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Cleocin (Clindamycin)

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Generic Cleocin is a high-quality medication which is taken in treatment of serious infections caused by certain bacteria. Generic Cleocin acts by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Clinda derm, Clindagel, Clindets


Also known as:  Clindamycin.


Generic Cleocin is a perfect remedy in struggle against serious infections caused by certain bacteria.

Generic Cleocin acts by stopping the production of essential proteins needed by the bacteria to survive.

Cleocin is also known as Clindamycin, Clindatec, Dalacin, Clinacin, Evoclin.

Generic name of Generic Cleocin is Clindamycin Capsules.

Brand name of Generic Cleocin is Cleocin.


Take Generic Cleocin orally with or without food.

Take Generic Cleocin with a full glass of water.

Use Generic Cleocin at the same time each day.

Do not stop taking Generic Cleocin suddenly.


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Store at room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C (68 and 77 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not use Generic Cleocin if you are allergic to Generic Cleocin components or to to tartrazine.

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Cytokine production by PBMC was determined after treatment with heat-killed P. acnes in the presence or absence of antimicrobials using a real-time PCR and ELISA. Cultured human epidermal keratinocytes were stimulated by IFN-gamma plus IL-1beta and the effects of antimicrobials were examined by using ELISA.

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We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients seen in the Infectious Diseases clinic at a tertiary referral children's hospital from August 1, 2009 to August 1, 2011. We included patients who received ≥14 days of oral or intravenous antibiotic, antiviral, or antifungal medications. Patients receiving only prophylactic medications or human immunodeficiency virus treatment were excluded.

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The occurrence of macrolides and clindamycin resistance was 16.5% in 2005 increasing up to 69.9% in 2008. A high percentage of isolates was resistant to tetracycline through all the study period with no statistically significant annual.

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Fourteen Corynebacterium coyleae isolates were recovered from 12 in-patients during a 5-years period. In six patients, the isolates were considered as clinically significant, three definite (sepsis), two probable (sepsis and soft tissue infection), and one possible (post-transfusional bacteremia). In the remaining 6 patients (all neonatal bacteremias), there was not enough data for considering the isolates as clinical significant. API Coryne identified all isolates as C. jeikeium, while Biolog GP2 correctly identified 7 out of the 14 isolates. Definitive identification was achieved in all isolates by the sequencing of a fragment of 724 to 1423 pb of 16S rDNA. Successive isolations from two patients presented identical random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles. All of the isolates were in-vitro-sensitive to beta-lactams, gentamicin, rifampin, tetracycline, vancomycin, linezolid, and resistant to clindamycin. Resistance to erythromycin occurred in 83.3% of isolates, all of them presenting phenotype cMLS and harboring the gene ermX.

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Trial quality assessments and data extraction were done independently by two reviewers. Study authors were contacted for additional information.

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There was a great degree of polymorphism among the studied strains. The ample presence of hylB gene and the absence of the insertion element IS1548 in the hylB gene in invasive and colonizing strains, indicates that both groups of strains are potentially pathogenic.

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An HIV-infected man became increasingly breathless and cyanosed while receiving clindamycin and primaquine treatment for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. He was found to have 11.4% methaemoglobinaemia and recovered with conservative management.

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The impact of a subinhibitory dose of clindamycin combined with stimulation of host defences by muramyl dipeptide (MDP) in an animal model of surgical infection with Escherichia coli was studied. Both the percentage of bacteria recovered from the implantation site and the degree of bacteraemia were quantitated at timed intervals following the bacterial challenge. Neither of these parameters was significantly different in animals treated with clindamycin alone compared to placebo animals. A significant reduction in bacteraemia was observed in animals treated with a combination of MDP and clindamycin when compared to animals receiving either agent alone. Local bacterial recovery was paradoxically greater in this combined treatment group. The presence of subinhibitory concentrations of clindamycin in vivo appears to render E. coli more susceptible to the systemic effects of host defence stimulation by MDP.

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Osteomyelitis following arthroscopic assisted anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has not been reported in literature. We describe an aggressive progression of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis leading to the complete destruction of the condylar region in a young non-immunosuppressed patient after reconstruction of the ACL. In addition we discuss the steps in diagnostics and our salvage procedures.

