Ceftin is used for treating bacterial infections (sinus, skin, lung, urinary tract, ear, and throat). It may also be used to treat Lyme disease and gonorrhea.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Cefuroxime.
Ceftin is a cephalosporin antibiotic. It works by interfering with the formation of the bacteria's cell wall so that the wall ruptures, resulting in the death of the bacteria.
Generic name of Ceftin is Cefuroxime.
Ceftin is also known as Cefuroxime axetil, Zinacef, Bacticef, Cefasun, Cefudura, Cefuhexal, Cefurax, Cefutil, Cetil, Froxime, Elobact, Oraxim, Zinnat.
Brand name of Ceftin is Ceftin.
Take Ceftin by mouth with or without food.
Swallow Ceftin whole. Do not break, crush, or chew before swallowing.
Ceftin works best if it is taken at the same time each day.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Ceftin suddenly. To clear up your infection completely, take Ceftin for the full course of treatment. Keep taking it even if you feel better in a few days.
If you overdose Ceftin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Keep container tightly closed. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.
The most common side effects associated with Ceftin are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Ceftin if you are allergic to Ceftin components.
Ceftin should not be used for colds, flu, other virus infections, sore throats or other minor infections, or to prevent infections.
Be careful if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding.
Be careful if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement.
Be careful if you are diabetes patient. Ceftin may cause the results of some tests for urine glucose to be wrong.
To prevent pregnancy, use an extra form of birth control because hormonal birth control pills may not work as well while you are using Ceftin.
It can be dangerous to stop Ceftin taking suddenly.
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For patients undergoing percutaneous PD catheter insertion, a 3-day regimen of oral cefuroxime axetil for preventing early peritonitis was safe, equally effective, and had lower cost comparing with single intravenous dose of the same agent.
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To review and summarize recent advances in the treatment and prevention of otitis media (OM).
Cefuroxime is well-absorbed and penetrates well into the middle ear after oral administration of cefuroxime axetil suspension.
Women with recurrent urinary tract infections treated with cefuroxime axetil (500 or 250 mg twice daily) for 7 days had a higher relapse rate when tested 6 weeks after the start of treatment than those given amoxycillin (250 mg three times daily). The poor performance of cefuroxime axetil is explained by variable bioavailability.
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To make legitimate and meaningful cost comparisons between similar types of patients receiving drugs via the same route of administration (i.e., orally), this outpatient economic study examined the resource utilization of the 211 patients enrolled as outpatients who received oral formulations as initial treatment (levofloxacin, 103 patients; cefuroxime axetil, 108 patients). Resource utilization data and clinical trial data were collected concurrently. To generate cost estimates, Medicare cost estimates for resources were multiplied by the resource units used by patients in each treatment arm.
Cefixime is an orally active third generation cephalosporin with in vitro antibacterial activity against most important lower respiratory pathogens. The drug is active against Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae but not Staphylococcus aureus. Cefixime has a long elimination half-life (3 hours compared with 0.5 hours for cefaclor and 1.5 hours for cefalexin), which allows once daily administration. Several trials have established the clinical efficacy of the drug in patients with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). In comparative studies cefixime had similar efficacy to amoxicillin +/- clavulanic acid, cefaclor, cefalexin, cefuroxime axetil and clarithromycin. Trials evaluating the efficacy of cefixime as the oral component of intravenous to oral switch therapy have produced promising preliminary results although further carefully designed trials are needed in this area. As with certain other drugs of its class, gastrointestinal disturbances are the most frequently reported adverse events in patients taking cefixime and cases of pseudomembranous colitis have been reported. Thus, cefixime is an effective treatment for mild to moderate LRTI and may have a role as the oral component of intravenous to oral switch therapy although further well designed studies are needed to confirm initial favourable results in this important emerging area of antibacterial therapy.
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During a multicenter survey of Enterobacteriaceae causing UTIs in outpatients during 2005-2007, Cefditoren MICs were determined by agar dilution method in a randomly selected sample of uropathogens. Susceptibility against 18 other oral/parenteral antimicrobials was determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology.
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Telithromycin, the first approved ketolide antibiotic, was developed to treat community-acquired respiratory tract infections, including acute bacterial maxillary sinusitis (ABMS). A previously published study showed that a 5-day course of 800 mg telithromycin once daily is as effective as a 10-day course in the treatment of ABMS.
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In most reported cases of drug-induced LABD, skin lesions occur within the time of drug administration. However, the onset of disease may be even after discontinuation of treatment. It seems that in such cases, other clinical conditions (like infection) act, as cofactors of immunologic response.
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The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibiotic resistance in noninvasive clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae collected in Belgium during winter 2008-2007.
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A MEDLINE search (1996-March 2000) was performed to identify relevant primary and review articles. References from these articles were also reviewed if deemed important.
