The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system plays an important role in a lot of clinically important pharmacokinetic drug interactions. To identify relevant studies on drug-drug and food-drug pharmacokinetic interactions with the ARBs, a literature search of Google Scholar was performed from January 1994 to June 2015, with the following keywords: 'losartan', 'valsartan,' 'candesartan,' 'irbesartan,' 'telmisartan,' 'eprosartan,' 'olmesartan,' and 'azilsartan', combined with the keyword 'pharmacokinetic interactions' and 'CYP'.
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Stimulation with LPS dose- and time-dependently increased the mRNA and protein expressions of TLR4, AGT and AT1R. LPS exposure resulted in enhanced translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit in the adipose cells, which was attenuated by irbesartan pretreatment.
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In this multicenter, double-blind study, the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of irbesartan were compared with those of atenolol in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. Following a 4- to 5-week placebo lead-in period, 231 patients with seated diastolic blood pressure (SeDBP) 95-110 mmHg were randomized to irbesartan 75 mg or atenolol 50 mg once daily for 24 weeks. Doses were doubled at Week 6 for SeDBP > or = 90 mmHg. At Week 12, or anytime thereafter, doses were doubled for SeDBP > or = 90 mmHg if not done at Week 6, and hydrochlorothiazide and then nifedipine were added. Efficacy was determined by change from baseline in blood pressure and by therapeutic response rates. Safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events (AEs). Both treatments significantly lowered blood pressure from baseline. There were no significant differences between treatment groups with respect to blood pressure changes or therapeutic response. Atenolol significantly reduced seated heart rate compared with irbesartan at Week 12. The incidences of serious AEs and discontinuations due to AEs were approximately twice as high in the atenolol group compared with the irbesartan group. Thus, in comparison to atenolol, irbesartan < or = 150 mg provided at least equivalent blood pressure control while demonstrating an excellent safety and tolerability profile.
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Patients with mild to moderate primary hypertension and LV hypertrophy were randomized in a double-blind fashion to treatment with either the angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist irbesartan (n = 48) or the beta1 adrenoreceptor blocker atenolol (n = 49). A microarray-based minisequencing system was used for genotyping 74 SNPs in 25 genes. These genotypes were related to the change in LV mass index by echocardiography, after 12 weeks treatment as monotherapy, using stepwise multiple regression analysis.
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Little is known about the tolerability of antihypertensive drugs during hemodialysis treatment. The present study evaluated the use of the angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) irbesartan.
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This post hoc analysis of a 7-week, randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of initial irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide treatment in 468 patients with severe, uncontrolled, hypertension (diastolic blood pressure [DBP] > or =100 mm Hg) at high cardiovascular risk. Systolic blood pressure (SBP)/DBP reductions ranged from 28.0 to 42.9/22.9 to 27.2 mm Hg in patients with obesity, diabetes, baseline SBP > or =180 mm Hg, and in the elderly. Blood pressure control to <140/90 mm Hg in the age and obesity subgroups ranged from 32.1% to 39.2% while control to <130/80 mm Hg in patients with diabetes was 11.5%. After 1 week of therapy, 72.5% of patients no longer had SBP > or =180 mm Hg; by 7 weeks, 51.3% had SBP 140 to 159 mm Hg and 26.5% had SBP <140 mm Hg. Treatment was well tolerated regardless of the subgroup. No excess of prespecified events was noted. Thus, initial treatment with irbesartan/hydrochlorothiazide was rapidly effective in high-risk, difficult-to-treat, severely hypertensive patients.
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In 68 patients with arterial hypertension a hypotensive effect of enalapril and irbesartan was studied together with the influence these drugs have on circadian rhythms of arterial pressure (AP). Both drug preparations have been shown to exert an apparent antihypertensive effect. However irbesartan is tolerated better by patients and it is capable of reducing high variability of AP.
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To compare the attenuation of the angiotensin I-induced blood pressure response by once-daily oral administration of various doses of angiotensin receptor blockers (irbesartan, telmisartan, and losartan), benazepril hydrochloride, or lactose monohydrate (placebo) for 8 days in clinically normal cats.
