atarax drug class
A group of 51 patients, ranging in age from 15 to 71 years, with chronic urticaria and positive challenge to food additives and/or ASA, participated in this study for a period of 4 weeks, starting from a 3-day run-in. The assessment of the efficacy was based on scores of daily urticaria symptoms.
atarax tablets 25mg
Our patients with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis usually present severe clinical symptoms. A single daily dose of cetirizine 10 mg might be insufficient for these patients. To investigate this hypothesis we compared clinical efficacy and adverse side effects between two daily doses of cetirizine, 10 and 20 mg. We designed a comparative open randomized study, including 38 patients, with hay fever sensitized to local pollens (grass, olive, parietaria judaica, chenopodium album, artemisia vulgaris and plantago lanceolata) diagnosed by clinical history and a positive skin prick test (wheal > 3 mm), 20 women and 18 men, aged 17 to 57 years (x: 31.32 +/- 9.73), living in the same geographic area. Randomly, after a week run in period, 21 subjects received a daily dose of cetirizine 10 mg during 2 weeks, and the other 17 received 10 mg twice a day. The symptomatic score used was based on: sneezes number, nasal itching, nasal secretion, nasal congestion, ocular itching, lacrimation, weight gain, sedation and additional methylprednisolone usage. All symptoms were scored on a 0-3 scale (0: absent; 1: mild; 2: moderate; 3: severe). A mean 8 points daily score during the previous week was required for recruitment. Nasal eosinophilia was determined at baseline and at the end of treatment. The study was conducted in may 1992. We did not find significant differences between the two groups, except in sneezes number and sedation. Both groups improved their symptoms, in comparison with the basal week (p < 0.01) and reduced their oral steroid use (p < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
atarax overdose symptoms
We have evaluated the efficacy of cetirizine in 24 patients (18 males and 6 females, mean age 25.4 years) suffering from mild or moderate allergic asthma due to grass pollen. Cetirizine was given once a day at the dosage of 10 mg for four weeks. On a daily card patients had to record the number of asthmatic attacks, the usage of bronchodilatators and the values of peak expiratory flow measured in l/min in the morning and at the evening. The improvement of the parameters considered was statistically significant, and no side effects have been observed. Cetirizine is therefore an effective and safe drug in the treatment of mild and moderate asthma induced by grass pollen.
Eighty participants, comprising doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and lay people, completed a battery of laboratory tests assessing visual perception, auditory perception and short-term memory of look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs (eg, hydroxyzine/hydralazine).
The sample population consisted of 61 patient-caregiver dyads. The overall sedation success rate was 87 percent (N equals 53). Disruptive behavior was present during 28 percent (N equals 17) of total cases. There was not a significant difference in failure rate or presence of disruptive behavior by age, sex, ASA status, insurance status, reason for sedation, or type of treatment provided. High impulsivity scores were significantly associated with disruptive behavior (P=.04).
atarax maximum dosage
Including the present 2 cases, a total of 78 cases were identified as definitive cases of lupus cystitis (35 non-Japanese cases and 43 Japanese cases). Female patients accounted for 90.7%. The preceding gastrointestinal symptoms and subsequent urinary symptoms were the most frequent. Anti-double strand DNA antibody most often expressed in the 76.1% of the patients. Mean age and the prevalence of vomiting were significantly higher among Japanese patients compared to non-Japanese cases and the prevalence of CNS involvement was lower among Japanese patients (p=0.03, 0.04 and 0.001). We report a novel therapy (cetirizine hydrochloride) for lupus cystitis refractory to corticosteroid in one of the present cases.
atarax tab 25mg
The acceptability of midazolam and hydroxyzine was better than triclofos. Hydroxyzine was found to have lesser sedative effect as compared to both midazolam and triclofos. No major adverse effects were observed.
