-85%) for OMC. There were 60 patients (21%; 95% CI: 17-26%) in whom the initial eradication attempt was unsuccessful. With second-line therapy, H. pylori was successfully eradicated in a further 35/52 (67%; 95% CI: 58-73%) patients. The eradication rates with the quadruple regimen and 2-week triple therapy regimens were 75% (95% CI: 56-94%) and 80% (95% CI: 63-98%) respectively (P = 0. 71). The eradication rate with a repeat 1-week regimen was 33% (95% CI: 7-60%).
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Crude extract of E. camaldulensis showed 80% growth inhibition (GI) in a concentration of 12.5 mg/ml during 24 h. Diethyl ether extract in a concentration of 25 mg/ml showed 100% GI during 24 h. With ethyl acetate extract, 100% GI was detected with the minimum concentration of 12.5 mg/ml in the first 24 h. Finally, water extract in a concentration of 50 mg/ml showed 80% and 100% GI after 48 and 72 h, respectively.
Although Blastocystis is one of the most common enteric parasites, there is still much controversy surrounding the pathogenicity and potential treatment options for this parasite. In this review we look at the evidence supporting Blastocystis as an intestinal pathogen as shown by numerous case studies and several in vivo studies and the evidence against. We describe the chronic nature of some infections and show the role of Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients and the relationship between irritable bowel syndrome and Blastocystis infection. There have been several studies that have suggested that pathogenicity may be subtype related. Metronidazole is the most widely accepted treatment for Blastocystis but several cases of treatment failure and resistance have been described. Other treatment options which have been suggested include paromomycin and trimethroprim- sulfamethoxazole.
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Abdominal infections are treated by resuscitation, abdominal drainage, control of the source of infection, and antimicrobial agents. Ideally, antimicrobial therapy is active against expected pathogens, safe and effective in clinical trials, inexpensive, and unlikely to promote drug resistance. Numerous single-agent and combination-drug regimens have been efficacious in clinical trials, based on coverage of Escherichia coli and Bacteroides species, the predominant pathogens isolated. Whether expanded antimicrobial coverage is required, especially in hospital-acquired infections, is controversial. Candida infections should be treated with antifungal therapy in patients with recurrent abdominal infections, immunosuppressed patients, and those with candidal abscesses. Most agents have few serious adverse effects; aminoglycosides are the least expensive agents but cause nephro- and ototoxicity. There is little information on the promotion of drug resistance in this condition. Recent developments include the introduction of ticarcillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin/ sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, meropenem, aztreonam/clindamycin, and ciprofloxacin/metronidazole; success with once-daily aminoglycosides; evidence that antibiotics limit infectious complications of pancreatitis; controversy over the value of diagnostic cultures; the use of oral therapy; evidence in favor of shorter courses of treatment; and the introduction of pharmacoeconomic studies. Clinical investigators are challenged to improve drug trials by stratifying and controlling for the adequacy of surgical intervention.
Overall resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and rifampicin was 28.7%, 23.2%, and 13.3%, respectively, while resistance to amoxicillin was rare (0.8%). Simultaneous resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin was observed for 7.7% of the isolates, and 2.3% were resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and rifampicin. Differences between primary vs secondary resistance existed for metronidazole (24.7% vs 38.8%, P=.01) and clarithromycin (17.2% vs 54.1%, P=.0001). From 2002-2008 to 2009-2015, resistance to metronidazole increased from 20.8% to 34.4% (P=.003) and to rifampicin from 3.9% to 18.8% (P=.0001); this was not associated with increased numbers of patients previously treated for H. pylori infection in the second study period. In contrast, resistance to clarithromycin did not change significantly over time. Resistance was not associated with age, sex, or family origin in Europe.
To estimate the prevalence of specific contact allergy in rosacea patients and to compare this with the prevalence observed in the general population and in general patch test patients.
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Eighty-six systemically asymptomatic patients were diagnosed with NUG/NUP. All patients were treated with 400 mg of metronidazole and 500 mg paracetamol, three times a day for five days. Mechanical debridement under local anesthesia was performed five days after the initial consultation. The possible involvement of HIV-infection was explained and patients were advised to have a blood test taken.