All unconfounded, blinded, randomized trials in which treatment with a ChEI was compared with placebo or another ChEI for patients with mild, moderate or severe dementia due to Alzheimer's disease.
exelon 5 mg
This was a prospective, open-label, non-randomized, multicenter study of ChEI treatment (donepezil, rivastigmine or galantamine) conducted during clinical practice. The 734 mild AD patients (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score 20 to 26) were assessed at baseline and then semi-annually over three years. Outcome measures included the MMSE, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change (CIBIC) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale.
exelon y alcohol
During the complete observation period of 8.9 years (interquartile range 6.7 to 10.2) there were 132 first hospitalizations for atrioventricular block and 17 first hospitalizations for syncope among 3358 patients. The adjusted incidence densities were significantly increased during ChEI exposure for syncope and atrioventricular block, when compared with the background incidence densities in the roughly 5 years before the last year before ChEI initiation. However, when exposed periods were compared with the unexposed periods 1 year before ChEI initiation and times after exposure, the adjusted hazard ratios remained increased for syncope and atrioventricular block, but increases were not significant anymore.
To quantify the impact of activities of daily living (ADL) scores on the risk of nursing home placement (NHP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.
exelon 1 mg
We studied 659 consecutive patients with AD at a tertiary referral memory clinic. Patients were assessed on six cognitive tests at baseline. Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were measured on the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale (PSMS). The National Adult Reading Test (NART) was used to estimate pre-morbid IQ. Patients were followed up after starting a cholinesterase inhibitor over 78 weeks. Mixed general linear models estimated the effects of NART on cognition and ADL.
exelon drug category
These data suggest favourable tolerability, behavioural and pharmacoeconomic outcomes in nursing home residents with AD who are treated with rivastigmine.
The disruption of working memory in the delayed non-matching to position (DNMTP) task by the muscarinic antagonist, scopolamine, is considered to be a model of the spatial working memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.
exelon drug interactions
Rarer dementias include Huntington's disease (HD), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), dementia in multiple sclerosis (MS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Cholinesterase inhibitors, including donepezil, galantamine and rivastigmine, are considered to be the first-line medicines for Alzheimer's disease and some other dementias, such as dementia in Parkinson's disease. Cholinesterase inhibitors are hypothesised to work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Cholinesterase inhibitors may also lead to clinical improvement for rarer dementias associated with neurological conditions.
exelon 3mg medication
Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is notorious for its debilitating clinical course and high mortality rates. Consequently, various attempts to investigate predictors of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been made. Here we report a case of a 75-year-old female patient with PD who visited the clinic with complaints of recurrent visual hallucinations and cognitive decline, whose symptoms were ameliorated by the titration of rivastigmine. Imaging results showed pronounced diffuse cortical amyloid deposition evidenced by 18F-florbetaben amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. This observation suggests that pronounced amyloid deposition and visual hallucinations in PD patients could be clinically significant predictors of cognitive decline in PD patients. Future research should concentrate on accumulating more evidence for possible predictors of cognitive decline and their association with PD pathology that can enable an early intervention and standardized treatment in PDD patients.
exelon alzheimer medication
OPtimizing Transdermal Exelon In Mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (OPTIMA) was a randomized, double-blind comparison of 13.3 mg/24 h versus 9.5 mg/24 h rivastigmine patch in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease who declined despite open-label treatment with 9.5 mg/24 h patch. Over 48 weeks of double-blind treatment, high-dose patch produced greater functional and cognitive benefits compared with 9.5 mg/24 h patch.
exelon drug test
Switching patients with Alzheimer's disease from one cholinesterase inhibitor to another represents a viable option for patients not responding to current therapy. The objective of this large U.S.-based study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a treatment switch to rivastigmine in patients not responding adequately to or declining on treatment with donepezil.
A total of 86 patients with mild-to-moderate possible or probable Alzheimer's disease were included in this quasi-experimental study (19 patients using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, 36 patients using memantine and 31 age- and gender-matched patients without anti-dementia drugs). Mean values and coefficient of variation of walking speed and stride time were measured with the GAITRite(®) system while usual walking and while walking with backward counting.