atarax 25mg tablets
Physical urticaria includes a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by the development of urticarial lesions and/or angioedema after exposure to certain physical stimuli. The authors present the case of a child with severe acquired cold urticaria secondary to infectious mononucleosis. Avoidance of exposure to cold was recommended; prophylactic treatment with ketotifen and cetirizine was begun and a self-administered epinephrine kit was prescribed. The results of ice cube test and symptoms significantly improved. Physical urticaria, which involves complex pathogenesis, clinical course and therapy, may be potentially life threatening. Evaluation and diagnosis are especially important in children. To our knowledge this is the first description of persistent severe cold-induced urticaria associated with infectious mononucleosis in a child.
atarax y alcohol
None; retrospective study.
atarax high dosage
Leukotrienes are potent lipid mediators involved in acute and chronic inflammatory processes and allergic inflammation. Cetirizine is an H1-receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic symptoms. We analyzed the effect of cetirizine on the formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) after stimulation of human peripheral blood neutrophils. The inflammatory mediators were analyzed after cellular activation with different stimuli: the Ca ionophore A23187, which bypasses membranous signal transduction elements; the bacterial peptide formyl-methionine-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), which activates cells by binding to a GTP-protein (G-protein)-coupled receptor, and with sodium fluoride (NaF), which directly activates G-proteins. After cellular preincubation with cetirizine, the amounts of LTB4 generated from neutrophil granulocytes decreased significantly when the cells were subsequently stimulated with either fMLP or NaF, in contrast to stimulations with the Ca ionophore. The data provide evidence that cetirizine exerts anti-inflammatory effects apart from H1 antagonism.
atarax medicine itching
In an observational study, physicians in nine European countries completed questionnaires evaluating 7,274 patients treated with an oral antihistamine. The satisfaction of patients and physicians with the efficacy and tolerability of treatment was rated on a visual analogue scale. In addition, the proportion of patients satisfied with treatment (overall satisfaction) and willing to continue treatment with the same antihistamine were assessed. Safety and tolerability data were also gathered.
We compared the clinical efficacy of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray (FPANS) 200 microg given once daily, administered in mono-therapy or combined therapy with a H1 receptor antagonist (cetirizine, CTZ) or with a leukotriene antagonist (montelukast, MSK), and the combined therapy of CTZ plus MSK in the treatment of patients affected by allergic rhinitis to Parietaria during natural pollen exposure. In addition, we examined the effect of the treatment on eosinophil counts and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in nasal lavage performed at beginning of season, during season and at the end of the season.
In previous studies, we noticed that intradermal injection of histamine solutions might significantly complicate the interpretation of clinical data and of laser-Doppler flowmetry recordings (LDF). Therefore, we used the histamine dry skin prick test (HPT) for pharmacological studies. In this study, LDF monitoring of the physiological skin response to histamine was made in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study comparing the in vivo anti-H1 activity of cetirizine (10 mg) or loratadine (10 mg), 6 h after a single oral intake. As compared with responses recorded after intake of placebo, LDF readings performed at HPT sites (increase in LDF signal) and at 1 cm from HPT (reduction of LDF signal) conclusively illustrate the stable and almost complete blockade of H1 receptors by cetirizine. In vivo effects obtained with loratadine were considered weaker because (1) there was no significant influence of loratadine on the blood flow recorded at HPT sites, (2) a significant reduction at 1 cm from HPT sites was observed only after a lag phase (> or = 10 min) and (3) there were significantly higher skin perfusion levels at 1 cm from HPT sites between 6 and 10 min after the test under loratadine as compared with cetirizine. Hence, multipoint probing with LDF over time appears as a sensitive method for discriminating response profiles between two anti-H1 agents. Furthermore, this is the first time that anti-H1-related changes of the dynamics of expansion of the flare response have been demonstrated.
atarax brand name
HB vaccine is one of the most widely administered vaccines in the world. Its efficacy approaches 95 per cent. The majority of adverse reactions are generally mild, although there have been individual case reports of serious reactions since the vaccine has become commercially available. Here, a patient with a serum sickness-like reaction after her second HB immunization is reported. Review of the literature for reports of serious adverse reactions to the vaccine was also carried out.
atarax max dosage
Midazolam was found to be a better premedicant in terms of sedation, anxiolysis and safety.
