Benicar is used for treating high blood pressure, alone or with other medicines. It may also be used for other conditions.
Other names for this medication:
Also known as: Olmesartan.
Benicar is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. It works by inhibiting the action of a chemical transmitter (angiotensin II) and allowing the blood vessels to dilate (widen) and the kidneys to eliminate extra sodium and fluids. These actions combine to help lower blood pressure.
Generic name of Benicar is Olmesartan.
Benicar is also known as Olmesartan, Olmetec, Olmezest, Olmecip.
Brand name of Benicar is Benicar.
Take Benicar orally with or without food.
If you want to achieve most effective results do not stop taking Benicar suddenly.
If you overdose Benicar and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.
Store your medicine at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children and in a container that small children cannot open.
The most common side effects associated with Benicar are:
Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.
Do not take Benicar if you are allergic to Benicar components.
Do not take Benicar if you're pregnant or you plan to have a baby, or you are a nursing mother.
Avoid machine driving.
Patients who take medicine for high blood pressure often feel tired or run down for a few weeks after starting treatment.
Be careful if you use salt substitute or a product that has potassium in it.
Do not stop taking Benicar suddenly.
Insulin resistance is a major pathological condition associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and the renin-angiotensin system are intimately linked. We evaluated the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance-associated, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by using the angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan medoxomil in a diabetic rat model. The effects of olmesartan on methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced steatohepatitis were investigated in obese, diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats and control Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats. Components of the renin-angiotensin system were up-regulated in the livers of OLETF rats, compared with LETO rats. In OLETF, but not LETO, rats, oral administration of olmesartan for 8 weeks ameliorated insulin resistance. Moreover, olmesartan suppressed MCD diet-induced hepatic steatosis and the hepatic expression of lipogenic genes (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase) in OLETF, but not LETO, rats. In both OLETF and LETO rats, olmesartan inhibited hepatic oxidative stress (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified protein) and expression of NADPH oxidase. Olmesartan also inhibited hepatic fibrosis, stellate cell activation, and expression of fibrogenic genes (transforming growth factor-beta, alpha 1 [I] procollagen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) in both OLETF and LETO rats. In conclusion, pharmacological blockade of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor slows the development of steatohepatitis in the OLETF rat model. This angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker may exert insulin resistance-associated effects against hepatic steatosis and inflammation as well as direct effects against the generation of reactive oxygen species and fibrogenesis.
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These data added to our previous results further provide a mechanistic rationale for olmesartan's antioxidant/anti-inflammatory potential translation, in the long term, toward anti-atherosclerotic/anti-remodeling effects reported by clinical trials.
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The 12-week TRINITY study randomized participants to either one of the three component dual-combination treatments (OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, or AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg) or the triple-combination treatment. The primary outcome of this analysis was the categorical distribution of SeSBP reductions at week 12 from baseline with OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg versus the dual-combination treatments.
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Following a 2- to 3-week placebo run-in phase, patients received OM 20 mg, uptitrated to OM 40 mg, followed by addition of HCTZ 12.5-25 mg step-wise at 3-week intervals if seated cuff BP (SeBP) was ≥120/70 mmHg. Patients below this target SeBP were maintained at their current dose but uptitrated to the next consecutive dose if mean seated cuff systolic BP (SBP) was ≥140 mmHg and/or mean seated cuff diastolic BP was ≥90 mmHg at follow-up visits. Efficacy was assessed by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) and SeBP measurements. The primary efficacy variable was the change from baseline in mean 24-hour ambulatory SBP after 12 weeks. Secondary efficacy endpoints included the change from baseline in mean 24-hour ambulatory SBP; change from baseline in ambulatory BP during the daytime (8:00 am-4:00 pm), nighttime (10:00 pm-6:00 am) and the last 6, 4 and 2 hours of the dosing interval; change from baseline in SeBP at each titration step and at study end; and the proportion of patients achieving mean 24-hour ambulatory BP targets and SeBP goals at week 12. The frequency and severity of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were also documented.
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Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effective control of elevated blood pressure (BP) has been shown to reduce this risk. Early studies of risk reduction assumed that the mechanism by which BP was lowered had little impact on the benefit obtained. Recent evidence, however, suggests that agents that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system may be particularly beneficial. The results of the recent Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation (HOPE) trial suggest that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have a greater impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than would be anticipated from their antihypertensive effects alone. Angiotensin receptor blockers, the other major class of antihypertensive drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin system, have not been widely tested in outcomes trials, but early results suggest that they are beneficial for controlling target organ damage that is related to hypertension. Furthermore, unlike ACE inhibitors, these agents have a side-effect profile that is similar to that of placebo. Based on their efficacy in controlling hypertension and their wider health benefits, together with minimal side effects, angiotensin II (A II) receptor blockers should be considered as first-line agents for the treatment of hypertension, particularly in patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. Preliminary evidence suggests that olmesartan, an A II receptor blocker currently being evaluated for approval for clinical use, may provide antihypertensive efficacy that is superior to other members of the class.