The solubility of five poorly soluble drugs was enhanced by using an effervescence assisted solid dispersion (EASD) technique. EASDs were prepared by using modified fusion method. Drug and hydrophilic carrier were melted, and in this molten mixture, effervescence was generated by adding effervescence couple comprising organic acid (citric acid) and carbonic base (sodium bicarbonate). Solubility of drug powders, solid dispersions, and EASDs was determined at 25°C using shake flask method. Atorvastatin calcium, cefuroxime axetil, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, and metronidazole benzoate were estimated using a spectrophotometer at 246, 280, 260, 230, and 232 nm (λ max), respectively. Solubility of atorvastatin calcium (from 100 to 345 μg/ml), cefuroxime axetil (from 441 to 1948 μg/ml), clotrimazole (from 63 to 677 μg/ml), ketoconazole (from 16 to 500 μg/ml), and metronidazole benzoate (from 112 to 208 μg/ml) in EASDs was enhanced by 3.45-, 4.4-, 10.7-, 31.2-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. Scanning electron micrographs of drug powder, solid dispersion, and EASDs were compared. Scanning electron micrographs of EASDs showed a uniform distribution of drug particles in the carrier matrix. Morphology (size and shape) of cefuroxime axetil particles was altered in solid dispersion as well as in EASD. EASDs showed better solubility enhancement than conventional solid dispersions. The present technique is better suitable for drugs having a low melting point or melt without charring. Effervescence assisted fusion technique of preparing solid dispersions can be employed for enhancing solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.
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Organisms were isolated from the pretreatment middle ear fluid specimens of 177 of 244 (73%) patients undergoing tympanocentesis, with the primary pathogens being Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (37, 35 and 12% of isolates, respectively). Pathogens were eradicated or presumed to be eradicated in 92% (24 of 26), 84% (32 of 38) and 95% (36 of 38) of bacteriologically evaluable patients treated with CAE for 5 or 10 days or with AMX/CL, respectively. A satisfactory clinical outcome (cure or improvement) occurred in 69% (101 of 147), 70% (121 of 173) and 74% (131 of 177) of clinically evaluable patients treated with CAE (5 days), CAE (10 days) or AMX/CL, respectively. Treatment with AMX/CL was associated with a significantly higher incidence of drug-related adverse events than was treatment with CAE for either 5 or 10 days (P < 0.001), primarily reflecting a higher incidence of drug-related gastrointestinal adverse events (34% vs. 17 and 12%, respectively; P < 0.001), particularly diarrhea.
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This investigation describes the development of an intragastric drug-delivery system for cefuroxime axetil. The 3(2) full factorial design was employed to evaluate contribution of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M/HPMC K100 LV ratio (polymer blend) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on drug release from HPMC matrices. Tablets were prepared using direct compression technique. Formulations were evaluated for in vitro buoyancy and drug release study using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 24 paddle-type dissolution apparatus using 0.1N HCl as a dissolution medium. Multiple regression analysis was performed for factorial design batches to evaluate the response. All formulations had floating lag times below 2 minutes and constantly floated on dissolution medium for more than 8 hours. It was found that polymer blend and SLS significantly affect the time required for 50% of drug release, percentage drug release at 12 hours, release rate constant, and diffusion exponent (P < .05). Also linear relationships were obtained between the amount of HPMC K100 LV and diffusion exponent as well as release rate constant. Kinetic treatment to dissolution profiles revealed drug release ranges from anomalous transport to case 1 transport, which was mainly dependent on both the independent variables.
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A total of 142 patients, 71 (mean age: 83.3 (+/-6 SD), M/F ratio: 1.1) in the IV group, and 71 (mean age: 81.5 (+/-7 SD), M/F ratio: 1.5) in the sequence group, were included in the study. Eighty-three (58.4%) presented with radiologically confirmed pneumonia (CAP) and 59 (41.6%) with non-pneumonic LRTI (NPLRTI) (p=ns between study groups). Treatment was considered effective in 84.5% (60/71) of patients in the IV group and 80.3% (57/71) in the sequence group (p=ns). Therapy failed in 15% (21/142) of the study population (p=ns between study groups) and, after day 3 of therapy, 8.45% (6/71) failed in both study groups. By the end of treatment, two patients had died in each study group, and total in-hospital mortality was 8.5% (12/142, p=ns between study groups). The length of hospital stay (LOS) did not differ between the two study groups.
--Middle-ear aspirates for cultures were obtained by myringotomy from adults meeting entry criteria.
The most common oral antibiotics used in the treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI) are sulphonamides and cephalosporins, but emerging resistance is not unusual.
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Adult patients hospitalized for CAP who are not severely ill can be successfully treated with an abbreviated (2-day) course of i.v. antibiotics and then switched to oral therapy. A longer course of i.v. therapy prolongs hospital stay and cost, without improving the therapeutic cure rate.
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This study compared the use and efficacy of ciprofloxacin to cefuroxime axetil for adult patients with acute bacterial sinusitis.
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Cefuroxime axetil and phenoxymethyl penicillin are equally effective in the treatment of children with solitary erythema migrans; however drug-related adverse effects were more frequently observed with cefuroxime axetil.
