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Astelin (Azelastine)

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Astelin is a nasal spray which is used for treating allergy symptoms and symptoms of nasal passage inflammation. Astelin contains azelastine, an antihistamine. It blocks the effects of the chemical histamine in your body. Astelin prevents sneezing, itching, runny nose, and other nasal symptoms of allergies.

Other names for this medication:

Similar Products:
Astepro, Patanase


Also known as:  Azelastine.


Astelin belongs to a group of medicines called antihistamines.

Astelin provides relief from bothersome nasal symptoms such as congestion, itchy/runny nose, sneezing and postnasal drip due to seasonal allergens or environmental irritants.

Astelin is steroid-free, does not contain pseudoephedrine, and relieves your symptoms by blocking the effects of histamine - the primary cause of allergy symptoms.

What makes Astelin unique is that it is a steroid-free antihistamine nasal spray that provides symptom relief whether the trigger is an allergen (grass, trees, pollen, mold, etc.), an irritant (cigarette smoke, perfume, cleaning agents, car exhaust, cold air, etc.), or both.

Astelin is also know as Azelastine, Arzep, Rhinolast, Alerdual, Allergodil, Rinalin.

Generic name of Astelin is Azelastine.


Follow the directions for using this medicine provided by your doctor. Use Astelin exactly as directed.

Astelin can be used by patients as young as 5 years of age, depending on what type of rhinitis they have been diagnosed with.

For those with seasonal allergic rhinitis, patients from 5 to 11 years of age should administer 1 spray in each nostril twice daily.

Patients 12 years of age and older with seasonal allergic rhinitis should administer 2 sprays of Astelin in each nostril twice daily.

For those with nonallergic vasomotor rhinitis, patients 12 years of age and older should administer 2 sprays of Astelin in each nostril twice daily.

Before using Astelin for the first time, remove the child-resistant screw cap and replace with the pump unit. Prime the delivery system (pump unit) with four sprays or until a fine mist appears. If 3 days or more have elapsed since your last use of the nasal spray, reprime the pump with two sprays or until a fine mist appears.


If you overdose Astelin and you don't feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.


Store at a room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and sunlight. Keep in a tightly closed container. Throw away the after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children.

Side effects

The most common side effects associated with Astelin are:

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Side effect occurrence does not only depend on medication you are taking, but also on your overall health and other factors.


Do not take Astelin if you are allergic to Astelin components.

It is not known whether Astelin will harm an unborn baby. Do not use this medicine without your doctor's advice if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

The medicine has a antihistamine in it. Before you start any new medicine, check the label to see if it has an antihistamine (e.g., diphenhydramine) in it too. If it does or if you are not sure, check with your doctor or pharmacist.

Astelin may cause harm if it is swallowed. If you may have taken it by mouth, contact your poison control center or emergency room right away.

Astelin should be used with extreme caution in children younger than 5 years old; safety and effectiveness in these children have not been confirmed.

Do not drink alcohol or use medicines that may cause drowsiness (e.g., sleep aids, muscle relaxers) while you are using Astelin; it may add to their effects. Ask your pharmacist if you have questions about which medicines may cause drowsiness.

Astelin may cause drowsiness. These effects may be worse if you take it with alcohol or certain medicines. Use Astelin with caution. Do not drive or perform other possibly unsafe tasks until you know how you react to it.

Do not stop taking Astelin suddenly.

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This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 2-week comparative study was conducted during the 2004 fall allergy season in patients with moderate to severe SAR. After a 1-week placebo lead-in period, patients were randomized to receive azelastine nasal spray 2 sprays per nostril twice daily plus placebo tablets or cetirizine 10-mg tablets once daily plus a placebo saline nasal spray for the 2-week double-blind treatment period. The primary efficacy variables were (1) change from baseline to day 14 in the 12-hour reflective total nasal symptom score (TNSS), which combines scores for rhinorrhea, sneezing, itchy nose, and nasal congestion, and (2) onset of action, based on the instantaneous TNSS over 4 hours after the first dose of study drug. During the double-blind treatment period, patients recorded their symptom scores on diary cards twice daily (morning and evening). Patients aged > or =18 years also completed the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) at baseline and on day 14.

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Antiallergic effects of AL-3264 (N-[4-[4-(diphenylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]butyl]-3-(6-methyl-3- pyridyl)acrylamide, CAS 118420-47-6) were compared with those of ketotifen, oxatomide, azelastine and tranilast in experimental animals. AL-3264 inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in rats with an ED50 value of 6.1 mg/kg p.o. In inhibiting PCA, AL-3264 was the most potent among the antiallergic drugs examined. The anti-PCA effect of AL-3264 was long-lasting. Tolerance was not produced by repeated administration of AL-3264. AL-3264 inhibited antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in actively sensitized rats and in passively sensitized guinea pigs, with ED50 values of 14.5 and 0.44 mg/kg p.o., respectively. In the in vitro experiments, AL-3264 inhibited 5-lipoxygenase activity of guinea pig leukocytes with an IC50 value of 4.9 mumol/l, being the most potent among antiallergic drugs examined, and suppressed the antigen-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells with an IC50 value of 12.2 mumol/l. AL-3264 antagonized histamine-induced contractions in isolated guinea pig trachea with an IC50 value of 0.16 mumol/l. These results suggest that AL-3264 is an orally active, potent and long-lasting antiallergic compound which inhibits 5-lipoxygenase activity, histamine release and histamine H1 receptors at the similar concentrations.