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A seven-year surveillance was done of the antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients seen in The Children's Hospital, Birmingham, Ala. There were no outbreaks of hospital-acquired staphylococcal infection during this time. Of 5,479 strains, 2,685 were from hospitalized children; 2,794 of 5,479 were from outpatients. The incidence of penicillin resistance increased from 76% to more than 85% between 1973 and 1979, with no significant difference noted between inpatient and outpatient strains. Penicillin resistance was similar, regardless of the clinical source (site of isolation) of staphylococci. Skin lesions, soft tissue, wounds, and abscess perennially accounted for the greatest proportion of isolates. Thus, skin lesions represent an important reservoir for penicillin-resistant staphylococci. Nearly all strains were susceptible to the other antibiotics tested; multiple resistance was rare. Susceptibility to clindamycin, erythromycin, cephalothin, sodium, and nafcillin sodium remained stable through the years. These agents provide effective therapeutic regimens for patients with staphylococcal infection, including those with penicillin allergy.

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Our object is to determine the prevalence of group B streptococcus (GBS) carriage among pregnant women, the neonatal colonisation rate and the antimicrobial susceptibility to formulate a policy for treatment and prevention regarding perinatal GBS diseases in eastern Turkey. A total of 150 pregnant women were screened for GBS colonisation. Samples were collected from the vagina and the rectum of pregnant women, and the ear canal, throat and umbilicus of the neonates of colonised mothers. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was also investigated. GBS was isolated in at least one specimen from the 150 women in 48 cases; it was estimated that, overall, about 32% of the pregnant women and 17.3% of overall newborns were colonised with GBS. The overall rate of GBS vertical transmission was 54.2% in this study. Maternal colonisation rate was significantly higher in younger ages (p < 0.01) when maternal age of 20 years was taken as a cut-off point. All isolates were found to be sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin and vancomycin. Resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were found to be 13.5 and 2.7%, respectively.

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Interethnic pharmacokinetic differences of antibacterials are likely; however, the clinical relevance of these differences is unknown and warrants further research.

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We report a case of fulminant septicemia with Bacillus cereus resistant to carbapenem. A 33-year-old man was suffering from febrile neutropenia (FN) on day 15 after the start of remission-induction therapy for biphenotypic acute leukemia under gut decontamination with polymyxin B and nystatin. Meropenem, a carbapenem, was administered according to the guideline for FN. Two days later (on day 17), he complained of severe abdominal pain, lost consciousness, went into sudden cardiopulmonary arrest, and died. Autopsy showed multiple spots of hemorrhage and necrosis caused by bacterial plaque in the brain, lungs, and liver. B. cereus was isolated from a blood sample obtained in the morning on day 17 and it was after his death that the isolated B. cereus was revealed to be resistant to carbapenem. B. cereus obtained from blood samples has been reported to be usually sensitive to carbapenem and also to vancomycin, new quinolones, and clindamycin. If B. cereus resistant to carbapem increases, our method of gut decontamination with polymyxin B and nystatin may have to be changed to one containing a new quinolone for the prevention of septicemia. Careful watching to determine whether B. cereus resistant to carbapem increases may be also important for empiric therapy, because carbapenem is often selected as the initial therapy for FN in patients with severe neutropenia.

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The effect of a kaolin--pectin antidiarrheal suspension on the bioavailability of orally administered clindamycin was evaluated by model-dependent pharmacokinetic techniques. Each subject's serum clindamycin concentration--time data in the absence of the kaolin--pectin suspension were fitted to a one-compartment open model with first-order absorption and lag time. The resulting disposition parameters were used to construct individual Wagner-Nelson absorption profiles, expressed as the cumulative relative fraction of clindamycin absorbed versus time following combined antidiarrheal--antibiotic therapy. For each subject, absorption persisted to varying degrees through 14 hr. On the average, the half-time for absorption was prolonged 20-fold (from about 16 min to more than 300 min). In contrast, extrapolation of the individual time courses of relative absorption to infinity revealed that the antidiarrheal had no effect on the extent of clindamycin absorption.

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The encapsulation of antiacne drugs in vesicular and particulate delivery systems represents an innovative alternative to minimize side effects, while preserving their efficacy. This can be obtained by the capacity of these systems to provide controlled release or to improve the drug penetration into skin or even into the pilosebaceous unit.

