Organic extract obtained from the T. arjuna bark and leaves may be used to treat the bacterial ear pathogens especially S. aureus, which has shown greater inhibition zones than the herbal drops, however, we still need more detailed studies as in vivo testing and pharmacokinetics properties for their therapeutic utility in treating ear infections.
The effect of bark powder of Terminalia arjuna, an indigenous drug, on anginal frequency, blood pressure, body mass index, blood sugar, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol was studied in 15 stable (Group A) and 5 unstable (Group B) angina patients before and 3 months after T. arjuna therapy. Tread mill test (TMT) and echocardiographic left ventricular ejection fraction was evaluated in some cases. There was 50% reduction in anginal episodes in Group A cases (P < 0.01). TMT performance improved from moderate to mild changes in 5 patients and one with mild changes became negative for ischemia. The time to the onset of angina and appearance of ST-T changes on TMT after T. arjuna was delayed significantly. However, in patients with unstable angina there was an insignificant reduction in anginal frequency. These patients also needed diltiazem, B-blockers and nitroglycerine in addition to T. arjuna. The drug lowered systolic blood pressure and body mass index to a significant level (p < 0.05) and increased HDL-cholesterol only slightly along with marginal improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction in stable angina patients. There were no deleterious effects on liver or kidney functions. Our results suggest that monotherapy with T. arjuna is fairly effective in patients with symptoms of stable angina pectoris. However, it has a limited role in unstable angina.
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RCTs generally received high quality scores and improved by decade of publication. More than 50% of garlic, more than 80% of guggul, and 100% of Arjuna RCTs reported product effectiveness. Safety scores did not improve by decade. The QEDs received medium and high quality scores, and 93% of them reported effectiveness. The QEDs had a higher mean score for safety reporting than the RCTs.
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Candida species were more prevalent in patients having predisposing factors implicated in oral candidosis, such as in smokers, diabetic patients and asthmatic patients using inhalation steroids. C. albicans was the most prevalent species isolated, followed by C. dubliniensis.
Urinary stones are one of the oldest and the most common afflictions in humans. This disease has tormented humans since the earliest records of civilization. Ten percent of men and 3 % of women have a stone during their adult lives. Calcium containing stones are the most common comprising about 75 % of all urinary calculi, which may be in the form of pure calcium oxalate (50 %) or calcium phosphate (5 %) or a mixture of both (45 %). A number of plants have been mentioned in the Indian ayurvedic system, which plays a vital role in the inhibition of kidney stones. In the present study, the inhibitory potency of crude extracts or fractions of successive solvent extractions of Terminalia arjuna bark was evaluated on various stages of formation of calcium phosphate and on the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro. Results obtained indicated that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to inhibit the formation of both calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate crystals in vitro. Butanol fraction of Terminalia arjuna extract was the most effective in inhibiting formation of calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate crystals in vitro.
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Adherence of Candida has been implicated as the initial process in the pathogenesis of oral candidosis. Candidal germ tubes and its relative cell-surface hydrophobicity (CSH) are contributory attributes. Candida dubliniensis is currently documented as an opportunistic pathogen allied with recurrent oral candidosis. Oral candidosis can be treated with polyene and azole antifungals such as amphotericin B, ketoconazole and fluconazole. However, the intraoral concentration of these drugs fluctuates and becomes sub-therapeutic because of the diluent effect of saliva and cleansing effect of the oral musculature. Hence, intraorally, the pathogenic yeast may undergo a brief exposure to antifungal drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of brief exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these antifungals on the germ tube formation and CSH of C. dubliniensis. After determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of the drugs, 20 oral isolates of C. dubliniensis were exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of these antifungals for 1 h. Following this brief exposure, the drugs were removed, and following subsequent incubation in a germ tube inducing medium and exposure to bi-phasic hydrocarbon assay, the germ tube formation and CSH of these isolates was quantified respectively. Compared with controls, exposure to amphotericin B almost completely suppressed the ability to form germ tubes with a mean percentage reduction of 95.91% (P < 0.0001), whereas ketoconazole and fluconazole also significantly inhibited germ tube formation but to a lesser degree with a mean percentage reduction of 18.73% and 12.01% respectively (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, exposure to amphotericin B and ketoconazole elicited a significant suppression on CSH with a mean percentage reduction of 33.09% and 21.42%, respectively (P < 0.001), whereas exposure to fluconazole did not elicit a significant suppression on CSH (9.21%; P > 0.05). In clinical terms it appears that, even a short exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of these drugs, a situation all too familiar in the oral environment, would continue to exert an antifungal effect by suppressing the pathogenic potency of C. dubliniensis.
