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One of the main goals of endodontic treatment is root canal disinfection and to prevent subsequent chances of reinfection. Adjuvant to instrumentation, root canal irrigants are required to eliminate the bacteria found on the root canal walls and lateral canals within the dentinal tubules.
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Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic.
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This study determined the microbiota of the mucosa- and implant-facing parts of expanded polytetrafluoro ethylene augmentation material, and the influence of major periodontopathogens on the healing process associated with guided bone regeneration around dental implants. Seventeen patients with nine dehiscence and eight extraction defects were studied. Prior to surgery and at membrane removal, microbial morphotypes, total viable counts, and the occurrence of selected microbial species were examined by phase-contrast microscopy, nonselective and selective cultures, and DNA probes. Nine sites with submerged barrier membranes throughout the 9-month study were free of cultivable microorganisms and experienced significantly more osseous healing than eight sites with prematurely exposed membrane. Patients with few or no deep periodontal pockets demonstrated significantly fewer residual osseous defects than patients showing several pockets of increased depths. In addition, patients with prematurely exposed membranes revealed several deep periodontal pockets. Three patients with less than 1 mm of osseous gain yielded either Porphyromonas gingivalis or Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. Peptostreptococcus micros occurred in high proportions in seven of the eight patients with premature membrane exposure and inadequate osseous healing. These findings associate putative periodontal pathogens with unsuccessful guided bone regeneration. The control of periodontal pathogens in the oral cavity prior to placement of barrier membranes around implants might increase the prognosis of osseous regeneration.
Antimicrobial therapy remains a controversial issue in nonsevere exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Jaundice associated with co-amoxiclav has been increasingly recognised. We aimed to characterise its clinical and histological features and to investigate linkage with human leucocyte antigen class II haplotypes.
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502 children aged 1 month to <7 years with clinical pyelonephritis.
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In these children with acute otitis media, azithromycin given once daily for 5 days and amoxicillin/clavulanate given three times daily for 10 days had similar efficacy; however, azithromycin was significantly better tolerated.
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A retrospective study during the period 1993 1999 was carried out at the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex Microbiology Laboratory, a teaching hospital in the northwestern part of Trinidad. Strains of non-typhoidal salmonella were serogrouped with polyvalent Salmonella O antiserum and sent to the local Public Health Laboratory for confirmation and further serotyping.
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This study supports the value of restricting the use of certain antimicrobial classes to control ESBL, and demonstrates the feasibility of reversing resistance patterns post successful antibiotic restriction. The study also highlights the potential value of the time-series analysis in designing efficient antibiotic stewardship.
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Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is an idiosyncratic systemic reaction to a drug. The clinical presentation of this syndrome comprises a diverse spectrum, ranging from mild to fulminating organ failure. Nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms are common in DHS, but severe morbidities and mortalities attributed to gut disease in DHS are rarely described. We present a case of DHS with significant gastrointestinal symptoms of prolonged profuse watery diarrhoea and persistent hypokalaemia requiring judicious intravenous water and electrolyte replacement. The symptoms resolved only after the introduction of intravenous hydrocortisone. It is important to consider intravenous corticosteroids if the gastrointestinal system is involved, as accelerated gut motility and mucosal damage would affect absorption of oral medications. Supportive treatment with the monitoring of fluid and electrolytes status and judicious replacement remains fundamental in the management of DHS patients with gut involvement.
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A self-administered questionnaire completed by lead consultants on delivery suite of maternity units.
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Coxiella burnetii should be considered as a possible cause of fever of unknown origin, especially in patients with existing or operated cardiac valvar defects, when endocarditic vegetations have been demonstrated and several blood cultures have been negative.
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Among the 428 ESBL-producing isolates studied, 417 (97.4%) were susceptible to FOS (MIC < or = 64 microg/mL). The resistance rate of E. coli to FOS was 0.3%, and was lower than resistance to AMC (11.7%), whereas the resistance rate of K. pneumoniae was 7.2% and was equal to resistance to AMC. SxT and CIP were the least active antibiotic agents against ESBL-producing isolates (sensitivity < 50%). There were no differences in fosfomycin activity against strains expressing different types of ESBLs.
To study in a sequential prospective trial, the effect of cheese consumption on the emergence of Escherichia coli and enterococci resistance to amoxicillin after amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (amoxiclav) treatment.
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Premature birth carries substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality. Subclinical infection is associated with preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). Prophylactic maternal antibiotic therapy might lessen infectious morbidity and delay labour, but could suppress labour without treating underlying infection.
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Patients with RPC that was treated with antibiotic maintenance therapy were identified from the hospital pouch database. Data including faecal antibiotic sensitivity, functional outcome, side effects and Cleveland Global Quality of Life (CGQOL) score were recorded.