atarax overdose fatal
To investigate the effect of cetirizine hydrochloride on the expression of neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) and cytokines production induced by substance P (SP) in HaCaT cells (a human epidermal keratinocyte cell line) and dermal fibroblasts. The effect of cetirizine on the expression of NK-1R protein was detected by flow cytometry and Western blotting analysis. The modulation of cetirizine on the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 in HaCaT cells and fibroblasts was measured by ELISA. The results showed that cetirizine significantly inhibited the expression of NK-1R in HaCaT cells and fibroblasts. SP induced the production of IFN-gamma, IL-1beta and IL-8 in both cell types. Cetirizine 1-100 micromol x L(-1) inhibited SP-induced IL-1beta and IL-8 production in HaCaT cells and fibroblasts, while had no effect on the production of IFN-gamma in both cells. Both SP and cetirizine had no effect on the secretion of IL-6 in HaCaT cells and fibroblasts. These findings suggest that cetirizine may be involved in the treatment of SP-induced skin inflammation by inhibiting the expression of substance P receptor and regulation the production of IL-1beta and IL-8 in epidermal keratinocyte and dermal fibroblasts.
There were no differences in PR, SpO2 and risk of desaturation between the inhalation agents. The level of sedation was deeper and the sedation outcomes were better in the N2O/O2 group.
atarax drug interactions
To compare the antiasthmatic efficacy of inflammatory mediator blockade versus topical corticosteroid therapy in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and asthma, 14 patients were enrolled into a single-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled crossover study comparing 2 wk therapy of (1) 400 microgram orally inhaled budesonide plus 200 microgram intranasal budesonide (BUD) or (2) 10 mg oral montelukast plus 10 mg oral cetirizine (ML + CZ). Before each treatment period, patients received 7 to 10 d placebo washout. All treatments were given once daily in the morning. Throughout the study, patients recorded the following domiciliary measures: peak expiratory flow (PEF), rescue inhaler requirement, asthma symptoms, and daily activity score. Laboratory measurements were made at trough of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) bronchial challenge and exhaled nitric oxide (NO). Compared with pooled placebo (PL), there were significant (p < 0.05) improvements in all domiciliary measures with both treatments (mean PEF [L/min] PL: 463; BUD: 478; ML + CZ: 483). For geometric mean AMP PC(20) (mg/ml), there was an improvement (p < 0.05), compared with PL (47), for ML + CZ (133) but not for BUD (51); whereas for NO (ppb) there was significant suppression with BUD (7.6) but not ML + CZ (11.5) compared with PL (13.6). In conclusion, both combined mediator blockade and combined topical corticosteroids are equally effective antiasthma therapy in patients with asthma and SAR.
The effects of single oral doses of three antihistamine compounds on histamine-induced itch and flare reactions were studied in 24 healthy volunteers by a double-blind balanced design. Central sedative effects were concurrently analyzed using a set of computerized neuropsychological tests and analogue ratings. Hydroxyzine 20 mg had a more pronounced inhibitory effect on the cutaneous response than 3 mg clemastine or 3 mg azatadine. Clemastine tended to cause more sedation than the other two drugs. A compound score, reflecting the balance between peripheral and CNS effects, showed hydroxyzine to have relatively more peripheral antihistamine effect and less sedative effect than the other two drugs. The independence of peripheral and CNS antihistamine effects was also suggested by correlation analysis. Subjects displayed individual sensitivity to the peripheral antihistamine effect of the three drugs; a marked antihistamine effect of one drug predicted a marked effect of the other two drugs. This was not the case for CNS sedation. The independence of peripheral and CNS effects should encourage development of new and more specific antihistamine compounds.
atarax 60 mg
Three patients with chronic urticaria, two of whom also had angioedema, were treated with oral cyclosporine, 6 mg/kg per day. In each patient, complete resolution of symptoms occurred within the first week of therapy; however, all patients eventually had to stop therapy as a result of side effects. On stopping therapy, all side effects resolved and the urticaria and angioedema recurred. Although cyclosporine therapy is not an appropriate treatment of urticaria, the results of this preliminary study suggest that cyclosporine and related drugs should be investigated in the treatment of mast cell-mediated diseases.