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Azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) is an anti-allergic drug that inhibits the release of various chemical mediators from mast cells. We compared the immunosuppressive effects of AZE and FK-506 in vivo and in vitro. Topical application of AZE strongly inhibited the efferent phase of contact hypersensitivity, as did application of FK-506. In in vitro experiments, we found that 1) the suppression by AZE on interleukin (IL)-2 production from splenic T cells was partial and considerably large amounts of IL-2 were still produced, even in the presence of 10(-5) M of AZE, which was in sharp contrast to the observed marked inhibition of [3H]-TdR incorporation; 2) AZE significantly inhibited the phorbol myristate acetate-induced IL-2 responsiveness; 3) AZE did not inhibit the IL-2 receptor alpha expression of activated T cells; and 4) the significant inhibitory action was still observed even when AZE was added at 48 h after the initiation of culture. In regard to FK-506, we found that 1) FK-506 completely blocked the production of IL-2; 2) exogeneous IL-2 consistently restored the FK-506-induced inhibition; 3) FK-506 affected the phorbol myristate acetate-induced IL-2 responsiveness very little, if any; and 4) the significant suppression was observed only when FK-506 was added within 24 h after the initiation of culture. Thus, AZE exerts its in vitro immunosuppressive activity preferentially by interfering with the IL-2 responsiveness, with partial inhibition of IL-2 production. Conversely, FK-506 acts as a strong inhibitor of IL-2 production without a prominent effect on IL-2 responsiveness. The immunosuppressive activity of AZE shown in vitro may also be operative in vivo and may be applicable for topical use.

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Three multicenter, randomized, double-blind studies were conducted to determine whether patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis who had responded inadequately to monotherapy with either an oral antihistamine or an intranasal corticosteroid, and who were candidates for combination therapy with both an oral antihistamine and an intranasal corticosteroid, could be effectively treated with azelastine nasal spray monotherapy.

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The results of this study indicate that the therapeutic use of azelastine eye drops in patients with seasonal allergic conjunctivitis or rhino-conjunctivitis can be recommended.

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Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro.

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The present study was undertaken to examine the influence of antihistamines on TARC and MDC production from CD14+ cells after antigenic stimulation in vitro.

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Azelastine rhinitis medications (nasal spray and tablets) have been shown to relieve the symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Nevertheless, many rhinitic subjects suffer from acute exacerbations of symptoms that sometimes require additional treatment.

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The present data do not support the thesis that the increased plasma histamine concentration is causally related to pruritus in hemodialysis patients or that the antiallergic drug, azelastin HCL, alleviates the pruritus of dialysis patients by decreasing plasma histamine levels. The possible role of the increased tissue levels of histamine remains to be studied.

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The introduction of a topically active H1-antihistamine nasal spray Azelastine, has given an extra dimension in the management of allergic rhinitis. The drug acts rapidly and avoids the systemic adverse effects of antihistimines. An objective prospective study was performed to detect the effect of Azelastine nasal spray on nasal airway resistance. Twelve healthy adult volunteers with no rhinological problems were included in the study. Nasal cavities were sprayed with 280 micrograms (two puffs) of Azelastine nasal spray and the nasal airway resistance was measured with anterior rhinomanometry at intervals of 30 minutes for up to two hours. Our study has shown a statistically significant increase in the total nasal airway resistance following the use of Azelastine nasal spray in the absence of a subjective change in nasal airway resistance. There are substances when inhaled which can cause subjective improvement in nasal airway patency without changing the measured nasal airway resistance. However this medication gives no subjective change in nasal airway patency in spite of increasing nasal airway resistance.

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Intranasal corticosteroids and intranasal antihistamines are efficacious topical therapies in the treatment of allergic rhinitis. This review addresses their relative roles in the management of this disease, focusing on their safety and tolerability profiles. The intranasal route of administration delivers drug directly to the target organ, thereby minimising the potential for the systemic adverse effects that may be evident with oral therapy. Furthermore, the topical route of delivery enables the use of lower doses of medication. Such therapies, predominantly available as aqueous formulations following the ban of chlorofluorocarbon propellants, have minimal local adverse effects. Intranasal application of therapy can induce sneezing in the hyper-reactive nose, and transient local irritation has been described with certain formulations. Intranasal administration of corticosteroids is associated with minor nose bleeding in a small proportion of recipients. This effect has been attributed to the vasoconstrictor activity of the corticosteroid molecules, and is considered to account for the very rare occurrence of nasal septal perforation. Nasal biopsy studies do not show any detrimental structural effects within the nasal mucosa with long-term administration of intranasal corticosteroids. Much attention has focused on the systemic safety of intranasal application. When administered at standard recommended therapeutic dosage, the intranasal antihistamines do not cause significant sedation or impairment of psychomotor function, effects that would be evident when these agents are administered orally at a therapeutically relevant dosage. The systemic bioavailability of intranasal corticosteroids varies from <1% to up to 40-50% and influences the risk of systemic adverse effects. Because the dose delivered topically is small, this is not a major consideration, and extensive studies have not identified significant effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with continued treatment. A small effect on growth has been reported in one study in children receiving a standard dosage over 1 year, however. This has not been found in prospective studies with the intranasal corticosteroids that have low systemic bioavailability and therefore the judicious choice of intranasal formulation, particularly if there is concurrent corticosteroid inhalation for asthma, is prudent. There is no evidence that such considerations are relevant to shorter-term use, such as in intermittent or seasonal disease. Intranasal therapy, which represents a major mode of drug delivery in allergic rhinitis, thus has a very favourable benefit/risk ratio and is the preferred route of administration for corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease, as well as an important option for antihistaminic therapy, particularly if rapid symptom relief is required.

