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A multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli clonal group (designated CgA) has been isolated from women with cystitis and pyelonephritis in several communities. This study was designed to determine if CgA can cause community-acquired bloodstream infections.
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Nocardiosis can become a severe infection and mainly affects profoundly immunocompromised patients. Differential diagnosis often delays the time to diagnosis, which worsens the outcome. New diagnostic tools, such as the polymerase chain reaction, could provide more rapid and reliable results. TMT/SMX was the most commonly prescribed treatment, but needed to be changed for another treatment because of side effects or lack of efficacy in a considerable proportion of patients. Imipenem should be used as an alternative treatment for severely ill patients, and the sulfa combination for less severe infections.
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A 4-month-old infant with congenital heart disease and sepsis and arthritis, and subsequently meningitis, caused by an antibiotic-resistant strain of Haemophilus influenzae type b, failed to respond to sequential therapy with ampicillin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Following treatment with ceftizoxime, the infant was well for 42 days, until he returned to the hospital and died. A total of 10 Haemophilus influenzae type b isolates, all outer membrane protein subtype 51, was isolated from the pretreatment blood and synovium, cerebrospinal fluid and subdural fluids, and the petrous pyramids at autopsy. Pretreatment isolates had no detectable plasmid DNA, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase or beta-lactamase; the minimal inhibitory concentration for ampicillin (AM) and chloramphenicol (CM) was 0.2 and 0.8 microgram/ml, respectively. However, all cerebrospinal fluid isolates had a 42-44 mD plasmid and produced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-lactamase; the minimal inhibitory concentration of these isolates to AM and CM were 12.5 and 25 micrograms/ml, respectively, and were also resistant to tetracycline and sulfonamide. Resistance to AM and CM was cotransferred by filter-mating conjugation at a frequency of one to two transconjugants per 10(5) to an Rd haemophilus recipient. Posttreatment isolates from the petrous pyramids also were resistant to AM and CM and produced chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-lactamase activity, but had no plasmid DNA. These findings and data from genetic studies suggested that plasmid-bearing antibiotic-resistant Haemophilus influenzae type b was selected from a heterogenous population, and that the AM/CM resistance transposons were incorporated into the bacterial chromosome.
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We analysed isolates of S Kentucky collected by the French national surveillance system for salmonellosis in France from Jan 1, 2000, to Dec 31, 2011, and at two sites in Casablanca, Morocco, between Jan 1, 2003, and Dec 31, 2011. We analysed patterns of travel of patients infected with a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain of S Kentucky. We identified isolates showing resistance to ESCs or decreased susceptibility to carbapenems, characterised isolates by XbaI-pulsed field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, and assessed mechanisms of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs.
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A hydrogen-sulfide producing, citrate-positive strain of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection was found to be resistant to chloramphenicol (Cm), tetracycline (Tc), streptomycin (Sm), trimethoprim (Tmp), sulfamethoxazole (Smx), and cotrimoxazole (Tmp/Smx). The strain contained 7 plasmids of molecular sizes 120, 35, 5.0, 3.2, 3.0, 2.6, and 2.4 megadaltons (Md), as detected by agarose gel electrophoresis of plasmid DNA. Thermosensitive transfer of Cm, Tc, and citrate utilization occurred conjugally to E. coli K-12 recipient strains at a frequency of approximately 10(-6) per donor cell after an 18 hour incubation. The transconjugants were also resistant to Sm and Smx and produced hydrogen-sulfide. Two plasmids of about 120 Md, pNH222, and 35 Md, pNH223, were detected in these transconjugants. Transformation or 1-hour conjugal transfer experiments at 26 degrees C with selection for Cm or Tc yielded only the 120 Md species. Plasmid pNH222 showed one way incompatibility with F plasmids, a characteristic shown previously to be typical of Inc HI1 plasmids. Transformation experiments with selection for Sm yielded transformants with one plasmid species, (pNH223), 35 Md in size, which carried the gene(s) for H2S production but not for raffinose fermentation. The fact that characteristics such as citrate utilization and hydrogen sulfide production, used in the identification of enteric bacteria, can be transmitted to E. coli by plasmids is of important taxonomic significance.