atarax with alcohol
Eosinophils and neutrophils were found already in 2-h bite lesions. Moreover, the number of mononuclear and CD4+ cells increased significantly (P < 0.01) from 2- to 24-h bite lesions. Unexpectedly, the overall numbers of eosinophils (P < 0.05), mononuclear cells (P < 0.01) and CD4+ cells (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the cetirizine-treated subjects compared with the placebo-treated subjects.
atarax max dose
The effect of a newly synthesized compound, HSR-609, on rat experimental rhinitis was investigated. In the first part of the study, a new experimental nasal allergic late phase eosinophilia model in Brown Norway (BN) rats was investigated. The increase in the number of antigen inhalations resulted in the proportional increase in the number of inflammatory cells such as macrophages, eosinophils and neutrophils in the nasal cavity lavage fluid (NCLF) at 5 h after each inhalation. The number of inflammatory cells reached a maximum 8 h after the antigen perfusion. Submaximum response was observed at 5 h after the antigen provocation. In this system, the serum IgG and IgE antibody titers measured by homologous passive cutaneous anaphylaxis were 160 and 640, respectively. In the second part of the study, the effects of prednisolone, cetirizine and a newly synthesized amphoteric antiallergic agent, HSR-609, on this allergic late nasal eosinophilia and neutrophilia in BN rats were investigated. Prednisolone and HSR-609 significantly inhibited the increase in the number of eosinophils in the NCLF but not cetirizine. Furthermore, prednisolone showed the inhibition of the increase in the number of macrophages and neutrophils in NCLF. These results suggest that this late phase eosinophilia model in the nose of BN rats may be useful for investigating the therapeutic drugs for nasal allergy and a newly synthesized amphoteric antiallergic agent, HSR-609, may be useful for the treatment of allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia.
A study was made of 30 patients with perennial extrinsic rhinitis sensitized only to dust mites who were treated with cetirizine for 15 days, at a dose of 10 mg/24 hours. The following parameters were evaluated in each patient on day -1 before initiating treatment and on day 15: histamine 1/100 prick-test, Dermatohophagoides pteronyssinus prick-test, physical examination, assessment of nasal edema and rhinorrhea by anterior rhinoscopy, and of the degree of nasal obstruction by active anterior rhinomanometry. Each patient was given a form for daily clinical self-evaluation of the following subjective symptoms: sneezing, rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, and nasal itchiness. The occurrence of side effects was evaluated. Cetirizine reduced significantly the area of the histamine and D. pteronyssinus papules elicited by prick-test. Clinical symptoms decreased significantly, with sneezing, nasal itchiness and rhinorrhea being greatly relieved, and nasal obstruction, evaluated by means of active anterior rhinomanometry performed before and after 15 days of treatment, being less alleviated. There was scant incidence of side effects in patients treated with cetirizine.
The study was designed as a single-dose, placebo and positive-controlled, four-way crossover, randomised trial in which 52 healthy male and female subjects participated. Levocetirizine (5 and 30 mg) and placebo were administered double-blind, and the positive control, moxifloxacin (400 mg), was open-label. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were obtained by continuous Holter monitoring at various time points (three per time point) during a 24-h period at baseline and after each treatment. The ECGs were read centrally in a blinded manner. QT intervals were corrected for heart rate using a gender- and study-specific correction (QTcSS) and Fridericia's correction (QTcF). The largest QTc time-matched and baseline-subtracted difference between each active drug and the placebo (largest delta delta QTcSS) was derived from a mixed-effect analysis of variance.
atarax dosing pediatric
In addition to being antagonists of histamine receptors, some antihistamines modulate the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation by reducing mediator release, adhesion molecule expression and, consequently, recruitment of inflammatory cells. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of 2 second-generation antihistamines, cetirizine and loratadine, on granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretions in human airway epithelial cells.