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In all three studies a total of 1,070 patients were randomized to double-blind treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of patients treated with azelastine nasal spray versus patients treated with a combination of loratadine tablets and beclomethasone nasal spray who did not require additional anti-rhinitis medication (32% to 45% and 39% to 46%, respectively). The patient global evaluation indicated that 77% to 84% of the patients treated with azelastine nasal spray had symptomatic improvement and 85% to 90% of the patients treated with loratadine tablets and beclomethasone nasal spray had symptomatic improvement. The most commonly reported adverse experience with azelastine nasal spray was a transient aftertaste (8%), while the most commonly reported adverse experience with loratadine tablets and beclomethasone nasal spray in combination was headache (6%).

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Nociceptin, the endogenous peptide ligand for opioid receptor like-1 (ORL1) receptor, has been implicated in the inflammation and pain in the skin. We examined whether nociceptin is a pruritogen in mice. Intradermal injections of nociceptin (1-100 nmol per site) concentration dependently increased scratching in ICR mice; the effect started within 1 min, peaked at 10-20 min, and almost subsided by 30 min. The nociceptin action was absent in ORL1 receptor-deficient (ORL1(-/-)) mice. Systemic, but not local, treatment with naloxone significantly inhibited scratching induced by nociceptin. The action of nociceptin was inhibited by the leukotriene B(4) receptor antagonist ONO-4057 and azelastine, which inhibits the action and production of leukotriene B(4) in the skin. Prepronociceptin and ORL1 receptor mRNAs were substantially expressed in the skin, whereas their expression levels were very low in the dorsal root ganglia. In the skin, nociceptin- and ORL1 receptor-like immunoreactivities were localized in the epidermis. Administration of nociceptin to primary cultures of keratinocytes from ICR and C57BL/6 (ORL1(+/+)) mice, but not ORL1(-/-) mice, produced leukotriene B(4). The results suggest that nociceptin acts on ORL1 receptor on the keratinocytes to produce leukotriene B(4), which induces itch-associated responses in mice.

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In this 2-week study in patients with moderate to severe SAR, azelastine nasal spray was well tolerated and produced significantly greater improvements in TNSS and total RQLQ score compared with cetirizine.

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A liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) was validated to determine azelastine in human plasma. Azelastine and internal standard (IS, clomipramine) were separated using a mobile phase of acetonitrile:(5 mM)-ammonium acetate solution (70:30, v/v, pH=6.4) with flow rate of 0.25 mL/min over YMC C8 column. One mL of plasma was extracted by n-hexane: 2-propanol (97:3, v/v) and then injected into HPLC system after reconstitution by acetonitrile: (5 mM)-ammonium acetate (1:1, v/v) solution. Detection was carried out on API5000 MS system by multiple reactions monitoring mode. The ionization was optimized using ESI (+) and selectivity was achieved at m/z 382.2→112.2 for azelastine and m/z 315.3→228.0 for IS. Total run-time (<2.0 min) and linearity (10 (LLOQ) ~5000 pg/mL) were good. No endogenous compounds were found around the retention time. The inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy were 4.13~17.91% and 87.57~109.70%, respectively. This validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in 23 healthy Korean male volunteers from the blood samples taken up to 96 h after orally administered 2 tablets of 1 mg of reference and test formulations of azelastine in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. The mean peak plasma concentrations (Cmax ± SD) of 1.02 ± 0.37 and 1.10 ± 0.43 ng/mL were reached at 5.9 and 5.6 h for reference and test azelastine, respectively. The mean total area under the curve (AUC0-infinity) were 25.96 ± 10.84 and 28.24 ± 11.09 ng·h/mL for reference and test formulations, respectively. The reference and test azelastine formulations can be considered bioequivalent from the obtained pharmacokinetics by LC-ESI/MS/MS.

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To evaluate the efficacy of olopatadine in suppressing symptoms and biomarkers of the immediate reaction induced by nasal allergen provocation and to compare olopatadine with azelastine in the same model.

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H1-type antihistamines have recently been reported to inhibit cytokine secretion from human and murine mast cells and basophils. In order to confirm and expand these studies, we have compared several H1-blockers and the H2-blocker ranitidine for their effect on TNF-alpha, IL-3, 6, 8 and GM-CSF release from human leukemic mast (HMC-1) and basophilic (KU812) cells, compared to dexamethasone. Cells were stimulated for 24 h with phorbol myristate acetate (25 ng/ml) and calcium ionophore A 23187 (2.5x10(-7) M) alone or with the drugs added at 10(-4) to 10(-15) M, and production of cytokines was measured by ELISA. All antihistamines caused a dose-dependent inhibition of TNF-alpha release from HMC-1 cells, with maximal effects at 10(-12) M for azelastine, 10(-9) M for loratadine and cetirizine, and 10(-8) M for ranitidine. The inhibitory potency of H1-blockers on cytokines from HMC-1 cells was TNF-alpha >IL-8> or =IL-6> or =IL-3, with no significant effects on GM-CSF. In KU812 cells which failed to secrete TNF-alpha and GM-CSF, the sequence was IL-6 >IL-8 after preincubation. Dexamethasone inhibited all cytokines, but ranitidine only TNF-alpha and IL-3. Antihistamines had no effect on calcium flux in resting or stimulated cells. At the mRNA level, inhibition was only seen with KU812 cells and IL-8 in the presence of azelastine at 10-(10) M. These data show thus distinct inhibitory patterns for different antihistamines during cytokine production from human mast cells and basophils which may contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects of these drugs during treatment of allergic diseases.

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The action spectrum of solar urticaria varies among cases. In addition, light spectra outside the activating wavelengths can influence the wheal formation in selected patients.