exelon 10 mg
The cholinergic system is involved in specific behavioural responses and cognitive processes. Here, we examined potential alterations in the brain levels of key cholinergic enzymes in cirrhotic patients and animal models with liver failure. An increase (~30%) in the activity of the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is observed in the brain cortex from patients deceased from hepatic coma, while the activity of the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase, remains unaffected. In agreement with the human data, AChE activity in brain cortical extracts of bile duct ligated (BDL) rats was increased (~20%) compared to controls. A hyperammonemic diet did not result in any further increase of AChE levels in the BDL model, and no change was observed in hyperammonemic diet rats without liver disease. Portacaval shunted rats which display increased levels of cerebral ammonia did not show any brain cholinergic abnormalities, confirming that high ammonia levels do not play a role in brain AChE changes. A selective increase of tetrameric AChE, the major AChE species involved in hydrolysis of acetylcholine in the brain, was detected in both cirrhotic humans and BDL rats. Histological examination of BDL and non-ligated rat brains shows that the subcellular localization of both AChE and choline acetyltransferase, and thus the accessibility to their substrates, appears unaltered by the pathological condition. The BDL-induced increase in AChE activity was not parallelled by an increase in mRNA levels. Increased AChE in BDL cirrhotic rats leads to a pronounced decrease (~50-60%) in the levels of acetylcholine. Finally, we demonstrate that the AChE inhibitor rivastigmine is able to improve memory deficits in BDL rats. One week treatment with rivastigmine (0.6 mg/kg; once a day, orally, for a week) resulted in a 25% of inhibition in the enzymatic activity of AChE with no change in protein composition, as assessed by sucrose density gradient fractionation and western blotting analysis. In conclusion, this study is the first direct evidence of a cholinergic imbalance in the brain as a consequence of liver failure and points to the possible role of the cholinergic system in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.
Twelve of 15 RCTs included were judged to be of good quality. Although donepezil had beneficial effects in Alzheimer's patients on global health and cognition, rivastigmine on global health, and galantamine on global health, cognition, and functional scales, these improvements were small and may not be clinically significant. Measures of quality of life and behavior and mood were rarely assessed. Adverse effects were usually mild and transient. Cost-effectiveness base case estimates ranged from 2,415 Pounds savings to 49,476 Pounds additional cost (1997 prices) per unit of effect for donepezil and a small savings for rivastigmine. Estimates were not considered robust or generalizable.
exelon 6mg capsule
Clinical studies have shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who are treated with rivastigmine have statistically significantly better scores on 5 scales used to assess AD than control patients receiving placebo. However, the clinical meaning and cost implications of these differences are not clear.
exelon patch generic
Survival analysis was used to assess differences in discontinuation between ChEIs (donepezil versus rivastigmine and galantamine), and for difference in patient gender, age, race, and care setting.
exelon patch overdose
Screening tools are available for depression and dementia in patients with PD, but more specific validated tools are needed. There are no widely used, validated tools for psychosis screening in Parkinson disease (PD). Clozapine successfully treats psychosis in PD. Cholinesterase inhibitors are effective treatments for dementia in PD, but improvement is modest and motor side effects may occur.
exelon patch cost
Donepezil, rivastigmine, and galantamine appear to have some clinical effect for people with Alzheimer's disease, although the extent to which these translate into real differences in everyday life remains unclear. Due to the nature of current economic studies, cost-effectiveness remains uncertain and the impact on different care sectors has been inadequately investigated. Further research is needed to establish the actual benefits of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEls) for people with Alzheimer's disease and their caregivers, the relationship of these changes to clinical management, and careful prospective evaluation of resource and budgetary consequences.
exelon stock prices
Subjects without treatment maintained their cognitive, functional and behavioural status after one year; patients treated only with ChEIs improved in depressive symptoms whereas subjects treated with TNP and ChEIs showed significant improvements in different cognitive areas, such as memory, abstract reasoning and in behavioural disturbances, particularly depressive symptoms.
exelon 4 mg
All four drugs preserved cognitive and affective functions until 12 months, except for Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) with memantine ( *p < 0.05 versus baseline). Donepezil monotherapy significantly improved Hasegawa Dementia Rating Scale-Revised (HDS-R) at 3 months ( *p < 0.05), and memantine (3 and 6 months, *p < 0.05) and rivastigmine (3 months, **p < 0.01) improved Abe's Behavior and Psychological Symptom of Dementia Score (ABS), respectively. Activities of daily living (ADL) became significantly worse with galantamine at 12 months ( *p < 0.05). Male Mini-Mental State Examination scores became worse at 12 months with donepezil ( *p < 0.05), as did female Geriatric Depression Scale scores at 6 months ( *p < 0.05). Male HDS-R and ABS scores were preserved in the galantamine group until 12 months. Female ABS scores with memantine improved at 6 months ( *p < 0.05), while male ADL scores became worse with rivastigmine at 12 months ( *p < 0.05).
A long-term TNP in ChEIs-treated MCI subjects induces additional cognitive and mood benefits.
exelon 9 mg
In 2002, an estimated 3.4 million Medicare beneficiaries were diagnosed with ADRDs (8.1%), of whom 58.9% resided in the community (prevalence rate=5.1%) and 41.1% resided in LTC facilities (prevalence rate=57.2%). Use of antidementia drugs was similar across settings, with 24.7% of subjects with dementia in the community and 26.3% of those in LTC receiving prescriptions for donepezil, galantamine, or rivastigmine. Use of haloperidol was comparable (and low) in both settings. Use of atypical antipsychotics, especially risperidone, olanzapine, and quetiapine, was much higher in LTC residents (21.0%, 11.9%, and 7.1%, respectively) than in the community (5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.3%).