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Several anti-inflammatory drugs have been used to reduce pain and discomfort after periodontal surgeries. This study evaluates the efficacy of using etoricoxib and dexamethasone for pain prevention after open-flap debridement surgery. In this study, 60 patients who were undergoing open flap debridment surgery were randomly assigned to receive a single dose preoperative medication 1 hour prior to surgery. The patients were divided into three groups. In Group 1, 20 patients were given placebo drug orally. In Group 2, 20 patients were given 8 mg Dexamethasone orally and in Group 3, 20 patients were given 120 mg Etoricoxib orally. Patients were instructed to complete a pain diary hourly for the first 8 hours after each surgery and three times a day on the following 3 days. The four point verbal rating scale (VRS 4) and Numerical rate scale were used to assess discomfort. Post-operative Assessment of Pain and Discomfort showed that persistent discomfort and pain were found to be more in the placebo group compared to dexamethasone and etoricoxib group. The adoption of a preemptive medication protocol using either etoricoxib or dexamethasone may be considered effective for pain and discomfort prevention after open-flap debridement surgeries.
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Several anti-inflammatory drugs have been used to reduce pain and discomfort after periodontal surgeries. This study evaluates the efficacy of using etoricoxib and dexamethasone for pain prevention after open-flap debridement surgery.
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In rats, it has been reported that rofecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, reacts with the aldehyde group of allysine in elastin to give a condensation covalent adduct, thereby preventing the formation of cross-linkages in the elastin and causing degradation of the elastic fibers in aortas in vivo. Acid, organic solvent, and proteolytic enzyme treatments of human aortic homogenate after incubation with [(14)C]rofecoxib demonstrated that most of the radioactivity is covalently bound to elastin. The in vitro covalent binding was inhibited in the presence of beta-aminopropionitrile, D-penicillamine, and hydralazine, which suggested that the aldehyde group of allysine in human elastin was relevant to the covalent binding. The in vitro covalent binding of [(14)C]rofecoxib was significantly decreased by the addition of only nonradiolabeled rofecoxib but not the other COX-2 inhibitors, celecoxib, valdecoxib, etoricoxib, and CS-706 [2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl 1-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-1H-pyrrole], a novel selective COX-2 inhibitor. All the above COX-2 inhibitors except for rofecoxib had no reactivity with the aldehyde group of benzaldehyde used as a model compound of allysine aldehyde under a physiological pH condition. On the other hand, no retention of the radioactivity of [(14)C]rofecoxib was observed in human aortic endothelial cells in vitro, suggesting that rofecoxib is not retained in aortic endothelial cells in vivo. These results suggest that rofecoxib, but not other COX-2 inhibitors, is capable of covalently binding to the aldehyde group of allysine in human elastin. This might be one of the main causes of cardiovascular events by rofecoxib in clinical situations.
For every 2 patients treated with etoricoxib, 1 achieved a clinically meaningful (≥30%) improvement in spine pain and BASDAI beyond that expected from placebo, whereas the corresponding values were approximately 1 in every 3 patients treated with naproxen. Use of NNTs and responder analyses provide additional, complementary information beyond population mean responses when assessing efficacy compared to placebo and amongst active therapies.
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We performed a double-blind randomized prospective crossover trial of etoricoxib 90mg vs placebo, taken just prior to the onset of fasting, during the first 2 weeks of Ramadan 2010. Healthy adults aged 18-65 years were enrolled. Demographics, headache history and a daily post-fast survey were collected. We compared incidence, time of onset, and intensity of headache on each day and side effects in control and treatment groups.
Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors are widely used. They have no advantages in terms of efficacy, and it is not documented that they cause fewer adverse effects than conventional NSAIDs.
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The present analysis examined pooled safety data from the etoricoxib clinical development program with the aim of comparing the renal AE profiles of etoricoxib 60, 90, and 120 mg/d with those of approved therapeutic dosages of the comparator nonselective NSAIDs, naproxen 1000 mg/d and ibuprofen 2400 mg/d, and with that of placebo.
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Random-effects RR (95% confidence interval (CI)) was lowest for naproxen 1.06 (0.94–1.20), followed by celecoxib 1.12 (1.00–1.24), ibuprofen 1.14 (0.98–1.31), meloxicam 1.25 (1.04–1.49), rofecoxib 1.34 (1.22–1.48), diclofenac 1.38 (1.26–1.52), indometacin 1.40 (1.21–1.62), etodolac 1.55 (1.16–2.06), and etoricoxib 1.97 (1.35–2.89). Heterogeneity between studies was present. For new users, RRs (95% CIs) were for naproxen, 0.85 (0.73–1.00); ibuprofen, 1.20 (0.97–1.48); celecoxib, 1.23 (1.00–1.52); diclofenac, 1.41 (1.08–1.86); and rofecoxib, 1.43 (1.21–1.66).Except for naproxen, higher risk was generally associated with higher doses, as defined in each study, overall and in patients with prior coronary heart disease. Low and high doses of diclofenac and rofecoxib were associated with high risk of AMI, with dose–response relationship for rofecoxib. In patients with prior coronary heart disease, except for naproxen, duration of use ≤3 months was associated with an increased risk of AMI.