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To determine the efficacy and safety of azelastine nasal spray, 1 spray per nostril twice daily, in patients with SAR.

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Mast cells are involved in allergic inflammation by secreting histamine, proteases and several cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-8. Certain histamine-1 receptor antagonists, such as azelastine present in the ophthalmic solution Optivar, have been reported to inhibit histamine and tryptase secretion, but its effect on inflammatory cytokine release from normal human umbilical cord blood-derived cultured mast cells (hCBMC) are not well known.

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We examined effects of six oral anti-allergy drugs used to treat bronchial asthma on fMet-Leu-Phe (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine)-induced superoxide (O2-) generation and mobilization of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in human neutrophils. We also evaluated the direct action of these drugs on NADPH (reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-oxidase activity in cell lysate (cell-free system). Ketotifen (25 approximately 200 microM) enhanced fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated O2- generation and [Ca2+]i mobilization, although it directly inhibited NADPH oxidase in the cell-free study. Low concentrations of oxatomide (5-20 microM) enhanced O2- generation, but concentrations > 25 microM inhibited O2- generation. In concentrations below 20 microM, oxatomide had no effects on fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated [Ca2+]i mobilization, but at concentrations above 25 microM, it inhibited [Ca2+]i mobilization. Oxatomide inhibited NADPH oxidase activity at all concentrations examined. Azelastine, pemirolast, tranilast, and repirinast inhibited O2- generation and [Ca2+]i mobilization. Azelastine and pemirolast directly inhibited NADPH oxidase, but tranilast and repirinast did not. Our results indicated that except for ketotifen and low concentration of oxatomide, oral anti-allergy drugs used to treat bronchial asthma inhibited fMet-Leu-Phe-induced O2- generation in human neutrophils. Based on IC50 values, potency of drugs was as follows: oxatomide > azelastine > tranilast > pemirolast > repirinast.

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Azelastine, a newly synthesized antiallergic agent, strikingly inhibited the production of leukotriene B4 and C4 (LTB4 and LTC4) in murine peritoneal cells which had been stimulated by calcium ionophore A23187. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the agent were approximately 1.0 x 10(-5) M. In addition, azelastine significantly inhibited also 5-lipoxygenase activity in peritoneal cells with an IC50 of 1.0 x 10(-5) M, but not on LTC4 synthetase, LTA4 hydrolase or phospholipase A2 activity. Furthermore, azelastine showed little effect on either 12-lipoxygenase activity or thromboxane synthesis in human platelets. These results suggest that at least the drug's antiallergic effects can be attributed to its inhibiting action of 5-lipoxygenase in regard to arachidonate metabolism.

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A novel intranasal formulation of azelastine HCl (AZE, an antihistamine) and fluticasone propionate (FP, a corticosteroid) in a single spray (MP-AzeFlu [Dymista®]) was studied in four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis conducted in the US. Study sites were distributed so that all major US geographic regions and the prevalent pollens within these regions were represented. Spring and summer studies included patients aged 12 years and older with allergy to grass and tree pollens. Fall studies enrolled patients with allergy to weeds, in particular ragweed. In addition, a study was conducted during the winter months in patients with allergy to mountain cedar pollen in TX, USA. Regardless of allergy season or prevalent pollen, MP-AzeFlu improved nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR) to a significantly greater degree than AZE or FP, two treatments that currently are recommended as the first-line AR therapy. MP-AzeFlu improved all individual AR symptoms and was significantly better than FP and AZE for nasal congestion relief, which is generally accepted as the most bothersome symptom for AR patients. The onset of action was within 30 minutes. MP-AzeFlu also provided clinically important improvement in the overall Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score and significantly improved ocular symptoms of rhinitis compared to placebo. Favorable characteristics of the MP-AzeFlu formulation as well as superior clinical efficacy make it an ideal intranasal therapy for AR.

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A novel series of potent quinoline-based human H1 and H3 bivalent histamine receptor antagonists, suitable for intranasal administration for the potential treatment of allergic rhinitis associated nasal congestion, were identified. Compound 18b had slightly lower H1 potency (pA2 8.8 vs 9.7 for the clinical goldstandard azelastine), and H3 potency (pKi 9.1vs 6.8 for azelastine), better selectivity over α1A, α1B and hERG, similar duration of action, making 18b a good back-up compound to our previous candidate, but with a more desirable profile.

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The combination azelastine-fluticasone nasal spray provided statistically significant improvement in the TNSS and additive clinical benefit compared with either agent alone in patients with moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis.

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The use of mucoadhesive biopolymers is one of the best approaches to prolong the drug residence inside the cul-de-sac, consequently increasing the bioavailability. Thus, the focus of this work was to develop mucoadhesive microspheres to overcome the limitations of ocular drug delivery. The chitosan-sodium alginate microspheres of azelastine hydrochloride were fabricated using modified ionotropic gelation technique. The particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and drug release kinetics were evaluated and characterized by SEM, FT-IR, DSC, in vitro mucoadhesion and in vivo study. The microspheres had average particle size in the range of 3.55 to 6.70 µm and zeta potential +24.55 to +49.56 mV. The fabricated microspheres possess maximum drug entrapment of 73.05% with 65% mucin binding efficiency and revealed a controlled release over the 8-h period following a non-Fickian diffusion. SEM showed that microspheres were distinct solid with irregular shape. FT-IR and DSC results concluded the drug entrapment into microspheres. In vivo studies on ocular rat model revealed that azelastine microspheres had better efficacy. Chitosan sodium alginate microspheres prepared were in particle size range suitable for ocular purpose. In vitro release and in vivo efficacy studies revealed that the microspheres were effective in prolonging the drug's presence in cul de sac with improved therapeutic efficacy.