A patient with a large paracoccidioidal granuloma in the right fronto-parietal region was treated with sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim alone, without the use of amphotericin B or any surgical measures. The authors stress the excellent therapeutic results through a twenty-six month follow-up, documented by repeated CT scans.
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elt ⁺isolates and ETEC strains harbouring genes encoding CFA/IV and CS/14 were the most common ETEC found in Brazilian Northeast.
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Chancroid, the third most prevalent venereal disease in Thailand, was treated with a single 2-gm dose of spectinomycin, or two tablets of co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) twice daily for seven days. The differences in cure rates between the two groups were statistically significant. The chancroidal ulcers were cured in 93.7% of 175 patients treated with spectinomycin, and in 48.2% of 168 co-trimoxazole-treated patients (P less than 0.01). The in vitro susceptibility of Haemophilus ducreyi to spectinomycin was 4 to 16 micrograms/ml and to co-trimoxazole 32 micrograms/ml or higher. Thus we found that a single-dose regimen of spectinomycin was significantly more effective than the standard seven-day regimen of co-trimoxazole for the treatment of chancroid.
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The limited available data suggest that ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime or ceftriaxone, and ticarcillin/clavulanate, alone or in combination with other antibiotics, may be considered as alternative options beyond co-trimoxazole.
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This study aimed at investigating the in vitro activities of amoxicillin-clavulanate, doxycycline, ceftazidime, imipenem, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against Burkholderia pseudomallei in planktonic and biofilm forms, through broth microdilution and resazurin-based viability staining, respectively. In planktonic growth, the strains were susceptible to the drugs, while in biofilm growth, significantly higher antimicrobial concentrations were required, especially for ceftazidime and imipenem, surpassing the resistance breakpoints. These results highlight the importance of the routine evaluation of biofilm antimicrobial susceptibility.
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We report a death case of a man in his sixties with pneumocystis pneumonia during chemotherapy for gastric cancer. He was diagnosed with cStage IIIB (T4a, N2, H0, P0, M0). Because of bulky N2, systemic chemotherapy of S-1 and CDDP was performed from April 2009. But no reductions were noted after 2 courses. We next treated this patient with S-1 and CPT-11. He had also received corticosteroid treatment for nausea. Because of high fever and choke, he came to our hospital at day 12 in 3 courses, and a severe respiratory failure occurred. CT of the chest showed diffuse ground-glass bilateral opacities, and we immediately started a treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethozazole and corticosteroid for the possibility of pneumocystis pneumonia. We finally deduced pneumocystis pneumonia from markedly elevated serum beta-D-glucan and PCR positive after hospitalization. In spite of early treatments, he died of bacterial pneumonia and gastric cancer. We should be careful of pneumocystis pneumonia during chemotherapy and corticosteroid treatment.
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The rate of hydrolysis of three cysteine-type proteinase substrates, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Arg-Arg-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide (AMC) (cathepsin B), Arg-AMC (cathepsin H), and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-AMC (cathepsin L), were determined in rat lung throughout the time course of the induction of Pneumocystis carinii infection by immunosuppression. Cathepsin B-like and cathepsin L-like activities fell below control values initially, but from week 8 of the immunosuppressive treatment significant increases above the control were noted. Cathepsin H-like activity was greater than control levels from week 3, and by week 12 it was 7,600% of the mean control value. When compared with the relative degree of infection, as assessed from the number of cysts present in lung impression smears, cathepsin B-like and cathepsin L-like activities were significantly increased only at heavy parasite burdens while cathepsin H-like activity displayed a close correlation with parasite number (r = 0.884; P less than 0.001). Activity was detected in lysates of purified P. carinii with all three substrates. Treatment of heavily infected animals with co-trimoxazole cleared the lungs of P. carinii, and this was accompanied by a marked reduction in proteinase activity, in particular, cathepsin H-like activity, which fell from 108- to 3-fold the mean control value following drug treatment. Analysis of cathepsin H isozyme patterns by fluorography following isoelectric focusing revealed differences between treated and control lung samples. In the immunosuppressed group, there was a time-dependent increase in the intensity of some of the bands observed in the controls and an appearance of several novel bands which corresponded to bands observed in lysates of P. carinii. It is likely, therefore, that the increased proteinase activity observed in the treated group is due, at least in part, to isozymes from P. carinii; consequently, cathepsin H-like activity might be of use diagnostically in the identification of P. carinii infection and in the estimation of parasite burden.