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Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00649389.
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We have evaluated the effects of different doses of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril (ENA) and of an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker olmesartan (OLM), on extracellular matrix of the heart, kidney, aorta and mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Forty SHR and eight Wistar-Kyoto controls (WKY) were included in the study. Eight SHR were treated with high-dose OLM 15 mg/kg per day, eight with high-dose ENA 25 mg/kg per day, eight with low-dose OLM 1 mg/kg per day and eight with low-dose ENA (2 mg/kg per day). Eight SHR and eight WKY were kept untreated as controls. Treatment was from age 4 to 12 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured non-invasively every week. The left ventricular weight to body weight (RLVM) was measured, and the cardiac, aortic and glomerular interstitial collagen content was evaluated using Sirius red staining and image analysis. Mesenteric small arteries were dissected and mounted on a micromyograph, and the media:lumen ratio (M/L) was calculated. Collagen subtypes were evaluated by polarized light microscopy. The SHR treated with high-dose OLM or ENA showed a normalization of SBP. The RLVM was significantly increased in untreated SHR compared with untreated WKY, whereas significantly lower values were observed in the groups of SHR treated with high-dose OLM or ENA. A significant increase in cardiac and glomerular collagen content was observed in untreated SHR. Both high- or low-dose OLM and ENA normalized collagen content in the heart and the kidney. Both high-dose OLM and high-dose ENA normalized M/L ratio; however, OLM proved to be more effective than ENA in normalizing collagen pattern. In fact, aortic collagen content was normalized by both high-dose and low-dose OLM, but only by high-dose ENA. In conclusion, both OLM and ENA were significantly and equally effective in the prevention of cardiac and renal damage in SHR, whereas OLM was more effective than ENA in terms of effects on vascular extracellular matrix.
Hypertension is often inadequately controlled in older people.
A randomized, double-blind, double-mimic controlled trial was performed.Forty-eight patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were randomly into treatment group (olmesartan) and control group (Olmetec) for eight weeks. The ABPM was taken before and at the end of the trial.
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This study showed that OLM/AML/HCTZ reduced blood pressure and significantly increased blood pressure control whilst improving patients' HRQoL. Achieving blood pressure control, amount of concomitant medication and dosage strength of antihypertensive impacted on patients' HRQoL.
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Overall, the combination of olmesartan and HCTZ is as effective as olmesartan and CCB in lowering 24-h, daytime, and night-time ambulatory BP. However, greater lowering is noted with the olmesartan and CCB combination for clinic BP. Thus, out-of-office BP monitoring is necessary to provide better assessment of overall BP and response to treatment. Women and diabetic individuals may have slightly better 24-h ambulatory BP response with the olmesartan and CCB combination therapy.
Participants were randomized to OM 40/AML 10 mg, OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg, or OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg during the double-blind phase. During the open-label extension, all participants received OM 40/AML 5/HCTZ 12.5 mg; participants not reaching BP goal within 2 weeks were randomly titrated to OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 12.5 mg or OM 40/AML 5/HCTZ 25 mg, then to OM 40/AML 10/ HCTZ 25 mg after another 2 weeks.
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Examination of the study hypothesis in a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind group comparison in patients with documented paroxysmal AF (total of 422 patients) stratified by beta-adrenoceptor antagonist use. The primary endpoint of the study is the percentage of days with documented episodes of paroxysmal AF identified on daily transtelephonic tele-ECG recordings. Patients will record and transmit at least one 1-minute ECG per day independent of symptoms. Furthermore, tele-ECG recordings will be transmitted in any case of symptomatic AF. The present paper summarises the rationale and design of the ANTIPAF trial.
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We previously reported that α- and β-blockers protected against emotional stress-induced cardiac dysfunction, but the protective effects of other antihypertensive drugs is unknown. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of a calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, to prevent temporal left ventricular hypokinesia after emotional stress compared with an angiotensin II receptor blocker, olmesartan medoxomil.
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BACKGROUNDS AND METHODS: A higher degree of clinical efficacy with olmesartan compared with other angiotensin receptor blockers, has been reported by several sources. In this study of 31 examples of cases of essential hypertension, Holter electrocardiogram, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and pulse wave velocity (PWV) measurements were performed before and after substituting olmesartan 20 mg for candesartan 8 mg antihypertensive drug therapy.