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astelin generic nasal 2015-10-18

Intranasal corticosteroids produced greater relief of nasal symptoms than did topical antihistamines (topical H1 receptor antagonists). However, there buy astelin was no difference in the relief of the ocular symptoms.

astelin dosage 2015-01-14

In a pilot open 'real-life buy astelin ' study treatment targeted towards rhinosinusitis accompanying PND syndrome and chronic cough led to an improvement in cough. A randomised controlled study is now needed to confirm or refute these findings.

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These results buy astelin confirm MP29-02's wide therapeutic spectrum and assert its consistent superiority over an intranasal corticosteroid.

astelin reviews 2017-11-28

MP29-02 simplifies AR management, surpassing the efficacy of gold standard treatment, intranasal corticosteroids (INS), for the first time. It is indicated for the treatment of moderate-to-severe seasonal allergic rhinitis and perennial allergic rhinitis when monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or INS is NOT considered sufficient. Most patients present with moderate/severe disease, with evidence of current or previous treatment insufficiency. MP29-02 should be the treatment of choice for these buy astelin patients.

astelin user reviews 2016-04-13

The mechanism of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is still controversial, although the role of chemical mediator is strongly suspected. In the present study, 50 asthmatic patients were observed after exercise on bicycle ergometer during dry air breathing, and changes of plasma histamine and neutrophil chemotactic factor (NCF) were measured and effect of anti-allergic drugs was examined. 31 patients developed postexertional bronchoconstriction and their % reduction of FEV1 after exercise correlated significantly with the degree of airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine determined by Astograph. Plasma histamine levels were examined in 20 EIA positive cases and 13 EIA negative cases, but no significant changes were observed between pre- and post-histamine levels in either group. On the other hand, NCF was elevated significantly after exercise in both EIA positive and negative cases, but postexertional NCF levels were significantly higher in EIA positive than in EIA negative cases. The relationship between % increase of NCF and the % reduction of FEV1 after exercise was buy astelin significant (r = 0.472, p less than 0.05). DSCG and Azelastine protected the development of EIA in 14 out on 19 cases and 7 out of 12 cases, respectively. Pretreatment with DSCG significantly reduced the increase of NCF after exercise. These results indicates that one of the chemical mediator, NCF, may play an important role in producing postexertional bronchoconstriction in asthmatic patients.

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Intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAMs), in particular ICAM-1, appear to play a crucial role in the recruitment and migration of inflammatory cells to the site of an allergic reaction. Glucocorticoids and allergen-specific immunotherapy have been shown to exert effects on selected components of this system, both in vitro and in vivo, but further research is required to better understand the effects of these therapies. Nasal and conjunctival challenge models (including natural and experimental allergen exposure) represent useful and safe tools for studying the activity of antiallergy drugs in vivo. These tests allow the investigation of a wide variety of parameters including inflammatory infiltrate, ICAM-1 expression, and changes in the concentration of soluble inflammatory mediators. With these tools, anti-inflammatory activity related to the modulation of epithelial cell adhesion molecules has been demonstrated in vivo for several H(1)-receptor antagonists (azelastine, cetirizine, loratadine, levocabastine, oxatomide, and terfenadine). Fexofenadine is a nonsedating, long-acting antihistamine with highly selective H(1)-receptor antagonist activity and a particularly favorable safety profile. In addition, fexofenadine has proven anti-inflammatory activity and buy astelin has been shown to inhibit a number of mediators at clinically relevant concentrations, including in vitro inhibition of ICAM-1 expression on conjunctival and nasal epithelial cells.

astelin cost 2015-07-09

Azelastine (CAS 58581-89-8) is a selective H1-receptor antagonist that inhibits histamine release and interferes with activation of other mediators of allergic inflammation. The present double-blind study aimed to evaluate azelastine eye drops (Allergodil) in patients with perennial allergic conjunctivitis compared to placebo. A total of 116 patients with an ocular symptoms score for itching and conjunctival redness > or = 3 (0-6 scale) were randomized to twice-daily 0.05% azelastine eye drops treatment (n = 58) or placebo. Patients maintained daily logs and were clinically evaluated after 7, 21 and 42 days of treatment. Azelastine significantly improved itching and conjunctival redness versus buy astelin placebo (p < 0.001). Tolerability was rated good or better by 97% of patients with only bitter taste and application site reaction notable adverse experiences. On Day 7, ocular symptoms score improved by 1.5 +/- 0.9 (versus 0.5 +/- 0.8 placebo) with score improvement > or = 2 in 55% with azelastine (versus 14% placebo). Itching and redness further improved at Day 42 (score improvement > or = 2 in 95% with azelastine versus 33% placebo) and completely resolved for 47% azelastine patients (versus 10% placebo). Daily patient logs confirmed the clinically assessed scores. Topical azelastine progressively improved itching and conjunctival redness in patients with moderate to severe perennial allergic conjunctivitis. Continued improvement with prolonged use is consistent with mechanisms other than H1-receptor blockade, such as possible down regulation of adhesion molecule receptors.

