Generic Combivir is used for treating HIV infection in combination with other medicines.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Lamivudine\Zidovudine.
Generic Combivir is an antiviral combination. Lamivudine and Zidovudine are both nucleoside analogues that work together to slow the growth of HIV by blocking an enzyme needed by the virus to reproduce.
Generic Name of Generic Combivir is Lamivudine plus Zidovudine.
Combivir is also known as Lamivudine, Zidovudine, Duovir.
Brand name of Generic Combivir is Combivir.
Generic Combivir is available in tablets which should be taken orally.
Take Generic Combivir with or without food.
Continue to use Generic Combivir even if you feel well. Do not miss any doses.
Take Generic Combivir at the same time each day.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
If you overdose Generic Combivir and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store between 2 and 30 degrees C (36 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep the container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Combivir are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Be careful with Generic Combivir while you are pregnant or have nurseling. Generic Combivir can pass in breast milk and harm your baby.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are allergic to Generic Combivir components.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you are taking stavudine, zalcitabine, or other medicines containing lamivudine or zidovudine.
Do not use Generic Combivir if you have severe kidney problems, decreased liver function, abnormal liver function tests, or high levels of lactic acid in the blood (lactic acidosis).
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you weigh less than 66 lbs (30 kg) .
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you have a history of liver problems (eg, abnormal liver function tests, hepatitis B infection) or lactic acidosis, kidney problems, a bone marrow disorder, pancreas problems, abnormal blood cell counts, or nerve or muscle problems.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you are significantly overweight.
Be careful with Generic Combivir if you take interferon alfa or ribavirin because serious liver problems may occur; stavudine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Generic Combivir; clarithromycin, doxorubicin, rifampin, or zalcitabine because they may decrease Generic Combivir 's effectiveness; acetaminophen, ganciclovir, ibuprofen, methadone, probenecid, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, valproic acid, vancomycin, or zalcitabine because they may increase the risk of Generic Combivir 's side effects or toxic effects.
Do not stop taking it suddenly.
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Histological and biochemical endpoints were achieved in the Combivir pilot study suggesting a larger placebo-controlled trial is required as a proof of principle to assess whether antiviral therapy impacts the PBC disease process.
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Our findings suggest that the safety of 600 mg of ZDV is similar to 400 mg/day of ZDV and the existence of mechanisms that compensate for anemia and for the neutropenia associated with long-term use of Combivir.
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This study is to investigate the synergistic effect of Anglica polysaccharide sulfate (APS-1) and Combivir, an anti-AIDS drug, on murine leukemia virus in vivo. As the results shown, the virus replication was significantly decreased by the combination of APS-1 and Combivir, which tended to be further decreased (58% inhibition) when compared with that of Combivir alone (51% inhibition). Furthermore, both the percentage of CD4(+) cells and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio in peripheral blood cells were significantly enhanced by this combined administration, while the CD4(+) cells was only slightly increased and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio was not affected by Combivir alone. Additionally, combination of APS-1 and Combivir also alleviated the toxicity of Combivir. APS-1 not only increased the survival rate of mice administered with LD(50) dose of Combivir, but also reduced the hematologic toxicity induced by Combivir, RBC, HGB and PLT were restored to normal level. These results suggest that APS-1 had synergistic effect with Combivir, which provided new insight into the potential clinical use of polysaccharide sulfate in anti-AIDS field.
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For the last several years, the combination of ddI (didanosine, Videx) and d4T (stavudine, Zerit) as a backbone of three-drug therapy has been popular both in treatment and in research. Together, the two nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NARTI) drugs offered relatively high strength and fairly simple use. Despite this, some researchers have long questioned the wisdom of the combination as it violates one of the key rules of combining drugs: combine only drugs with different side effect profiles. Both drugs are associated with the development of peripheral neuropathy and pancreatitis. Pancreatitis is more commonly seen with ddI and neuropathy with d4T, but both occur to a significant degree with each drug and to a higher degree than was seen with other drugs of their class. However, few if any studies were run comparing the ddI/d4T combination to alternatives such as AZT/3TC (Combivir) or even 3TC/d4T. Both ddI and d4T come from the same company, Bristol Myers Squibb.
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Multicenter open-label pilot study. Clinical and biological assessments were performed at baseline and at weeks 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48.