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Hypertension is a cardiovascular disorder that appears in more than half of the patients with Williams-Beuren syndrome, hemizygous for the elastin gene among 26 to 28 other genes. It was shown that the antihypertensive drug minoxidil, an ATP-dependent potassium channel opener, enhances elastic fiber formation; however, no wide clinical application was developed because of its adverse side effects. The Brown Norway rat was used here as an arterial elastin-deficient model. We tested 3 different potassium channel openers, minoxidil, diazoxide, and pinacidil, and 1 potassium channel blocker, glibenclamide, on cultured smooth muscle cells from Brown Norway rat aorta. All tested potassium channel openers increased mRNAs encoding proteins and enzymes involved in elastic fiber formation, whereas glibenclamide had the opposite effect. The higher steady-state level of tropoelastin mRNA in minoxidil-treated cells was attributable to an increase in both transcription and mRNA stability. Treatment of Brown Norway rats for 10 weeks with minoxidil or diazoxide increased elastic fiber content and decreased cell number in the aortic media, without changing collagen content. The minoxidil-induced cardiac hypertrophy was reduced when animals simultaneously received irbesartan, an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist. This side effect of minoxidil was not observed in diazoxide-treated animals. In conclusion, diazoxide, causing less undesirable side effects than minoxidil, or coadministration of minoxidil and irbesartan, increases elastic fiber content, decreases cell number in the aorta and, thus, could be suitable for treating vascular pathologies characterized by diminished arterial elastin content and simultaneous hypertension.
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In patients with post-rheumatic valve replacement, the combination of amiodarone and irbesartan demonstrated a lower rate of AF recurrence after cardioversion than amiodarone alone, which might be due to preventing the atrial remodeling.
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This study aimed to assess the blood pressure-lowering potency, renoprotective efficacy and safety of the angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1))-receptor blocker irbesartan in monotherapy or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide or other antihypertensive medications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus switched from various antihypertensive pretreatments.
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Failure of physicians to follow guidelines is apparently dependent on the belief that baseline BP dictates the target, that a clear improvement in BP might be sufficient and that the full drug effect may take up to 4 months or more to be attained.
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Torasemide is frequently used for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. However, the determinants of torasemide pharmacokinetics in patients during steady-state conditions are largely unknown. We therefore explored the impact of genetic polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 (CYP2C9) and organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 (SLCO1B1), gender, and the effects of losartan and irbesartan comedication on the interindividual variability of steady-state pharmacokinetics of torasemide.
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We prospectively assigned 50 patients from the outpatient clinic undergoing electrical cardioversion for AF with duration of >4 weeks, into two matched groups: 25 patients were treated with Irbesartan (228+/-93 mg/day) for at least 2 weeks prior to cardioversion (Irbesartan group); 25 patients did not receive ARBs (control group). The groups did not differ concerning age (64+/-13 vs. 63+/-13 years, respectively), AF duration (20+/-18 vs. 20+/-19 weeks), underlying disease, LA diameter (46+/-7 vs. 47+/-9 mm), left ventricular dimensions, and ejection fraction (47.7+/-11.6 vs. 49.7+/-14.5%). We assessed LA appendage emptying velocities (LAAEV) and LA spontaneous echo contrast (LASEC) by transoesophageal echocardiography before and after cardioversion and at 2 weeks, and the A-wave by transthoracic echocardiography after cardioversion, at 2 and at 4 weeks. LA stunning was significantly attenuated in the Irbesartan group. The reduction of LAAEV immediately after cardioversion was significantly less in the Irbesartan group (LAAEV reduction of 9+/-49% from 28+/-9 cm/s before cardioversion to 25+/-13 cm/s immediately afterwards) than in the control group (reduction of 48+/-20% from 34+/-15 cm/s before cardioversion to 16+/-6 cm/s afterwards) (P = 0.048). New or increased LASEC occurred in eight patients (32%) in the Irbesartan vs. 16 patients (64%) in the control group (P = 0.046).
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Both drugs differ in their oral bioavailability, potential for food interactions, degree of metabolism, dosing interval, time to peak, volume of distribution and terminal half-life. Irbesartan provides a greater and longer-lasting antihypertensive effect and was determined to be cost effective over losartan in Denmark and Sweden. Irbesartan was more effective in preventing deterioration of kidney function in patients with diabetic nephropathy, being cost effective from a German perspective. There is only one end point trial for either drug in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure and atrial fibrillation, but no direct comparison.
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Patients with paroxysmal AF were younger, had a shorter AF history, more hypertension, and less valvular disease, heart failure, and diabetes mellitus than patients with sustained AF. At baseline, patients with paroxysmal AF had a CHADS2 (cardiac failure, hypertension, age, diabetes, stroke [doubled]) risk score of 1.79 +/- 1.03 compared with 2.04 +/- 1.12 in patients with sustained AF (p < 0.00001). The annualized risk of stroke or non-central nervous system (CNS) systemic embolism was 2.0 in paroxysmal AF compared with 2.2 in sustained AF (relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.59 to 1.30, p = 0.496). After adjusting for confounding baseline variables, the relative risk was 0.94 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.40, p = 0.755). The incidence of stroke and non-CNS embolism was lower for patients treated with OAC irrespective of type of AF. There were more bleedings of any type in patients receiving clopidogrel plus aspirin, irrespective of the type of AF.
Podocyte injury and its subsequent loss in urine play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy; blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may ameliorate the damage.