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Randomized clinical trial comparing 3 treatments (Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole [TS], Dapsone-Trimethoprim [DT], and Clindamycin-Primaquine [CP] for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia [PCP]).

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Obesity causes a number of changes, including an increase in volume of distribution and changes in hepatic metabolism and renal excretion. Several antibiotics have sufficient data to be able to make recommendations, whereas other antibiotics may need to make use of doses at the upper end of the recommended range, or utilize other dose modifications based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters, in an attempt to reach adequate levels and achieve similar efficacy.

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During recent years the impact of different antimicrobial agents on the intestinal microflora in patients undergoing colorectal surgery has been investigated by our research group. Thus the effects on the microflora by parenteral administration of piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefbuperazone, moxalactam, aztreonam, imipenem, ampicillin + sulbactam, clindamycin, tinidazole, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin have been studied. Pronounced changes were observed in the aerobic microflora in patients receiving ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin, in the anaerobic microflora in patients receiving clindamycin and tinidazole and in both the aerobic and anaerobic microflora in those patients receiving piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefbuperazone, moxalactam, aztreonam, imipenem and ampicillin + sulbactam. Postoperative infections were observed in patients receiving piperacillin (2), ampicillin + sulbactam (1), cefoxitin (1), aztreonam (3), tinidazole (6), clindamycin (5) and ofloxacin (5). In the patient groups receiving cefbuperazone, moxalactam, imipenem and ciprofloxacin, no postoperative infections occurred.

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Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a serious disorder with a worldwide prevalence of approximately 3/100,000 persons. TSS is mainly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, beta-lactam and lincosamides, such as clindamycin, are the first-line drugs. Yet, the mortality rate remains unacceptably high; highlighting the role of bacterial toxin-mediated activation of the inflammatory cascade in TSS pathogenesis. Further strategies should be targeted towards interfering with the interaction between bacterial toxins and host T cells. This paper aims to provide an overview of the epidemiology, pathomechanisms, and clinical presentation of TSS, and criteria for selecting drugs among available antibiotics.

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Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the main cause of vaginitis. The condition is characterised by an abundant and odorous vaginal loss, but more than half the patients with demonstrable signs of BV do not report symptoms at all. Gardnerella vaginalis (Gv) is often associated with BV, but it is not the sole factor responsible, as is shown by the fact that it can be isolated in the vagina of women withBV. In 1992 and 1993, 2630 patients, 1460 of them gynaecological and 1170 obstetric, were admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Clinic of Parma University. Amsel criteria were adopted for diagnosing BV. Cases of BV were treated with 5 mg/die 2% clindamycin vaginal cream for 7 days. In the event of recurrences, 250 mg tablets of metronidazol were added: 8 tablets in 4 administrations in a single day, treatment also being extended to the partner. Patients admitted in 1993 received a protocol of hygienic and behavioural standards, stress being laid on prophylaxisa measures even after the end of therapy. BV proved to be present in 12.3% of cases, of whom only half were symptomatic. The situation was practically stationary if the 2 years are considered separately. Recurrences of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis were 15% in the absence of protocol application and 8.3% after the protocol. Recurrences were less frequent in the asymptomatic forms. Compared to the total number od cases of BV, recurrences were significantly low (12.1% p < 0.001).

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cleocin topical dosage 2017-07-09

Forty-one Streptococcus agalactiae isolates collected from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation were analysed for their capsular types, antimicrobial resistance determinants, distribution of virulence factors and genetic relatedness using PCR and multiplex PCR. Capsular type III was predominant (65.8%), followed by capsular type II (14.6%), Ib (7.3%), and V(4.9%). All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristin. Resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin and clindamycin were found in 97.6%, 24.4%, and 14.6% of isolates, respectively. The most buy cleocin common antimicrobial resistance gene was tetM found in 97.6% of the isolates followed by ermTR and ermB found in 12% and 7.3% of isolates, respectively. The most common virulence gene was hly (100%), followed by scpB (97.6%), bca (97.6%), rib (53.65%) and bac (4.9%). The insertion sequence IS1548 was found in 63.4% of isolates. By multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) typing, 30 different allelic profiles or MLVA types (MTs) were identified. The most frequent was the MT1 (5/41, 12.2%) and followed by MT2 (4/41, 9.75%). Our data revealed that population structure of these isolates is highly diverse and indicates different MLVA types.