A total of 228 exposed HCWs/HCSs were followed up during the study, made up of 101 exposed HCWs/HCSs administered lamivudine/zidovudine (3TC/AZT) for 3 days; 75 exposed HCWs/HCSs administered lamivudine/zidovudine (3TC/AZT) for 28 days; and 52 exposed HCWs/HCSs administered lamivudine/zidovudine/lopinavir-ritonavir (3TC/AZT/LPV-RTV) for 28 days. The frequency of adverse events was 28% (n = 28) in exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 3 days, 91% (n = 68) in exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 28 days and 96% (n = 50) in exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT/LPV-RTV for 28 days. Nausea was the most commonly reported adverse events in all three regimens. Adherence was complete in all exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 3days, 56% (n = 42) in exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 28 days and 62% (n = 32) in exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT/LPV-RTV for 28 days. In the Cox regression multi-variate analysis, exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 3 days were 70% less likely to report adverse events compared with exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 28 days (Adjusted HR = 0.30 [95% CI, 0.18-0.48], p < 0.001). Exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 3 days were 75% more likely to adhere to the schedule compared with exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 28 days (Adjusted HR = 1.75 [95% CI, 1.16-2.66], p = 0.008).
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To determine the impact of once-nightly versus twice-daily dosing and beliefs about highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on adherence to efavirenz-based HAART in antiretroviral-naive patients.
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A total of 165 persons who met the criteria of being on HAART therapy were enrolled in the study The average time span between diagnosis of HIV and commencement of antiretroviral therapy was 1.92 years and the range for this was 0 to 12.29 years. The average CD4 count prior to initiation of HAART was 186 cells/mm3. The most common regime used at the UHWI for first line therapy was combivir and efavirenz, n = 78 (47.3%), followed by combivir and nevirapine, n = 29 (17.6%). The average difference between the initial CD4 count prior to the initiation of HAART and first repeated CD4 count was 102 cells/mm3. The mean time between the first and repeated CD4 cell counts was 376 days.
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It is not possible to draw conclusions on the clinical effectiveness of non-occupational PEP for HIV because of the limited evidence available. The review of cost-effectiveness suggests that non-occupational PEP may be cost-effective, especially in certain population subgroups; however, the assumptions made and data sources used in the cost-effectiveness studies mean that their results should be used with caution.
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There is a significant decrease in aminotransferase serum levels following the initiation of antiretroviral treatment in HIV infected patients.
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Samples were analysed from 27 women in the sdNVP arm and 24 each in the CBV 4-day (sdNVP/CBV4) and 7-day (sdNVP/CBV7) arms. ASP detected NVP-resistant variants in week 6 samples from 70% of women in the sdNVP arm, 29% in the sdNVP/CBV4 arm and 33% in sdNVP/CBV7 arm (P<0.01 for sdNVP/CBV4 or sdNVP/CBV7 versus sdNVP; P=1.0 for sdNVP/CBV4 versus sdNVP/CBV7). Lamivudine resistance was detected by ASP in only 1 of 51 women who received CBV.
Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens during pregnancy are highly effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Congenital heart defects (CHDs) and anomalies in cardiac function have been reported in zidovudine (ZDV)-exposed uninfected children. We explored these associations in a large observational cohort and a randomized clinical trial.
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This study was a prospective, nonrandomized observational study conducted from March 1999 until September 2002. Subjects (age <19 years) who presented to a pediatric emergency room within 72 hours of a sexual assault were eligible for enrollment. A 28-day PEP regimen of zidovudine and lamivudine was given.
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A total of 29 subjects were recruited (eight each in cohorts 1-3, and five in cohort 4). The geometric mean ratios for AUC(12) and C(max) for each treatment group compared with maraviroc monotherapy were: 47% and 67% (cohort 1); 48% and 76% (cohort 2); 101% and 154% (cohort 3); and 265% and 180% (cohort 4), respectively. T(max) was similar in all treatment groups. Mean values for renal clearance ranged from 8.2 l h(-1) (cohort 1) to 13.2 l h(-1) (cohort 4). There were no renal clearance data collected in the comparator study.
In umbilical cords from six of nine infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers taking Combivir moderate to severe mitochondrial morphological damage was observed (P = 0.011), while none of seven unexposed infants showed similar damage. Compared to unexposed infants, statistically significant mtDNA depletion was observed in umbilical cord (P = 0.006) and cord blood (P = 0.003) from drug-exposed infants.
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The difference in adherence observed between once-nightly and twice-daily dosing was driven by a difference in persistence with treatment. Psychological preparation for starting HAART should address patients' perceptions of necessity for HAART and concerns about adverse effects to maximize persistence with treatment.
Thirty-one subjects enrolled with a median baseline viral load (VL) of 4.69 log10 copies/mL and CD4 cell count of 322 cells/mm3. At week 48, 90% (intention-to-treat [ITT] switch included) and 77% (ITT switch = failure) patients had a VL <50 copies/mL. These results were similar in the population (n = 13) with a VL >100,000 copies/mL at baseline. Combivir + abacavir + efavirenz demonstrated an early antiretroviral response: 58% of patients had plasma HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 8. Using a modified assay, the percentage of patients with VL <5 copies/mL at week 48 was 55% (17/31) and 42% (13/31) using ITT (switch included) and ITT (switch = failure), respectively. Median VL decreased by -4.0 log10 copies/mL at week 48 (ITT). Median CD4+ cell count change from baseline at week 48 was +129 cells/mm3 (ITT). Most patients experienced at least one drug-related adverse event that was not considered treatment-limiting by the investigator. There were no cases of abacavir hypersensitivity reactions.