To evaluate the impact of a combined treatment of angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1))-receptor blockade and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA-reductase inhibition (statin) on the secretory phospholipase A(2) type IIA (sPLA(2)-IIA) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Isolated rat hearts were subjected to I/R (control) or PPC in the presence or absence of Ang II, chymostatin (inhibitor of locally produced Ang II), ACE blocker (captopril) or AT1 antagonist (irbesartan). Hemodynamics data was computed digitally and infarct size was determined histologically using TTC staining and biochemically by measuring creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase levels.
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Omapatrilat treatment significantly reduced left ventricular hypertrophy and improved endothelial function in carotid arteries from male SHRSP by NO-dependent mechanisms. Despite equivalent antihypertensive and antihypertrophic actions, a similar improvement in endothelial function, specifically stimulated NO release, was not observed after treatment with I + H.
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The DN rat model was established by injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 65 mg/kg) in abdominal cavity. Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal group, DN group, Ginsenoside Rgl treatment group and Irbesartan treatment group. The blood glucose was monitored routinely. Twenty-four hours urine protein and serum creatine were measured the day before the rats were killed when the eight weeks of treatments had been completed. The renal pathological and podocyte changes were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were performed to examine the protein expression levels of MCP-1 and TNF-alpha, respectively. The mRNA of TNF-alpha and MCP-1 were reverse transcribed and quantified by real-time PCR.
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Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) represent a new class of effective and well tolerated orally active antihypertensive agents. Recent clinical trials have shown the added benefits of ARBs in hypertensive patients (reduction in left ventricular hypertrophy, improvement in diastolic function, decrease in ventricular arrhythmias, reduction in microalbuminuria, and improvement in renal function), and cardioprotective effect in patients with heart failure. Several large long-term studies are in progress to assess the beneficial effects of ARBs on cardiac hypertrophy, renal function, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients with or without diabetes mellitus, and the value of these drugs in patients with heart disease and diabetic nephropathy. The ARBs specifically block the interaction of angiotensin II at the AT1 receptor, thereby relaxing smooth muscle, increasing salt and water excretion, reducing plasma volume, and decreasing cellular hypertrophy. These agents exert their blood pressure-lowering effect mainly by reducing peripheral vascular resistance usually without a rise in heart rate. Most of the commercially available ARBs control blood pressure for 24 h after once daily dosing. Sustained efficacy of blood pressure control, without any evidence of tachyphylaxis, has been demonstrated after long-term administration (3 years) of some of the ARBs. The efficacy of ARBs is similar to that of thiazide diuretics, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or calcium channel blockers in patients with similar degree of hypertension. Higher daily doses, dietary salt restriction, and concomitant diuretic or ACE inhibitor administration amplify the antihypertensive effect of ARBs. The ARBs have a low incidence of adverse effects (headache, upper respiratory infection, back pain, muscle cramps, fatigue and dizziness), even in the elderly patients. After the approval of losartan, five other ARBs (candesartan cilexetil, eprosartan, irbesartan, telmisartan, and valsartan) and three combinations with hydrochlorothiazide (irbesartan, losartan and valsartan) have been approved as antihypertensive agents, and some 28 compounds are in various stages of development. The ARBs are non-peptide compounds with varied structures; some (candesartan, losartan, irbesartan, and valsartan) have a common tetrazolo-biphenyl structure. Except for irbesartan, all active ARBs have a carboxylic acid group. Candesartan cilexetil is a prodrug, while losartan has a metabolite (EXP3174) which is more active than the parent drug. No other metabolites of ARBs contribute significantly to the antihypertensive effect. The variation in the molecular structure of the ARBs results in differences in the binding affinity to the receptor and pharmacokinetic profiles. The differences observed in lipid solubility, absorption/distribution, plasma protein binding, bioavailability, biotransformation, plasma half-life, and systemic elimination influence the time of onset, duration of action, and efficacy of the ARBs. On the basis of the daily mg dose, the antihypertensive potency of the ARBs follows the sequence: candesartan cilexetil > telmisartan approximately = losartan > irbesartan approximately = valsartan > eprosartan. After oral administration, the ARBs are rapidly absorbed (time for peak plasma levels = 0.5-4 h) but they have a wide range of bioavailability (from a low of 13% for eprosartan to a high of 60-80% for irbesartan); food does not influence the bioavailability, except for valsartan (a reduction of 40-50%) and eprosartan (increase). A limited dose-peak plasma levels/areas under the plasma level-time curve proportionality is observed for some of the ARBs. Most of these drugs have high plasma protein binding (95-100%); irbesartan has the lowest binding among the group (90%). The steady-state volumes of distribution vary from a low of 9 L (candesartan) to a high of 500 L (telmisartan). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATE
Allometric principles have been applied to scale and predict human pharmacokinetic parameters of irbesartan, an important AT1 receptor antagonist. The preclinical data gathered from rats, macaques (monkeys) and dogs were used in the allometric analysis. The use of these species was rationalized because preclinical models based on these species have been used in the evaluation pharmacodynamic activity of irbesartan. The human parameter values for clearance (CL/F), volume of distribution (V/F), and elimination rate constant (Kel) were scaled using simple allometry (CL/F, V/F and Kel) or with correction factors (CL/F). The predictions of both CL/F and elimination half life (T1/2) (using Kel) for irbesartan appeared to be in close proximity to the respective human reported values (CL/F: predicted=18 L/h, observed=22.2 L/h; T1/2: predicted = 9 h; observed = 10-20 h); while, V/F value was marginally over predicted by 1.75-fold using simple allometry (predicted = 456 L; observed = 260 L). The present work presents an opportunity for prospective allometric scaling for the compounds belonging to this important therapeutic class.