The present study was designed to develop safer, effective, and viable cardioprotective herbal combination to control oxidative stress related cardiac ailments as new alternatives to synthetic drugs. The synergetic cardioprotective potential of herbal combination of four plants T. arjuna (T.A.), P. nigrum (P.N), C. grandiflorus (C), and C. oxyacantha (Cr) was assessed through curative and preventive mode of treatment. In preventive mode of treatment, the cardiac injury was induced with synthetic catecholamine (salbutamol) to pretreated rabbits with the proposed herbal combination for three weeks. In curative mode of treatment, cardiotoxicity/oxidative stress was induced in rabbits with salbutamol prior to treating them with plant mixture. Cardiac marker enzymes, lipids profile, and antioxidant enzymes as biomarker of cardiotoxicity were determined in experimental animals. Rabbits administrated with mere salbutamol showed a significant increase in cardiac marker enzymes and lipid profile and decrease in antioxidant enzymes as compared to normal control indicating cardiotoxicity and myocardial cell necrosis. However, pre- and postadministration of plant mixture appreciably restored the levels of all biomarkers. Histopathological examination confirmed that the said combination was safer cardioprotective product.
TA (E-OJ-01) significantly increased cardiovascular efficiency and improved the cardiac conditioning in young healthy adults.
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Terminalia arjuna (Ta) bark contains various natural antioxidants and has been used to protect animal cells against oxidative stress. In the present study, we have examined alleviating effects of Ta bark aqueous extract against Ni toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.). When rice seedlings were raised for 8 days in hydroponics in Yoshida nutrient medium containing 200 μM NiSO4, a decline in height, reduced biomass, increased Ni uptake, loss of root plasma membrane integrity, increase in the level of O2˙(-), H2O2 and ˙OH, increased lipid peroxidation, decline in photosynthetic pigments, increase in the level of antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and alterations in their isoenzyme profile patterns were observed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed damage to chloroplasts marked by disorganised enlarged starch granules and disrupted thylakoids under Ni toxicity. Exogenously adding Ta bark extract (3.2 mg ml(-1)) to the growth medium considerably alleviated Ni toxicity in the seedlings by reducing Ni uptake, suppressing generation of reactive oxygen species, reducing lipid peroxidation, restoring level of photosynthesis pigments and ultrastructure of chloroplasts, and restoring levels of antioxidative enzymes. Results suggest that Ta bark extract considerably alleviates Ni toxicity in rice seedlings by preventing Ni uptake and reducing oxidative stress in the seedlings.
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A high throughput (HTP) screening of >1400 commonly sold natural products (bulk herbs, cooking spices, teas, leaves, supplement components, nutraceutical food components, fruit and vegetables, rinds, seeds, polyphenolics etc.) was conducted to elucidate anti-inflammatory substances in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (E. coli serotype O111:B4) monocytes: RAW 264.7 macrophages [peripheral], BV-2 microglia [brain]) relative to hydrocortisone, dexamethasone and L-N6-(1Iminoethyl)lysine (L-NIL). HTP evaluation was also carried out for lethal kill curves against E.coli 0157:H7 1x10(6) CFU/mL relative to penicillin. Validation studies were performed to assess cytokine profiling using antibody arrays. Findings were corroborated by independent ELISAs and NO2-/iNOS expression quantified using the Griess Reagent and immunocytochemistry, respectively. For robust screening, we developed an in-vitro efficacy paradigm to ensure anti-inflammatory parameters were observed independent of cytotoxicity. This caution was taken given that many plants exert tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory effects at close range through similar signaling pathways, which could lead to false positives.
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The effect of a bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TAE) was studied on the alteration of adriamycin (ADR)-induced micronuclei formation in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Exposure of lymphocytes to ADR resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the micronuclei formation indicating DNA damage. Pretreatment of lymphocytes with TAE before ADR treatment resulted in a significant decline in micronuclei formation. Increasing doses of ADR caused a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of lymphocytes bearing one, two and multiple micronuclei. Prior exposure of lymphocytes to 15 microg/mL of TAE significantly reduced the frequency of lymphocytes bearing one, two and multiple micronuclei when compared with ADR-treated control. TAE-inhibited the induction of (*)OH (hydroxyl), O2(*-) (superoxide), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS(*+) (2,2-azino-bis-3-ethyl benzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals in a dose-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that TAE protects DNA against ADR-induced damage.
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All animals in the ethinyl estradiol group showed a significant change in all the variables. None of the individual test drugs, neither the marketed preparation produced change in any of the variables. The plant drug combination also did not produce a change in any of the variables studied except in histomorphology wherein it caused a slight increase in the height of the luminal epithelium of the uterus (P < 0.05 vs. Group 1).