cleocin 100 mg 2017-11-05

Rates of CA-MRSA, as a percentage of all S aureus isolates, were higher than those reported in other primary care series. The infection rate per 100,000 is one the highest reported in Canada. Antibiotic susceptibilities were unchanged during the study period; the 99% susceptibility buy cleocin rate to clindamycin differs from a 2010 Vancouver (British Columbia) study that reported only a 79% susceptibility to this antibiotic.

cleocin dosage information 2017-01-22

In a multicentre study, the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in 19 large clinics in Germany were recorded, and the resistance characteristics of these strains were studied. Oxacillin-mannitol-salt agar plates were distributed to all participants to ensure uniformity of screening, and each laboratory used these plates to investigate 200 consecutive Staphylococcus aureus isolates for oxacillin-methicillin resistance. Of the 3,794 evaluable Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 71.5% were penicillin and 3.7% (142) oxacillin resistant; four study centres reported methicillin-oxacillin resistance rates of more than 5%. Of the MRSA isolates, 75% were also resistant to ciprofloxacin, buy cleocin 61% to fosfomycin, 52% to imipenem, 50% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and 36% to clindamycin. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Of the Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from patients in intensive therapy units, 10.4% were methicillin-oxacillin resistant. Drains and catheter tips (9.8% and 5.2% respectively) were the materials with the highest proportions of MRSA. Of the MRSA isolates in this study, 58.2% belonged to lysis group II.

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In samples taken from orthopedic patients we observed the predominance of Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. Some of them were part of the normal flora but they should not be excluded as an etiology agents of infection. The specimens taken from patients treated in surgical wards showed the presence of a mixed microflora, which included aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, primarily Gram-negative buy cleocin rods. Rational empirical therapy of infections with anaerobes should be mainly based on the resistance pattern in each ward and hospital. In view of the increasing in the number of resistant strains is necessary to monitor drug resistance of anaerobic bacteria.

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Retrospective chart buy cleocin review.

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The phosphonohydroxamic acid Fosmidomycin is a drug candidate for the treatment of Malaria, buy cleocin currently in phase II trials in combination with Clindamycin. In order to obtain compounds of higher lipophilicity, we recently synthesized alpha-phenyl substituted Fosmidomycin derivatives which display high antimalarial activity. We now report the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity of arylmethyl substituted bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) ester prodrugs of Fosmidomycin and its acetyl analogue FR900098. The 3,4-dichlorobenzyl substituted derivative of Fosmidomycin proved to be about twice as active as the respective Fosmidomycin prodrug, however, less active than the corresponding FR900098 prodrug. Electron donating substituents as well as voluminous substituents led to a significant reduction of activity.

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The present study was conducted to assess the comparative efficacy and safety of a nano-emulsion buy cleocin gel formulation of clindamycin with its conventional formulation in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face.

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The genetic basis of macrolide resistance was characterized in 59 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates. All isolates were collected in 1995 and 1997 and were from invasive infections. The majority of the isolates (54 of 59 isolates) were erythromycin buy cleocin and clindamycin resistant (MLS(B)-phenotype) and carried the ermAM gene. Five isolates were erythromycin resistant but clindamycin susceptible (M-phenotype). Using PCR the mefE gene was detected in these five isolates. Contrary to the situation found in Canada and the USA, mefE-mediated erythromycin resistance in S. pneumoniae is uncommon in Belgium.

cleocin ovules dosage 2015-04-20

In this retrospective review, 16 children with sickle cell disease and penicillin-resistant pneumococcal invasive infection were identified. They had a median age of 2 years (range 1-15) and were treated buy cleocin in Memphis, Dallas, Los Angeles, and five other cities between 1987 and early 1995.