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Six-week old db/db mice were randomly assigned to control group and irbesartan group. Mice in irbesartan group were fed 40 mg/kg irbesartan each day. Eight weeks later, blood lipid, kidney function, and the pathological change of kidney, liver, and adipose tissue were measured.
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After stent or bypass surgery blood pressure (BP) can go up for multiple reasons among which are: stress and tense of the patient unsure about the future, the pain of the cut and because some of the blood pressure medication, which the patient was receiving preoperatively may get withdrawn post operatively, thereby leading to shooting up the BP. In certain patients, BP actually comes down after surgery and returns back to the pre-operative levels 4 to 6 weeks down the track. We aimed to investigate the incidence of high BP after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in patients referred to our in- house cardiac rehabilitation program.
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Endothelial vasomotor function in CHF rats was normalised by long-term treatment with an ACE inhibitor or an AT(1)-antagonist. Reduced aortic eNOS expression was normalised by both treatments, whereas aortic superoxide formation was only reduced by the AT(1)-antagonist Irbesartan.
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A total of 26 children aged 6.1 to 17 years were allocated to receive either amlodipine (N = 13) or irbesartan (N = 13) for 16 weeks. Severe edema and headache occurred in two patients on amlodipine who withdrew from the study. No adverse experiences were noted in patients given irbesartan. Amlodipine [by 12 (10 to 14)/7 (5 to 10) mm Hg; median and interquartile range, respectively] and irbesartan [by 13 (9 to 16)/9 (7 to 11) mm Hg, respectively] reduced blood pressure (P < 0.01) in a similar fashion. Heart rate, plasma sodium, and creatinine did not change. Irbesartan slightly increased plasma potassium [by 0.1 (0.0 to 0.2) mmol/L; P < 0.05]. Plasma albumin and the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio were similar before and with amlodipine. On the contrary, irbesartan increased plasma albumin [by 4 (3 to 5) g/L; P < 0.03] and decreased the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio [by 242 (68 to 312) mg/mmol; P < 0.03].
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No statistically significant gender effects were observed in peak plasma concentration (Cmax), area under the curve (AUC), and terminal elimination half-life (t1/2) of irbesartan. The geometric mean AUC and Cmax increased by about 43% and 49%, respectively, in the elderly subjects. Also the time to peak was significantly shorter in the elderly subjects compared with that observed in the young subjects. Renal clearance ofirbesartan was significantly reduced in the elderly females but this reduction is not likely to be of any clinical relevance since less than 3% of the administered dose of irbesartan is excreted unchanged in the urine.
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Advances in scientific research over the last century have permitted the recognition and characterization of the structure and function of an enzymatic pathway involved in cardiovascular homeostasis and blood pressure control, namely the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. This system may be reversibly blocked by drugs acting at different levels: renin inhibitors, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and AT1 angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Lacking clinical experience with effects of AT1 angiotensin II receptor antagonists on the cardiovascular system are practically identical to those observed with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. The efficacy and safety of drugs blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the reduction of blood pressure, the regression of cardiovascular remodeling, the prevention of progression of diabetic nephropathy to end-stage renal failure, and the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is well established. These hemodynamic effects of AT1 angiotensin II receptor antagonists treatment are achieved with less adverse effects than with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Furthermore, the association of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and AT1 angiotensin II receptor antagonists allows a more effective renin-angiotensin-aldosterone Systems blockade and improves the hemodynamic and non-hemodynamic effects. This possibility opens up new perspectives in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the most common cause of death at the end of the millennium in developed countries.
The dose-dependent increases in hind-limb perfusion pressure produced by U46619 were significantly attenuated by prior injection of irbesartan, at a dose that blocked the angiotensin II (Ang II) pressor responses. The specificity for the response was shown with the demonstrations that the increase in vascular resistance produced by phenylephrine was unchanged by irbesartan and, furthermore, that the increase in vascular resistance produced by U46619 was unchanged by another AT1 receptor antagonist, candesartan.