astelin pediatric dosage 2017-03-06

We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for seasonal allergic rhinitis in adolescents and adults? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important buy astelin databases up to September 2005 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

astelin review 2017-09-13

We previously reported a simple and easy-to-use device, Scratch Monitor for evaluation of nocturnal scratching. In the present study, the effect of an antihistamine (azelastine hydrochloride) on atopic dermatitis was investigated using this device. In 40 patients with atopic dermatitis, nocturnal scratching was measured buy astelin by the monitor, when taking the drug and while off medication. Neither the 'sleeping time' nor the 'pre-asleep time' differed significantly, but there was a significant difference in 'scratch rate', 'minute scratch records', 'hourly awake number' and 'awake rate', which indicated that this drug alleviated nocturnal scratching and sleep disturbance. The difference was most prominent especially in patients with a serum IgE > or = 1000 IU/ml as well as in patients with mild symptoms and normal serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The drug was more effective for nocturnal scratching in the early period, when the 'sleeping time' was divided into three equal parts (early, mid and late periods) and each period was compared.

astelin dosage instructions 2017-10-30

Azelastine is a phthalazinone derivative with H(1)-receptor binding approximately tenfold greater than chlorpheniramine on a milligram-per-milligram basis. Azelastine has demonstrated a wide range of pharmacologic effects on chemical mediators of inflammation including leukotrienes, kinins, and platelet activating factor in vitro and in vivo. The molecule also has been shown to downregulate intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression and to reduce inflammatory cell migration in patients with rhinitis. Well-controlled studies in SAR and VMR demonstrated that azelastine nasal spray improves nasal symptoms of rhinitis, including congestion and postnasal drip, and has a rapid onset of action that appears buy astelin likely due to topical activity. Azelastine nasal spray has demonstrated greater efficacy when used in combination with fluticasone propionate nasal spray when compared to either agent alone, and this combination may provide benefit for patients with moderate-to-severe rhinitis. Bitter taste is the most common side effect associated with azelastine nasal spray and this problem can be mitigated by the dosing technique recommended by the manufacturer in the product labeling. The incidence of somnolence also may be reduced with the recommended administration technique.

astelin usual dosage 2015-05-01

The concept of relative activity factor (RAF) to extrapolate data obtained with recombinant cytochrome P450(CYP)s to human liver microsomes has been proposed. To evaluate the approach to predict the contribution of multiple CYPs using RAF, we investigated the effects of the differences in the expression levels of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (OR) and cytochrome b(5) (b(5)) in recombinant CYPs from baculovirus-infected insect cells and the differences in the marker activities. Because we previously clarified that azelastine, an antiallergy and antiasthmatic drug, is N-demethylated by CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 in humans, the reaction was used as a model. For calculation of RAF, three lots of recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 from baculovirus-infected insect buy astelin cells with different expression levels of OR and b(5) were used. The OR/CYP ratios for recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were 3.9-4.8, 5.1-8.7, and 8.0-11.3, respectively. The b(5)/CYP ratio for recombinant CYP3A4 was 2.1-18.7. As marker activities, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation and phenacetin O-deethylation for CYP1A2, bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation and debrisoquin 4-hydroxylation for CYP2D6, testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation and midazolam 1'-hydroxylation for CYP3A4 were compared. Our results indicated that the differences in the expression levels of OR and b(5) coexpressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells would not be a critical factor for the quantitative prediction using RAF. In addition, we confirmed that differences in the marker activities did not significantly affect the calculation of RAF values, when the marker activities are specific for a certain CYP isoform. It was suggested that the RAF approach using recombinant CYPs from baculovirus-infected insect cells coexpressing OR (and b(5) if required) could be valuable for the prediction of the contribution of each CYP in drug metabolism.

astelin tablet 2015-08-11

Allergic rhinitis affects over 20% of the UK population. It can have a significant impact on quality of life and interferes with both attendance and performance at school and at work.1 Intranasal corticosteroids are widely recognised as the most effective symptomatic treatment available, but oral or intranasal new generation antihistamines are usually offered as first-line treatment for intermittent symptoms.1,2 Patients with moderate to buy astelin severe allergic rhinitis may require a combination of drugs, and many patients only achieve limited control of their symptoms.3 Dymista is described as a novel intranasal formulation combining the antihistamine azelastine hydrochloride with the corticosteroid fluticasone propionate.3 It is licensed for the relief of symptoms of moderate to severe seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and adolescents if monotherapy with either intranasal antihistamine or glucocorticoid is not considered sufficient.4 The manufacturer claims that compared with fluticasone or azelastine alone, Dymista is twice as effective (when placebo effect is excluded) in providing relief from both nasal and ocular symptoms, and leads to greater overall relief from nasal symptoms. It also claims that Dymista controls nasal symptoms up to 6 days faster than fluticasone.5 Here we consider the evidence for Dymista and whether it represents a significant advantage in the management of patients with allergic rhinitis.

astelin maximum dosage 2016-09-04

Cell damage by the topical ocular antiallergic agents (azelastine hydrochloride, ketotifen fumarate, and olopatadine hydrochloride) was determined by using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay with the rate of dilution of 10, 20, and 30%, respectively, for buy astelin a period of 0 and 30 min and 4, 12, and 24 h, and compared with the balanced salt solution-treated group. The osmolarity, pH, composition of electrolytes, preservatives, and morphologic findings of all the antiallergic agents were also evaluated.