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Levofloxacin is the L-form of the fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent, ofloxacin. In in vitro studies, levofloxacin demonstrated a broad range of activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms and anaerobes. The drug is more active against Gram-positive organisms than ciprofloxacin, but less active than newer fluoroquinolones such as gatifloxacin. Its activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae is unaffected by the presence of penicillin resistance. In several randomised controlled trails, 5 to 14 days' treatment with intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin proved an effective therapy for upper and lower respiratory tract infections. In patients with mild to severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), intravenous and/or oral levofloxacin 500mg once or twice daily was as effective as intravenous and/or oral gatifloxacin, clarithromycin, azithromycin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Overall, clinical response rates with levofloxacin ranged from 86 to 95% versus 88 to 96% with comparator agents; bacteriological response rates were 88 to 95% and 86 to 98%, respectively. Sequential (intravenous +/- oral switch) therapy with levofloxacin 750mg once daily was as effective as intravenous imipenem/cilastatin (+/- oral switch to ciprofloxacin) in patients with severe nosocomial pneumonia. Generally, oral levofloxacin 250 or 500mg once daily was at least as effective as oral cefaclor, cefuroxime axetil, clarithromycin or moxifloxacin in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis as assessed by either clinical or bacteriological response rates. This approach also provided similar efficacy to amoxicillin/ clavulanic acid or clarithromycin in patients with acute sinusitis. Sequential therapy with levofloxacin 500mg twice daily for 7 to 14 days' was as effective as intravenous imipenem/cilastatin in patients with suspected bacteraemia. Oral levofloxacin 500mg once daily for 7 to 10 days was also an effective treatment in patients with uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections, and in those with complicated urinary tract infections. A higher dosage of sequential levofloxacin 750mg once daily proved as effective as intravenous ticarcillin/clavulanic acid (+/- oral switch to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid) in the treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections. Pharmacoeconomic studies suggest that levofloxacin may be cost-saving in comparison to conventional therapies.
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A total of 426 cultures for nonspecific organisms, made at the Bacteriological Laboratory of the Antituberculosis Dispensary, were analyzed. Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus were most common among the isolated pathogens. Evaluation of antibiotic sensitivity by using the disks showed augmentin, cefuroxime axetil, and ciprofloxacin to be most effective. Streptomycin and rifampicin resistance of pathogens was highest. In patients with tuberculosis, the non-tuberculosis flora showed resistance to the drugs widely used in general practice (ampicillin, carbenicillin, oxacillin, lincomycin, erythromycin). Among macrolides, rovamycin was more effective than erythromycin. It is concluded that when wide-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed, new and potent drugs should be used in a tuberculosis hospital.
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Out of the 29436 emergencies studied on 30 days, 821 were diagnosed with acute otitis media. Fifteen point seven percent of the cases were already receiving antibiotics (22% amoxicillin clavulanate, 20% amoxicillin and 11% cefuroxime axetil). For the treatment, at discharge, of the 93% an antibiotic was prescribed (amoxicillin clavulanate in 41%, amoxicillin in 15%, cefuroxime axetil in 11%, cefaclor 6% and azithromycin 5%). Two point eight percent of the children were admitted. According to the guidelines of the panel of experts consulted, appropriateness was 61% for antibiotics of first choice, 12% for drugs of alternate use and 25% for inadequate treatment. The different hospitals presented significant variability in the type of antibiotic used and the appropriateness of such.
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These findings establish the efficacy of levofloxcin for the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia, a major treatment challenge in community-acquired pneumonia. This compound has its place in the context of good use of antibiotics. Levofloxacin should be used in priority for patients with risk factors for complications with rapidly unfavorable course or as second intention treatment when re-evaluating insufficient therapeutic response.
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Development of resistance to antibiotics is a major problem worldwide. The normal oropharyngeal flora, the intestinal flora and the skin flora play important roles in this development. Within a few days after the onset of antibiotic therapy, resistant Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae and Staphylococcus epidermidis can be detected in the normal flora of volunteers or patients. Horizontal spread of the resistance genes to other species, e.g. SALMONELLA: spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae, occurs by conjugation or transformation. An ecologically sound antibiotic policy favours the use of antibiotics with little or no impact on the normal flora. Prodrug antibiotics which are not active against the bacteria in the mouth and the intestine (before absorption) and which are not excreted to a significant degree via the intestine, saliva or skin are therefore preferred. Prodrugs such as pivampicillin, bacampicillin, pivmecillinam and cefuroxime axetil are favourable from an ecological point of view. Experience from Scandinavia supports this, since resistance to mecillinam after 20 years of use is low (about 5%) and stable.
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A study of the efficacy of cefuroxime axetil was conducted for the treatment of acute sinusitis in childhood. Thirty-nine patients aged 5-14 years were given cefuroxime axetil 20 mg/kg/day divided into two doses for seven days. The diagnosis of acute sinusitis was based on history, physical examination, and radiological findings. The results of throat cultures before treatment were 17 patients with group A beta-haemolytic streptococci, seven patients with pneumococci, and two patients with Staphylococcus aureus; in the remainder of the patients only normal throat flora were isolated. In 36 patients (92%) a satisfactory improvement was reported at the end of the treatment. It was found that cefuroxime axetil was efficaceous for the treatment of sinusitis in childhood.
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The study pertained to adults treated in a primary-care setting in the Canadian province of Québec.
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