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In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices. Extracts from the medicinal herb and spices have significant activity. B. cereus was the most sensitive and R. mucilaginosa was the most resistant among the microorganisms tested. Ethanolic and methanolic extract of C. asiatica displayed maximum diameter of inhibition zone against bacteria and yeast and percentage mycelial inhibition against moulds. This study confirmed the potential of selected extracts of spices as effective natural food preservative in juices.
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Results of our study demonstrate the antioxidant and antiarthritic activity of TABE in CIA in rats. We believe that TABE could find clinical application in the management of rheumatoid arthritis and associated disorders.
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The higher antioxidant and inhibitory effect of Terminalia chebula black in this study could be attributed to its significantly higher phenolic content, Fe(II) chelating ability, reducing ability and free radical scavenging activity. Therefore oxidative stress in brain could be potentially prevented by the intake of these plants.
The bark of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. (TA) is widely recommended for the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Indian system of medicine. Oral administration of TA for 12 weeks in rabbits caused augmentation of myocardial antioxidants; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) along with induction of heat shock protein72 (HSP72). In vivo ischemic-reperfusion injury induced oxidative stress, tissue injury of heart and haemodynamic effects were prevented in the TA treated rabbit hearts. The study provides scientific basis for the putative therapeutic effect of TA in ischemic heart disease.
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In vitro studies demonstrate the ability of Salacia to inhibit intestinal alpha glucosidase. In mouse mesenteric fat it enhances the mRNA expression for hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adiponectin; thus increasing lipolysis and reducing insulin resistance respectively. In 3 T3-L-1 adipocytes lipogenesis factors are down regulated and lipolysis factors are up regulated with Salacia reticulata treatment. Animal studies and clinical trials are consistent in demonstrating improvement of glucose concentrations in the fasted and sucrose and maltose loaded states. Clinically significant reductions of HbA1C and plasma Insulin are reported with treatment of 6 weeks to 3 months. One clinical trial reported significant reduction of weight and BMI when Salacia is used in combination with vitamin D. Salacia reticulata effectively improves insulin resistance, glucose metabolism and reduces obesity. A larger evidence base is required from well-planned studies to confirm its efficacy and safety.
The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis.
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TAAE and TAWE inhibited the lipid peroxidation and HMG-CoA reductase but had no effect on LpL. Both the extracts attenuated H2O2 mediated ROS generation in THP-1 cells by promoting catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and by sustaining cellular reducing power. TAAE was highly effective in attenuating proinflammatory gene transcripts in THP-1 cells and HAECs, whereas the response to TAWE depended on the type of transcript and cell type. Both extracts decreased the levels of typical inflammatory marker proteins, viz. LPS induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α secreted by THP-1 cells and TNF-α induced cell surface adhesion molecules on HAECs, namely vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Phytochemical analyses indicated the richness in phenolic compounds and terpenes of TAAE and TAWE, while revealing variability in their metabolite profile.
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More than 2000 plants have been listed in the Traditional (Herbal/Alternative) systems of medicine and some of these are providing comprehensive relief to the people suffering from cardio-vascular diseases, specially "hyperlipidemia" and "ischemic heart disease". WHO reports indicate that around eighty percent of the global population still relies on botanical drugs and several herbal medicines have advanced to clinical use in modern times. Based on these findings, present review is written to identify the "Pharmacology and Cardio-vascular Application" of four commonly used plants in Pakistan. These include, Crataegus oxycantha, Inula racemosa, Terminalia arjuna and Commiphora mukul. The selection of the plants in the present study is primarily based on their chemistry and pharmacological properties including toxicology reported in various research articles and reviews. Some very interesting findings have been observed and thus recorded and reported in this review.
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Five oral isolates each of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata and Candida guilliermondii (total of 30 isolates) were examined for the presence of PAFE after 1 h of exposure to the minimum inhibitory concentration of amphotericin B. The PAFE was determined as the difference in time (hours) required for the growth of the drug-free control and the drug-exposed test cultures to increase to 0.05 absorbance level following removal of amphotericin B.
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The effect of ethanolic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark on carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes of N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar albino rats were studied. The plasma and liver glycolytic enzymes such as hexokinase, phosphoglucoisomerase, aldolase were significantly increased in cancer induced animals while glyconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase was decreased. These enzymes were reverted significantly to near normal range in treated animals after oral administration of T. arjuna for 28 days. The modulation of the enzymes constitute the depletion of energy metabolism leads to inhibition of cancer growth. This inhibitory activity may be due to the anticancer activity of constituents present in the ethanolic extract of T. arjuna.
There are no scientific clinical studies showing effect of both these drugs on exercise performance after regular administration when given as supplements The present study was therefore designed and performed to assess the effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) individually and as a combination on maximum velocity, average absolute and relative Power, balance, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and blood pressure in humans.
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A new cardenolide, 16,17-dihydroneridienone 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside (1), was isolated from the roots of Terminalia arjuna.