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The aim of this analysis was to assess the efficacy and safety of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]) olmesartan medoxomil in elderly patients with either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension.
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This is a prespecified subgroup analysis in Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients of a study that evaluated blood pressure (BP) control with fixed-dose amlodipine/olmesartan medoxomil (AML/OM)-based therapy in patients whose condition was uncontrolled on prior monotherapy.
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†Adapted and reproduced from the original article published in Drugs 2010; 70 (18): 2439-47.
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mRen2.Lewis congenic hypertensive rats were administered either a vehicle (n = 14) or olmesartan (0.5 mg/kg/day; n = 14) by osmotic minipumps. Two weeks later, rats from both groups were further randomized to receive either the mas receptor antagonist A-779 (0.5 mg/kg/day; n = 7 per group) or its vehicle (n = 7 per group) for the next 4 weeks. Blood pressure was monitored by telemetry, and circulating and tissue components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) were measured at the completion of the experiments.
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The BENIFORCE study was a multicenter (29 sites) study conducted between January and October 2007 in the US.
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Switching to a fixed-dose combination of AML/OM ± hydrochlorothiazide provided significant BP lowering and effectively controlled BP in a large proportion of Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with hypertension uncontrolled on previous monotherapy.
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We used powerful DNA microarray technology to study the effects of the ARB, CS-886 (olmesartan), on genes modulated in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes using mechanical stimuli. Mechanical deformation was applied to a thin and transparent membrane on which neonatal rat cardiac myocytes were cultured in the presence or absence of RNH-6270, an active metabolite of CS-886. Expression profiles of 8000 rat genes using the Affymetrix GeneChip (Rat Genome U34A) were investigated with mRNA obtained from the samples above.
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Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) present a high prevalence of insulin resistance (IR). Some studies suggest that angiotensin II may influence some cellular pathways that contribute to the pathogenesis of IR and stimulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Fifty-two patients who had stages 3 and 4 CKD and no diabetes were administered an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan (40 mg), for 16 wk. Before and after ARB treatment, metabolic and inflammatory parameters and adipokines were measured. IR was calculated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index. Baseline data were compared with data that were obtained from 25 healthy control individuals of similar age and normal renal function. Compared with control subjects, patients with CKD presented significantly higher BP and waist circumference, higher triglycerides and lower HDL levels, higher insulin levels, and higher mean HOMA index (6.0 +/- 2.7 versus 2.9 +/- 2.2 muU/ml x mmol/L; P < 0.001). In addition, patients with CKD had increased levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, TNF-alpha, and IL-6. In patients with CKD, leptin was positively correlated to abdominal obesity, insulin levels, and IL-6, and adiponectin was inversely correlated to abdominal obesity and insulin levels. Olmesartan treatment resulted in a significant decrease of BP, urinary protein excretion, plasma glucose (99 +/- 16 versus 92 +/- 14 mg/dl; P < 0.05), insulin (23.1 +/- 8.8 versus 19.9 +/- 9; P < 0.05), HOMA index (6.0 +/- 2.7 versus 4.7 +/- 2.8; P < 0.05), and glycated hemoglobin (5.33 +/- 0.58 versus 4.85 +/- 0.81%; P < 0.01). At the same time, there was a significant reduction of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, from 4.45 mg/L (2.45 to 9.00) to 3.55 mg/L (1.80 to 5.40; P < 0.05) and fibrinogen (412 +/- 100 versus 370 +/- 105 mg/dl; P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in adipokine levels after olmesartan treatment. These data demonstrate that patients with CKD have a high prevalence of IR, metabolic syndrome, and chronic inflammation and that the administration of the ARB olmesartan improves IR and inflammation markers in these patients. Plasma adipokine levels that are related to several metabolic risk factors in patients with CKD were not modified by ARB therapy.
To assess the antihypertensive efficacy of olmesartan medoxomil and ramipril on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in elderly hypertensive patients by pooled data analysis of two studies with identical designs (one Italian, one European).
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FFR had lower M value, higher blood pressure, larger adipocyte size, higher ratio of epididymal fat pads over body weight (%fat pads), and higher intramuscular triglyceride than did the control rats. Both temocapril and olmesartan significantly improved the M value and decreased blood pressure and adipocyte size without change in %fat pads in FFR. Adipocyte size was negatively correlated with the M value. Treatment for 2 weeks decreased, but not significantly, intramuscular triglyceride.
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