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Etoricoxib should be considered as a risk in the development of immune hemolytic anemia, with the causative antibodies potentially reacting with other COX inhibitors.
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To evaluate the effects of two different doses of etoricoxib delivered perioperatively compared with placebo and standard pain management on pain at rest, pain with mobilization, and use of additional morphine/opioids postoperatively.
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Solubility of etoricoxib was highest at low pH, and there was no significant difference in the solubility observed between blank buffers and biorelevant media of similar pH. The drug remained solubilised when transferred into simulated intestinal fluids. Using the in vitro data as input function in Gastro Plus, an IVIVC was established. Further simulations confirmed that the drug absorption occurs similar to the absorption of an oral solution.
One hundred and twenty adult patients of ASA physical status I and II and undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients were divided into four groups of 30 each to receive methylprednisolone 125 mg intravenously or etoricoxib 120 mg orally or a combination of methylprednisolone 125 mg intravenously and etoricoxib 120 mg orally or a placebo 1 hr prior to surgery. Patients were observed for postoperative pain, fentanyl consumption, PONV, fatigue and sedation, and respiratory depression. Results were analyzed by the ANOVA, a Chi square test, the Mann Whitney U test and by Fisher's exact test. P values of less than 0.05 were considered to be significant.
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The preparation of the sulfoxide analogues 2 and 4, and their enantiomeric pure forms is discussed as well as their potential to act as prodrugs to the potent and selective sulfone-containing COX-2 inhibitors rofecoxib and etoricoxib. Sulfoxides 2 and 4 were shown to be effectively transformed in vivo into rofecoxib and etoricoxib, respectively, after oral administration in rats. In the case of sulfoxide 2, both a slightly improved pharmacokinetic profile and a better pharmacological activity in an arthritis model were seen when compared with rofecoxib.
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Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible prostaglandin G/H synthase, is overexpressed in several human cancers, including colon cancer, and therefore the potential ability of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, etoricoxib, is considered in the prevention of the 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in the rat model. DMH was injected s.c. for 6 weeks, whereas etoricoxib was fed orally to the rats on a daily basis. The results showed that DMH produced a very high number of multiple plaque lesions (MPLs), putative neoplastic biomarkers, localized throughout the colon, whereas considerable regression was observed with etoricoxib treatment. In addition, the etoricoxib group was the only group that exhibited very few of these lesions. Histopathological analysis revealed extreme dysplasia, a few adenomas, and other carcinogenic changes in the DMH group, which are distinctly absent in the etoricoxib-treated group. COX-2 was also seen to be highly expressed following DMH treatment. The DMH treatment caused very few apoptotic cells, as determined by the TUNEL assay of the colonic mucosa in paraffin sections whose number greatly increased following etoricoxib treatment. Because all these changes were clearly reversed by etoricoxib in DMH-treated animals, and the use of etoricoxib alone did not produce a neoplastic effect per se, it appears that etoricoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, might be a safe and potentially chemopreventive agent in colon cancer.
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A retrospective analysis was conducted evaluating 52 patients (17M/35F, mean age 53±17 years) with clinical diagnoses of fixed drug eruptions submitted to patch tests in a 20-year period in a Dermatology Department. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were clinically suspected in 90.4% of the cases, followed by antibiotics (28.9%) and paracetamol (15.4%).
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The majority of leg ulcers in patients with RA are due to underlying venous/arterial malfunction while vasculitic or traumatic ulcers are less common. Additionally, we identified a relevant subgroup of patients with 'inactivity ulcers' due to impaired mobility and consecutive lymphedema. Morphology and localization of ulcerations as well as duplex sonography provide the most important clues for accurate diagnosis, ensuring adequate treatment.