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In South Viet-nam, typhoid fever remains a considerable intestinal infection. Between 1990 and 1993, among 15 districts in the South of the country, a total per year of 3,853 to 9,179 cases was registered: from 8 to 31 led to death. Recently a large epidemic of typhoid fever broke out in the An Minh district (territory of KiênGiang, South Viet-nam), affecting 3,049 people and bringing on two cases of death. Among the 574 blood samples, 266 strains of S. Typhi, 22 S. Paratyphi A and 2 S. Choleraesuis have been isolated. Our investigations on the spot led to some epidemiologic and clinical reflexions and enabled us to estimate the effectiveness of quinolones (?) in the treatment for typhoid fever. The epidemic may be ascribed to different causes: lack of pure water supply in rural area; fecal pollution caused by inhabitants of this endemic area defecating directly in the waterways; ingestion of contaminated food, especially vegetables sprayed with polluted water; quite low level of public sanitation and individual hygiene. Clinically, the disease consists in prolonged fever, with digestive disorders (anorexia, diarrhoeae, diffuse abdominal aches). Splenomegalia and hepatomegalia are inconstant. The dissociation of the pulse from the temperature is not frequent and the rosy spots are rare. The antibiogramm applied on the isolated strains of S. Typhi revealed their resistance (R) to usual antibiotics (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, Bactrim), but S. Typhi is very sensitive to quinolones (ofloxacin, fléroxacin, R = 0).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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A total of 598 isolates of Shigella species (24 S. dysenteriae, 254 S. flexneri, 30 S. boydii, 290 S. sonnei) submitted to the Ontario Public Health Laboratories in 1990 were tested for their susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents by the agar dilution method. Overall 79.6% of isolates were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agents and 52.0% were resistant to four or more. Trimethoprim resistance ranged from 26.7% among isolates of S. boydii to 39.4% among S. flexneri strains. The majority of the 224 TMP resistant isolates (88.8%) demonstrated high level resistance (MIC > 1000 mg/l) to trimethoprim. Resistance to cotrimoxazole increased from 3% in 1978 to between 26.7 and 37.6% in 1990. MICs for 90% of isolates (MIC90s) for ampicillin, ticarcillin and piperacillin were 128 to > 256 mg/l, > 256 for tetracycline and chloramphenicol, and > 2.0/38.0 for cotrimoxazole. These results from the Canadian Province of Ontario emphasize the need for prudent use of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of shigellosis.
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A 16-week-old female Boxer that had been treated for 5 weeks with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol because of aspiration pneumonia was evaluated for bilaterally symmetric masses in the subcutaneous tissues of the ventral neck, in the region of the larynx.
The presence of E. coli on culture in patients with a UTI changes based on medical complications, not age. Being medically complex did not result in reduced sensitivity of E. coli to SMX/TMP but was associated with increased rates of the presence of other pathogens. In our setting, treatment employed with SMX/TMP and without the use of culture and sensitivity may be effective for appropriately selected older women. Prospective studies are needed to determine the optimal approach to management.
These cases point to the possible existence of a shared initial environmental factor (infectious or not) that favours reactivation of herpes viruses and induces DRESS in patients on medication. Before and after this "DRESS epidemic", about one patient each quarter was admitted to hospital for DRESS.
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Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole) is one of the antimicrobials of choice for the treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infections. The analysis of mutants either lacking or overexpressing the efflux pump SmeDEF shows that this efflux pump contributes to intrinsic and acquired co-trimoxazole resistance in S. maltophilia. Since SmeDEF can extrude a variety of antibiotics, selection with such antimicrobials, including quinolones, might also select for S. maltophilia co-trimoxazole resistance.
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Children enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database who had SM (weight-for-height or body mass index-for-age Z score less than -3) at ART initiation were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate poor weight recovery (weight-for-age Z score less than -3) and poor CD4% recovery (CD4% <25), and competing risk regression was used to analyze mortality and toxicity-associated treatment modification.