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To evaluate the efficacy and safety of CLNP/BPO 3·0% topically applied once or twice daily vs. CLNP buy cleocin twice daily in Japanese patients with acne.

cleocin normal dosage 2015-09-24

Although controversy exists regarding the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis for patients at risk of buy cleocin infective endocarditis, expert committees continue to publish recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of four antimicrobial regimens for the prevention of bacteraemia following dental extractions.

cleocin suspension strength 2015-11-11

A healthy 19-year-old black man without any methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus risk factors developed axillary boils after he began lifting weights at the university gym in Houston, TX. He presented with a large tender erythematous fluctuant abscess of his right axillae and a superiorly located smaller painful red indurated nodule; the surrounding cellulitis extended into the adjacent tissue (Figure). The abscess was incised, drained, and cultured. Empiric treatment with cephalexin 500 mg q.i.d. was given for 7 days. The culture grew methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Susceptibility testing of the S. aureus isolate was performed by Laboratory Corp. of America (Houston, TX); the Vitek system (Biomerieux, Hazelwood, MO) was used, and the specimen was incubated for 8 hours. Confirmation of methicillin resistance was performed using a methicillin-resistant S. aureus plate and the specimen was incubated for 24 hours. In addition to resistance to methicillin, the bacterial isolate was also resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and penicillin. The S. aureus strain had intermediate susceptibility to levofloxacin and was susceptible to clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and vancomycin. The infection persisted and the antibiotic was buy cleocin changed to double strength trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, taken twice daily for 15 days. In addition, topical care included lesional and intranasal application of mupirocin 2% ointment and daily cleaning of the area with 10% povidone-iodine liquid soap. The skin infection completely resolved without recurrence within 2 weeks.

cleocin reviews bv 2016-05-29

We could discover no specific exposure associated with anthrax infection for this patient. However, due to being located in an endemic and enzootic area, it is proposed that the exposure occurred through contact with infected airborne dust or an unknown contaminated item. Despite many advances in preventing anthrax, still some rare cases of respiratory and complicated anthrax are emerging. With regard to the threat of bioterrorism, medical staff's sensitivity buy cleocin to the clinical syndrome, methods of prophylaxis and treatment of anthrax must be raised. Fast diagnosis and successful treatment the lethal cases of this infection are of utmost important.

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Resistance to methicillin was stable at about 1.5% of isolates during 1989-91, but increased thereafter to 13.2% in 1995 (p < 0.001). At the same time there was a significant increase in the percentage of isolates resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, trimethoprim, and rifampicin (p < 0.001 for each)-resistance characteristics often seen in MRSA. Resistance to benzylpenicillin increased slightly but significantly (p < 0.001); resistance to fusidic acid was stable (p > 0.05); resistance to tetracycline decreased buy cleocin significantly (p < 0.001).

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A total of 12 unique patient MRSA isolates were studied. Six strains were CA, carrying the staphylococcal chromosomal cassette (SCCmec) type IVa, while six were HA and carried SCCmec type II. Time-kill methods were used to study the bactericidal activity of the orally available antimicrobials linezolid, rifampicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, minocycline, and moxifloxacin alone and in combination in vitro. buy cleocin

cleocin pediatric dosing 2017-01-02

This was a bicentre, open-label, randomised, three-arm phase 3 trial done in Lisungi health centre in DR Congo, and Kazo health centre in Uganda in 2012-14. Children aged 12-60 months with recurrent malaria infection after treatment with the first-line ACT were randomly assigned to either re-treatment with the same first-line ACT, an Stromectol Online alternative ACT, which were given for 3 days, or quinine-clindamycin (QnC), which was given for 5-7 days, following a 2:2:1 ratio. Randomisation was done by computer-generated randomisation list in a block design by country. The three treatment groups were assumed to have equivalent efficacy above 90%. Both the research team and parents or guardians were aware of treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) at day 28, in the per-protocol population. This trial was registered under the numbers NCT01374581 in and PACTR201203000351114 in the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry.

cleocin generic name 2015-05-04

The activity of metronidazole, vancomycin, clindamycin and teicoplanin against Clostridium difficile strains isolated from various origins in Poland was investigated. MIC was determined for metronidazole, clindamycin and teicoplanin. The disc-diffusion method was used for the vancomycin susceptibility test. Three out of thirty-eight strains were resistant to vancomycin and twenty-eight were susceptible to teicoplanin. A widespread MIC was observed for clindamycin and metronidazole. No correlation between the origin of the strain, toxigenicity and Sinemet 10 Mg susceptibility to teicoplanin, clindamycin, vancomycin and metronidazole was evident.

cleocin medication uses 2015-11-29

A total of 1987 staphylococci-infected clinical isolates were collected and analysed at the Microbiology Department of the Public Health Institute Viagra Dose of Osijek-Baranja County.