The overview included 39 separate Cochrane Reviews with 41 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 50,000 participants in approximately 460 individual studies. The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design, methods, and efficacy outcome reporting. No statistical comparison was undertaken.Reliable results (high quality information) were obtained for 53 pairs of drug and dose in painful postsurgical conditions; these included various fixed dose combinations, and fast acting formulations of some analgesics. NNTs varied from about 1.5 to 20 for at least 50% maximum pain relief over four to six hours compared with placebo. The proportion of participants achieving this level of benefit varied from about 30% to over 70%, and the time to remedication varied from two hours (placebo) to over 20 hours. Good (low) NNTs were obtained with ibuprofen 200 mg plus paracetamol (acetaminophen) 500 mg (NNT compared with placebo 1.6; 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 1.8), ibuprofen fast acting 200 mg (2.1; 1.9 to 2.3); ibuprofen 200 mg plus caffeine 100 mg (2.1; 1.9 to 3.1), diclofenac potassium 50 mg (2.1; 1.9 to 2.5), and etoricoxib 120 mg (1.8; 1.7 to 2.0). For comparison, ibuprofen acid 400 mg had an NNT of 2.5 (2.4 to 2.6). Not all participants had good pain relief and, for many pairs of drug and dose, 50% or more did not achieve at least 50% maximum pain relief over four to six hours.Long duration of action (eight hours or greater) was found for etoricoxib 120 mg, diflunisal 500 mg, paracetamol 650 mg plus oxycodone 10 mg, naproxen 500/550 mg, celecoxib 400 mg, and ibuprofen 400 mg plus paracetamol 1000 mg.There was no evidence of analgesic effect for aceclofenac 150 mg, aspirin 500 mg, and oxycodone 5 mg (low quality evidence). No trial data were available in reviews of acemetacin, meloxicam, nabumetone, nefopam, sulindac, tenoxicam, and tiaprofenic acid. Inadequate amounts of data were available for nine drugs and doses, and data potentially susceptible to publication bias for 13 drugs and doses (very low quality evidence).
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Cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are intended to preserve cyclo-oxygenase-1-mediated gastroprotection and platelet function, whilst inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase-2-mediated inflammation.
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Etoricoxib is presently the most commonly prescribed cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) inhibitor for chronic pain and inflammatory conditions. In clinical practice, phenytoin and etoricoxib are used in chronic conditions of generalized seizure with concomitant chronic pain. Hence, there are chances of drug-drug interaction because modulations of isoenzymes involved in metabolism CYP2C9/10 and CYP2C19 which partially inhibited by etoricoxib. It is important to maintain the therapeutic level of phenytoin in plasma for effective control of seizure. So, the aim of the study was to determine the effect of etoricoxib on the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin in rabbits. In a parallel design study, phenytoin (30 mg/kg/day) was given daily for seven days. On day 7, blood samples were taken at various time intervals between 0-24 h. In etoricoxib group, phenytoin was administered for seven days as above. On day 8, etoricoxib (5.6 mg/kg) along with phenytoin (30 mg/kg/day) was administered and blood samples were drawn as above. Plasma phenytoin levels were assayed by HPLC and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. In etoricoxib group, there was a decrease in t(1/2)a phenytoin and t(1/2)el decreased significantly as compared to phenytoin group. Significant changes were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters in etoricoxib-treated group. These results suggest that etoricoxib alters the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin. Confirmation of these results in human studies will warrant changes in phenytoin dose or frequency when etoricoxib is co-administered with it.
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Safety data regarding the use of etoricoxib and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and other spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients are rather limited. Our objective was to estimate and compare rates of gastrointestinal, renovascular, and cardiovascular adverse events in patients exposed to etoricoxib, celecoxib, or nonselective NSAIDs or totally unexposed to NSAIDs.
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Etoricoxib, 120 mg, provided analgesic efficacy superior to that of the placebo for the summed pain intensity difference over 8 hours (p = 0.005), and total pain relief over 8 hours (p < 0.05), and all primary and secondary end points were similar to those of mefenamic acid. No serious or unexpected adverse events were reported, and no subjects withdrew from the study because of an adverse event. However, the incidence of nausea and epigastic pain in the mefenamic acid group was significantly higher than in the etoricoxib group.
Twenty-four randomized controlled trials (2273 participants; 997 male, 1276 female; mean age, 18.2 years; SD, 4.4 years) were included in this network meta-analysis. A total of 26 interventions were identified and classified into 6 classes based on their mechanism of action. Compared with placebo-class, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug analgesics and lasers were the most effective intervention classes with a shared median rank of 2 (95% credible interval [CrI], 1-3), followed by "other" analgesics (median rank, 3; 95% CrI, 1-4), behavior therapy (median rank, 4; 95% CrI, 3-6), and miscellaneous (median rank, 5; 95% CrI 3-6). The most effective individual interventions in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug analgesics and lasers classes were etoricoxib (median rank, 1; 95% CrI, 1-3) and gallium-arsenide superpulsed lasers (median rank, 3; 95% CrI, 1-13), respectively. Assessment of transitivity and consistency assumption showed no threat to the network meta-analysis estimates. There was no evidence of significant publication bias. Heterogeneity was mild to moderate (tau-square, 0.044; 95% CrI, 0.040-0.055).
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Patch tests on pigmented lesions were reactive in 21 patients (40.4%), 20 of those to NSAID (nimesulide, piroxicam and etoricoxib) and 1 to an antihistamine (cetirizine). All patch tests using other drugs were negative, even under conditions of high clinical suspicion. Oral rechallenge allowed confirmation of drug imputability in 5 of 31 test-negative cases. Cross reactivity was frequently observed between piroxicam and other oxicams, and between different antihistamines.