Adherence may be facilitated by reducing perceptual and practical barriers to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Practical barriers include the complexity of daily dosing, while perceptual barriers include perceptions of the need for treatment and concerns about adverse effects. The study aim was to assess the effect of switching zidovudine plus lamivudine twice-daily (Combivir, CBV) to once-daily tenofovir DF plus emtricitabine (Truvada, TVD), each plus efavirenz (EFZ), on adherence, beliefs about ART and quality of life (QoL). Subjects stable on CBV + EFV were randomised 1:1 to continue this regimen or switch to TVD + EFV. Adherence was measured using the Medication Adherence Self-Report Inventory at 4, 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Beliefs about ART (perceptions of necessity and concerns about adverse effects), treatment intrusiveness and QoL were measured by questionnaire at baseline 4, 12, 24 and 48 weeks. Viral load was assessed at each visit. Two hundred and thirty-four subjects initiated treatment. At week 48, the proportion of subjects reporting high adherence (≥95% taken as prescribed) was significantly greater in the TVD arm (p=0.049). Low adherence (reporting taking <95% as prescribed, discontinuing the study or having missing data) was associated with doubts about necessity (p=0.020), stronger concerns about adverse effects (p=0.010), greater treatment intrusiveness (p=0.010) and poorer mental health related QoL (p=0.008). At week 48, both concerns about ART (p=0.038) and treatment intrusiveness (p=0.004) were lower among those who switched to TVD. Furthermore, there was a decline in both concerns about ART (p=0.007) and treatment intrusiveness (p=0.057) over the 48 weeks among those who switched to TVD. There were no significant differences in necessity beliefs, QoL or viral load between randomised groups. Switching from CBV to TVD may improve patient reported outcomes including slightly better adherence, a greater reduction in concerns about adverse effects and less treatment intrusiveness.
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An open-label, noninferiority study was carried out. Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve patients with CD4 count ≤ 350 cells/μL and HIV-1 RNA >30000 copies/mL (n=207) were treated with zidovudine/lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. After achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL on two consecutive occasions between weeks 12 and 24 after baseline, 120 patients (baseline: median HIV-1 RNA 5.19 log10 copies/mL; median CD4 count 180 cells/μL) were randomized to receive abacavir/lamivudine/zidovudine (ABC/3TC/ZDV) (n=61) or to continue the PI-based ART (n=59).
Antiretroviral-naive individuals (n = 53) with an HIV-1 viral load >100 000 copies/mL were randomized to receive three-drug HAART with zidovudine/lamivudine (Combivir) and efavirenz or quadruple therapy with zidovudine/lamivudine/abacavir (Trizivir) and efavirenz (quad regimen). Patients continued on HAART for 48 weeks with regular clinical and immunological assessment. Standard and ultrasensitive (<5 copies/mL) viral load testing was carried out.
An expanded access program for DMP 266 (Sustiva/efavirenz) is now available to people with less than 400 T-cells and on failing therapy. Studies show DMP 266 is effective with Combivir (AZT/3TC), a combination that does not include a protease inhibitor. DuPont Merck warns that it may not be effective in people who have taken other non-nucleoside analogues that have similar resistance patterns.
The median time to an undetectable HIV-1 viral load was 12 weeks (range 4-36 weeks). CD4 and CD16/56 counts increased during treatment and CD8 counts decreased minimally. The main side-effects observed were transient sleep disturbances (five patients). In addition, we observed a decrease in lymphocyte activation as assessed by CD38 surface expression.
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To evaluate the induction of inflammatory cytokine transcription by ABC, we used samples from women randomized to receive zidovudine/lamivudine/ABC (Trizivir) or lopinavir/ritonavir and zidovudine/lamividine (Kaletra/Combivir) from the third trimester through six-months postpartum for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Women were matched by CD4 count and baseline HIV RNA. All women attained viral suppression (<50 copies/ml) by the time of sampling.
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ZDV and 3TC concentrated in BM whereas LPV and RTV did not, possibly due to protein binding and drug transporter affinity. Undetectable to low antiretroviral concentrations in IP suggest prevention of transmission while breastfeeding may be due to antiretroviral effects on systemic or BM HIV RNA in the mother. Low IP 3TC exposure may predispose an infected infant to HIV resistance, necessitating testing and treating infants early.
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