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Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Random sample of 12,264 paediatric outpatients seen by paediatricians or general practitioners (GPs). Data on patient demographics, diagnoses and treatment were collected. Diagnoses were coded by ICD-9 and drugs by ATC classification. Patients diagnosed with AOM (ICD-9 codes: 381 and 382) were selected for analysis.
We used data from 152 patients of the placebo arm of a randomized trial of amoxicillin/clavulanate for exacerbations of mild to moderate COPD. Clinical response in relation to Anthonisen criteria and point-of-care serum C-reactive protein (CRP) tests (cutoff, 40 mg/L) was assessed with multivariate logistic regression analysis.
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Bacterial counts of Strains 1 and 2 were >or= 6 log(10) reduced with all antibiotics tested at 12 and 24 h. Against Strains 3 and 4, log(10) reductions at 12 and 24 h were significantly higher for cefditoren versus cefuroxime (P < 0.01) (although both exhibited bactericidal activity, i.e. >or= 3 log(10) reduction) and versus the two co-amoxiclav regimens (P < 0.001) (that exhibited negligible initial inocula reductions).
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Patients on augmentin showed faster regression of exacerbation, earlier remission and higher quality of remission than patients on macrolides. Eradication of etiologically significant pathogens on day 3-5 after therapy with augmentin and macrolides was achieved in 92 and 30% patients, respectively, persistence--in 8 and 70%, respectively. Mean duration of remission was 263 +/- 107.1 and 164.9 +/- 112,2 days, respectively. A correlation was found between duration of recurrence-free period and frequency of eradication and persistence of the agents after antibacterial therapy of CB and COPD.
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Our results suggest that dermatologists should consider AANS when diagnosing an alopecic nodule on the scalp.
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A 17-year-old schoolboy was admitted to hospital because of one-sided pelvic pain of uncertain aetiology and fever gradually rising over several days. Bacteriological analysis of blood cultures, skeletal scintigraphy and computed tomography revealed sacroiliitis caused by Salmonella cholerae-suis. Specific antibiotic treatment quickly stopped all symptoms and cured the infection. Radiologically there remained sclerosis of the sacro-iliac joint.
The median duration of tube otorrhea was significantly shorter in amoxicillin-clavulanate than in the placebo group (3 vs 8 days). At the end of the 7-day medication period, tube otorrhea was resolved in 28 of 34 children receiving amoxicillin-clavulanate compared with 13 of 32 children on placebo (treatment-control difference 41%; 95% confidence interval, 20%-63%; number needed to treat, 2.4). The median duration of bacterial growth in middle-ear fluid was shorter in amoxicillin-clavulanate than in the placebo group (1 vs 8 days).
110 patients suffering from laparoscopical verified salpingitis and desire for a baby, were treated with tetracycline (oxytetracycline or doxycycline; TC)/metronidazole (n = 67), augmentan (n = 22) or cipropfloxacin/metronidazole (n = 21). After an average period of 11.6 weeks, all patients underwent second-look laparoscopy with dye insufflation. In 34 patients treated with TC/metronidazole, the effects of additional physio-therapeutical measures were examined under conditions as they prevail in a Spa. 33 patients without balneotherapy served as controls. All the 4 groups were comparable (p greater than 0.05) in respect of mean age, percentage, share of nulliparous women, salpingitis gonorrhoica, contraceptive behaviour and also of the stage of salpingitis. All antibiotic regimens used resulted in a prompt decrease of inflammatory clinical signs after five days (temperature, blood sedimentation rate, leukocytes). Only 2 of 34 patients treated by additional cure at a Spa reported complaints, whereas complaints were reported by 14 of 33 control patients (p less than 0.01), 7 of 22 (p less than 0.01) treated with augmentan and to 7 of 21 (p less than 0.01) treated with ciprofloxacin/metronidazole. The tubal occlusion rates amounted to 33.3% (TC/metronidazole), 32.3% (TC/metronidazole and balneotherapy), 22.7% (augmentan) and 23.8% ciprofloxacin/metronidazole. The differences did not attain statistical significance (p greater than 0.05). With regard to adhesions, there were, likewise, no significant differences between findings at first laparoscopy and second look-laparoscopy, respectively. It is concluded, that additional physiotherapeutic measures, after antibiotic therapy of acute salpingitis, reduce the frequency of lower abdominal pain, but do not result in an improvement of tubal occlusion and reduction of adhesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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Tonsillitis and pharyngitis are among the most common infections in the head and neck. Viral tonsillitis is usually caused by enterovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus, rhinovirus and Epstein-Barr virus (causing infectious mononucleosis). Acute bacterial tonsillitis is most commonly caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. On the other hand, pseudomembranous and necrotizing tonsillitis are usually caused by fusiform bacilli and spirochetes. Here we report what is, to our knowledge, the first case of necrotizing tonsillitis caused by group C beta-hemolytic streptococci.