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Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; n=417) were isolated from bovine milk and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Nineteen different species were identified, and Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus sciuri were the most prevalent species. Resistance to oxacillin (47.0% of the isolates), fusidic acid (33.8%), tiamulin (31.9%), penicillin (23.3%), tetracycline (15.8%), streptomycin (9.6%), erythromycin (7.0%), sulfonamides (5%), trimethoprim (4.3%), clindamycin (3.4%), kanamycin (2.4%), and gentamicin (2.4%) was detected. Resistance to oxacillin was attributed to the mecA gene in 9.7% of the oxacillin-resistant isolates. The remaining oxacillin-resistant CNS did not contain the mecC gene or mecA1 promoter mutations. The mecA gene was detected in Staphylococcus fleurettii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staph. haemolyticus, and Staph. xylosus. Resistance to tetracycline was attributed to the presence of tet(K) and tet(L), penicillin resistance to blaZ, streptomycin resistance to str and ant(6)-Ia, and erythromycin resistance to erm(C), erm(B), and msr. Resistance to tiamulin and fusidic acid could not be attributed to an acquired resistance gene. In total, 15.1% of the CNS isolates were multidrug resistant (i.e., resistant to 2 or more antimicrobials). The remaining CNS isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials commonly used in mastitis treatment. Methicillin-resistant CNS isolates were diverse, as determined by mecA gene sequence analysis, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Arginine catabolic mobile element types 1 and 3 were detected in Nolvadex Pill Identification both methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staph. epidermidis and were associated with sequence types ST59 and ST111. Because this study revealed the presence of multidrug-resistant CNS in a heterogeneous CNS population, we recommend antibiogram analysis of CNS in persistent infections before treatment with antimicrobials.

cleocin dosing 2016-06-02

Peritonitis is one of the most frequent complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Necrosis and exfoliation of the mesothelial cell layer of the peritoneum develop during the acute phase of peritonitis. Agents that hamper regeneration of mesothelial cells will cause delayed recovery of the peritoneal surface, which results in continuous exposure of underlying stem cells to the stimulation of growth factors and possibly leads to peritoneal fibrosis syndrome. The aim of the present study is to determine the effects of several intraperitoneal antibiotics on human peritoneal mesothelial cell (HPMC) growth at their usual loading and maintenance doses. HPMCs were isolated from human omenta. Proliferation of HPMC was evaluated by modified methyltetrazolium assay and cell membrane integrity was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase method. The results showed that Viagra Or Generic most cephalosporins exert an inhibitory, even toxic, effect on HPMCs at their loading doses. Cephalothin, cephradine, cefamandole, cefoxitin, cefuroxime and cefoperazone inhibited HPMC proliferation at their maintenance doses. Vancomycin, clindamycin, aztreonam, piperacillin, imipenem, tobramycin and ceftriaxone have no effect in their usual intraperitoneal doses. From the viewpoint of peritoneal protection, not only drug sensitivity of the causative microorganisms but also effects of antibiotics on HPMC regeneration should be considered when selecting antibiotics for CAPD peritonitis.

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PVL-positive strains of CA-MRSA have been isolated in Slovenia only rarely. We will continue to monitor strains of MRSA in order to obtain the complete microbiological and epidemiological features.

cleocin brand name 2015-08-16

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among healthcare workers (HCWs) at Namazi Hospital, Shiraz, Iran.