astelin generic name 2016-06-03

We examined effects of six oral anti-allergy drugs used to treat bronchial asthma on fMet-Leu-Phe (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine)-induced superoxide (O2-) generation and mobilization of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) in human neutrophils. We also evaluated the direct action of these drugs on NADPH (reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-oxidase activity in cell lysate (cell-free system). Ketotifen (25 approximately 200 microM) enhanced fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated O2- generation and [Ca2+]i mobilization, although it directly inhibited NADPH oxidase in the cell-free study. Low concentrations of oxatomide (5-20 microM) enhanced O2- generation, but concentrations > 25 microM inhibited O2- generation. In concentrations below 20 microM, oxatomide had Lexapro Generic Alternative no effects on fMet-Leu-Phe-stimulated [Ca2+]i mobilization, but at concentrations above 25 microM, it inhibited [Ca2+]i mobilization. Oxatomide inhibited NADPH oxidase activity at all concentrations examined. Azelastine, pemirolast, tranilast, and repirinast inhibited O2- generation and [Ca2+]i mobilization. Azelastine and pemirolast directly inhibited NADPH oxidase, but tranilast and repirinast did not. Our results indicated that except for ketotifen and low concentration of oxatomide, oral anti-allergy drugs used to treat bronchial asthma inhibited fMet-Leu-Phe-induced O2- generation in human neutrophils. Based on IC50 values, potency of drugs was as follows: oxatomide > azelastine > tranilast > pemirolast > repirinast.

astelin pediatric dose 2016-01-22

Azelastine displayed a statistically significant Betnovate To Buy improvement in TNSS compared with placebo at all time points from 15 minutes through 6 hours post dose. Azelastine, cetirizine, and loratadine reduced TNSS compared to placebo with an onset of action of 15 (p < 0.001), 60 (p = 0.015), and 75 (p = 0.034) minutes, respectively. The overall assessment of efficacy was rated as good or very good by 46% of the participants for azelastine, 51% of the participants for cetirizine, and 30% of the participants for loratadine compared to 18% of the participants for placebo.

astelin tablets 2016-03-30

We gave Mao-bushi-saishin-to, a Chinese blended medicine, and azelastine to an adult patient with hay fever due to Aciphex 20 Pill Japanese cedar pollen and measured nasal resistance and ambient floating pollen counts throughout the time of Japanese cedar pollination in separated years. In the patient Mao-bushi-saishin-to was effective against preseasonal increases in nasal airway resistance but could not control severe episodes of allergic rhinitis caused by high dose exposure to Japanese cedar pollen and also perhaps caused by a priming effect. Azelastine inhibited both pre- and post-seasonal increases in nasal airway resistance but not only on high pollen counts days.

astelin drug 2015-06-06

Crystalline BKC and BKC-containing intranasal medications, including fluticasone propionate, azelastine hydrochloride and levocabastine hydrochloride, but not PS or Zanaflex Online PS-containing intranasal budesonide spray, led to irreversible ciliostasis in human nasal epithelial cell cultures when applied at clinically relevant concentrations.

astelin buy 2016-03-18

The model membranes examined consisted of the argon-buffer interface and monomolecular films of 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero- Mysoline Tablets 3-phosphocholine (SOPC) at the argon-buffer interface. Interactions with the model membranes were detected as changes in surface tension, i.e., surface pressure. Functional consequences of these interactions were assessed with natural membranes by 6-carboxyfluorescein leakage, hemoglobin release, lactate dehydrogenase release, and histamine release from appropriate cell types.

astelin generic otc 2017-01-22

• The topical second generation anti-histamine azelastine hydrochloride (AZE) and the potent corticosteroid fluticasone propionate (FP) are well established first-line treatments in allergic rhinitis (AR). • MP29-02, a novel intranasal AZE and FP formulation, has been shown to control AR symptoms faster and better than standard intranasal AZE or FP. • The systemic bioavailabilities of marketed AZE and FP Propecia Online Prescription nasal spray products have been established at about 40% and 1% only, respectively. • For new combination medicinal products such as MP29-02, the determination of possible pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions between both active components and formulation-based bioavailability alterations is essential.

astelin online pharmacy 2016-08-08

Evaluation of the number of microflora revealed increased bacterial reproduction after treatment, but this difference was not statistically significant. The use of azelastine nasal spray decreased the reproduction of three potentially pathogenic bacteria; however, it did not affect the reproduction of other potentially pathogenic Zithromax Drug Classification bacteria.

astelin patient reviews 2015-08-08

Azelastine nasal spray (Allergodil((R)), Lastin((R)), Afluon((R)); Meda AB, Stockholm, Sweden) is a fast-acting, efficacious and well-tolerated H1-receptor antagonist for the treatment of rhinitis. In addition it also has mast-cell stabilizing and anti-inflammatory properties, reducing the concentration of leukotrienes, kinins and platelet activating factor in vitro and in vivo, as well as inflammatory cell migration in rhinitis patients. Well-controlled studies in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR), perennial rhinitis (PR) or vasomotor rhinitis (VMR) confirm that azelastine nasal spray has a rapid onset of action, and improves nasal symptoms associated with rhinitis such as nasal congestion and post-nasal drip. Azelastine nasal spray is effective at the lower dose of 1 spray as well at a dose of 2 sprays per nostril twice daily, but with an improved tolerability profile compared to the 2-spray per nostril twice daily regimen. Compared with intranasal corticosteroids, azelastine nasal spray has a faster onset of action and a better safety profile, showing at least comparable efficacy with fluticasone propionate (Flonase((R)); GSK, USA), and a superior efficacy to mometasone furoate (Nasonex Claritin Dosage Tablet ((R)); Schering Plough, USA). In combination with fluticasone propionate, azelastine nasal spray exhibits greater efficacy than either agent used alone, and this combination may provide benefit for patients with difficult to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis. In addition, azelastine nasal spray can be used on an as-needed basis without compromising clinical efficacy. Compared with oral antihistamines, azelastine nasal spray also demonstrates superior efficacy and a more rapid onset of action, and is effective even in patients who did not respond to previous oral antihistamine therapy. Unlike most oral antihistamines, azelastine nasal spray is effective in alleviating nasal congestion, a particularly bothersome symptom for rhinitis sufferers. Azelastine nasal spray is well tolerated in both adults and children with allergic rhinitis. Bitter taste which seems to be associated with incorrect dosing technique is the most common side effect reported by patients, but this problem can be minimized by correct dosing technique.