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The World Health Organisation and the Joint United Nations Programme in 2006 reaffirmed the earlier recommendation of 2000 that all HIV-exposed infants in resource-poor countries should commence cotrimoxazole (CTX) prophylaxis at 6-weeks of life. CTX prophylaxis should be continued until the child is confirmed HIV-uninfected and there is no further exposure to breastmilk transmission. We determined CTX coverage and explored factors associated with CTX administration in HIV-exposed infants at a primary health clinic in South Africa.
Patterns of epididymal-testicular fusion can vary in stallions. Elongated proper ligaments of the testes occur mostly in cryptorchid testes but are also found in stallions with scrotal testes. Epididymal dislocation may develop in stallions with long proper ligaments that are inserted dorsally on the testes.
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Thymidine at levels as low as 0.05 mg/1 reduces the activities of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim and their combination in vitro. Using a biological assay procedure, levels of thymidine greater than this were interpreted as being present in urine. The addition of sulphamethoxazole and trimethoprim, singly or in combination, to urine obtained from patients with urinary tract infections showed that all the antibacterial effect towards sensitive organisms was due to the trimethoprim component. It is suggested that trimethoprim should replace the combination co-trimoxazole for the treatment of some lower urinary tract infections, and that laboratory media, if they are to resemble the clinical environment, should contain thymidine.
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The objective of this study was to assess in vitro the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of Polish propolis (EEPP) against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates. The combined effect of EEPP and 10 selected antistaphylococcal drugs on S. aureus clinical cultures was also investigated. EEPP composition was analyzed by a High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method. The flavonoid compounds identified in Polish Propolis included flavones, flavonones, flavonolols, flavonols and phenolic acids. EEPP displayed varying effectiveness against twelve S. aureus strains, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) within the range from 0.39 to 0.78 mg/mL, determined by broth microdilution method. The average MIC was 0.54 ± 0.22 mg/mL, while calculated MIC₅₀ and MIC₉₀ were 0.39 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the EEPP ranged from 0.78 to 3.13 mg/mL. The in vitro combined effect of EEPP and 10 antibacterial drugs was investigated using disk diffusion method-based assay. Addition of EEPP to cefoxitin (FOX), clindamycin (DA), tetracycline (TE), tobramycin (TOB), linezolid (LIN), trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (SXT), penicillin (P), erythromycin (E) regimen, yielded stronger, cumulative antimicrobial effect, against all tested S. aureus strains than EEPP and chemotherapeutics alone. In the case of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and chloramphenicol (C) no synergism with EEPP was observed.
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Currently, for actinomycetoma, combined antimicrobial therapy is preferred to the use of a single compound. This is in order to provide a broader-spectrum coverage due to a combinatory or synergistic effect between the drugs, and to decrease the possibility of emergence of natural resistant strains. A new oxazolidinone pro-drug, DA-7218 [(R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl) methyl-disodium-phosphate] (recently re-named TR-701), has shown very good in vitro and in vivo activities against several gram-positive bacteria including Nocardia spp.
Combination of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim with the P10 peptide entrapped within PLGA demonstrated increased therapeutic efficacy against paracoccidioidomycosis. P10 incorporation into PLGA nanoparticles dramatically reduced the peptide amount necessary to elicit a protective effect.
A follow-up study was conducted at four anticoagulation clinics in The Netherlands. Data on measurements of the International Normalised Ratio (INR), application of a preventive dose reduction (PDR) of the coumarin anticoagulant, fever and time within or outside the therapeutic INR range were collected.
EPM may develop as an epizootic. In the horses of this report subtle clinical signs that were originally considered unimportant ultimately progressed to obvious neurologic signs. Adverse effects associated with EPM treatment included worsening of neurologic signs, anemia, abortion, and leukopenic and febrile episodes.
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TB incidence varies over time following ART initiation, and is particularly high during the first 3 months post-ART, reinforcing the importance of TB screening prior to starting ART and use of isoniazid preventive therapy once active TB is excluded. HIV-infected children continuing co-trimoxazole prophylaxis after 96 weeks of ART were diagnosed with TB less frequently, highlighting a potentially important role of co-trimoxazole in preventing TB.
High-dose Tmp-Smx therapy used for the treatment of P. carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected patients leads to an increase in the serum potassium concentration and may result in life-threatening hyperkalemia. Patients receiving high doses of Tmp-Smx require close monitoring of their serum potassium concentration, particularly 7 to 10 days after the start of therapy.