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The six species of the Bacteroides fragilis group are potent pathogens and commonly have different susceptibility patterns. We determined the relative annual isolation rate of anaerobic bacteria and the susceptibility of B. fragilis group species isolated during 1987 at two community hospitals. The relative frequencies of isolation of 261 strains were as follows: B. fragilis, 61%; B. thetaiotaomicron, 17%; B. distasonis, 7%; B. vulgatus, 6%; B. ovatus, 5%; and B. uniformis, 4%. A total of 234 recent clinical isolates were tested against cefmetazole, cefotetan, cefoxitin, ceftizoxime, clindamycin, imipenem, and piperacillin by a brucella agar dilution method. Imipenem was the most active agent tested with all but three isolates (two B. vulgatus and one B. distasonis) susceptible to less than 2 micrograms/ml. Of the cephalosporins tested, cefoxitin, cefotetan, and cefmetazole were relatively equal against B. fragilis, with 93 to 98% of strains susceptible to 32 micrograms/ml. Ceftizoxime was less active, with an MIC for 90% of strains tested of 128 micrograms/ml and only 75% of isolates susceptible to 32 micrograms/ml. Against B. ovatus, B. vulgatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, and B. uniformis, cefoxitin showed a two- to threefold-superior activity compared with that of cefotetan and cefmetazole. In general, ceftizoxime was much less active, except against B. distasonis, for which 78% of isolates were susceptible to 32 micrograms/ml compared with 68% for cefoxitin, 19% for cefmetazole, and 16% for cefotetan. Clindamycin and piperacillin showed activity similar to that of cefoxitin, except piperacillin was less active versus B. vulgatus and B. distasonis. We therefore suggest that clinical laboratories determine the species of B. fragilis group isolates as well as perform susceptibility studies on the isolates. Clinicians should be aware that while B. fragilis is the most frequent isolate, 38% of isolates are from other, more resistant B. fragilis group species.

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Mean adherence rates for the correct application of both medications on a daily basis over 12 weeks was 33.9% for patients in the reminder group and 36.5% for patients in the control group (P = .75). Patients in both groups had similar clinical improvement of their acne.

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Data were extracted using standardised forms and analysed using Rev Man 4.2.7 software.

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Occult nasal infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus can be the source of an aggressive ascending facial and orbital cellulitis. The nasal source can be overlooked because of the distracting presentation of the orbital and systemic findings. With the increasing prevalence of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, a nasal examination and nasal culture can greatly assist in the diagnosis and management of patients presenting with orbital cellulitis without a clear source of infection.

cleocin capsules 2016-09-09

Streptococcus pneumoniae causes various human infections such as meningitis, septicemia, otitis media, sinusitis, and pneumonia. Antibiotic resistance has already been reported with increasing frequency worldwide and is spreading. The earliest studies on pneumococcal antibiotic resistance go back to the late 1980s in Turkey. The resistance patterns have elevated with stepwise increments since then. By the beginning of 2005, approximately 40% of pneumococci were resistant to penicillin and nearly one-fifth of resistant isolates present high-level penicillin resistance. This proves that penicillin is still a good alternative for nonmeningeal infections. In addition, no ceftriaxone resistance have been reported in local Turkish studies, but cefuroxime, a second-generation cephalosporin, was recorded to have (10.8-20%) resistance rates. The most frequently assessed antibiotics other than penicillin in Turkish studies include erythromycin (4-19.4%), chloramphenicol (2-10%), clindamycin (2.5-13%) and tetracycline (13-28.6%) and all have various resistance profiles. On the other hand, nearly all or almost all of the isolates evaluated in Turkish studies are susceptible to rifampicin, quinolones, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin and telithromycin. All these non-beta-lactam antibiotics except the tetracyclines are within acceptable limits of empirical approaches. Tetracycline must be used cautiously. In addition, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole cannot be prescribed in probable pneumococcal infections since more than half of the isolates are nonsusceptible.

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Metronidazole is a narrow spectrum antibiotic with undoubted efficacy against common anaerobic bacteria; resistance is unusual. Therapeutic concentrations of the drug are attained throughout most body compartments after either oral or intravenous administration. The limited side effects of metronidazole are generally tolerable, transient, or reversible. Clinically, metronidazole is as effective as clindamycin and probably chloramphenicol against anaerobes. It has a definite advantage over clindamycin in CNS infections since clindamycin does not penetrate the CSF well. Metronidazole has no irreversible hematologic toxicities, nor has pseudomembranous colitis been definitely attributed to intravenous use of the drug. Metronidazole may replace chloramphenicol for use in anaerobic infections since it lacks the predictable hematologic toxicity of the latter drug. It should also be useful in patients who fail to respond to clindamycin or who develop pseudomembranous colitis while receiving clindamycin. Problems with metronidazole include a complicated preparation procedure, and the high cost of the drug. The single major drawback to the use of metronidazole is uncertainty about its carcinogenic potential in humans. Metronidazole is carcinogenic in animals and mutagenic in vitro, but has not increased the incidence of cancer in humans followed for relatively short periods. Thus, the risk appears to be small. Still, the question will not be resolved for years because of the long latency periods involved in carcinogenesis. Until that time, metronidazole should be used conservatively.