astelin medicine 2017-03-10

We compared the effect of nasal azelastine (0.56 mg/day), nasal beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP, 200 micrograms/day) and matched placebo on seasonal symptoms, nasal cytology, and the increase in bronchial responsiveness occurring during pollen season in Precose Dosing a group of subjects with history of allergic rhinitis to grass pollens only.

astelin generic 2016-10-29

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the corticosteroids, the antihistamines, and Nexium Usual Dosage the preservatives benzalkonium chloride (BKC) and potassium sorbate (PS) in intranasal medications on human nasal epithelial ciliary beat frequency (CBF).

astelin drug interactions 2015-09-15

A normal ciliary beat frequency of ciliated cells is necessary for the mucociliary clearance of the nose and paranasal sinuses. An in vitro investigation was performed to evaluate the influence of topical corticosteroids and antihistamines on the ciliary beat frequency of human nasal mucosa. The nasal sprays examined contained the corticosteroids budesonide or fluticasone propionate and the topical antihistamines azelastine or levocabastine. All tests were performed on cell cultures of human nasal mucosa during constant conditions. Three of the four nasal sprays tested contained benzalkonium chloride as preservative. An irreversible cessation of ciliary movement was observed in all cells exposed to nasal sprays containing benzalkonium chloride in a 50 per cent solution. The nasal spray containing budesonide was Bactrim Buy Online benzalkonium chloride-free and caused minor but fully reversible decreases in ciliary beat frequency after 20 min. As benzalkonium chloride can cause complete standstill of ciliary beat frequency in vitro in human nasal mucosa, we recommend that this preservative should not be used anymore in topical nasal medications.

astelin dosage adults 2015-11-05

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of antiallergic agents on the functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in terms of its arachidonic acid release and superoxide-anion generation. The stimulations of arachidonic acid release by formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) were effectively diminished by 20 microM of azelastine as well as clemastine. Challenges of 20 microM and 50 microM of these agents inhibited approximately 50% and 100% of the Botox And Alcohol arachidonic acid release, respectively. On the contrary, inhibitions of over 50% were not caused by cromoglycate, chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine at concentrations up to 50 microM. The potency of the above examined drugs on the superoxide generations from PMNs were similar to the effects of arachidonic acid release. Ketotifen, however, showed intermediate effects indicating that a challenge of 50 microM ketotifen inhibited approximately 50% of the arachidonic acid release without having an effect on the superoxide generation. These experimental observations suggested that one of the important roles of the antiallergic agents including azelastine (known as a chemical mediator release inhibitor) and clemastine (known as a histamine H1 receptor antagonist) could be an inhibition of the first step of the arachidonic acid cascade.

astelin dosing 2015-07-04

fifteen physically active males with allergic rhinitis or rhinoconjunctivitis were selected as subjects (experimental group, EXP). Fifteen physically active, healthy subjects served as controls. Subjects performed a maximal incremental exercise test on a bicycle ergometer (ramp protocol) before and after a 5-day treatment period. During the 5 days, EXP group subjects were treated with azelastine (intranasal dose of 0.56 mg/day). The following variables were recorded before and after treatment: power output (W), HR (beats.min-1), VO2 (, minute ventilation (VE, in 1.min-1), and oxygen pulse (VO2.HR-1, in ml.beat -1). Blood lactate concentrations (mmol.l-1) were also determined using capillary blood samples (25 microliters).

astelin dosage form 2016-07-21

A total of 36 potentially relevant studies were identified. Of these, five crossover trials, enrolling a total of 71 patients (63 adults), met the eligibility criteria. All five of these studies were judged to be at moderate or high risk of bias. Two studies compared an H1 -antihistamine with placebo, two compared two different H1 -antihistamines, and one study compared H1 - and H2 -antihistamines with oral cromolyn sodium. Four of the five randomized controlled trials were historic (reported from 1983-1993), small (enrolling 8-15 patients), and used agents and/or dosing regimens that are now less commonly used in clinical practice (i.e. azelastine, chlorpheniramine, hydroxyzine, and ketotifen). The fifth trial, which enrolled 33 adults with cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis found 4 weeks of treatment with the second-generation H1 -antihistamine rupatadine, compared with placebo, resulted in significant improvements in quality of life, symptom control (itching, wheals and flares, flushing, tachycardia, and headache, but not gastrointestinal symptoms), and reduction in itching and whealing after standardized skin provocation to elicit Darier's sign.

astelin alcohol 2015-06-03

All of the patients who participated in the trials had a diagnosis of VMR, symptoms for at least 1 year, negative skin tests for a mixed panel of seasonal and perennial allergens, and a nasal cytology examination negative for eosinophils. After a 1-week, single-blind, placebo lead-in period, patients who met the symptom severity qualification criteria were randomized to receive either azelastine nasal spray (two sprays per nostril twice daily, 1.1 mg/day) or placebo nasal spray for 21 days. Patients recorded the severity of their VMR symptoms on diary cards each morning and evening of the trial using a four-point symptom rating scale (0 = none to 3 = severe). The primary efficacy variable was the overall reduction from baseline in the total vasomotor rhinitis symptom score (TVRSS) over the 21-day, double-blind treatment period.

astelin spray dosage 2016-11-15

These results indicate that acute stress increases skin CRH that can trigger mast cell-dependent vascular permeability, effects inhibited by certain histamine-1 receptor antagonists, possibly acting to reduce intracellular Ca(2+) ion levels.