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Low dose isotretinoin was found to be a safe and effective choice for patients with moderate to severe scar prone acne vulgaris.
Grades 3 and 4 hematological and gastrointestinal in 30% and 37% of patients, respectively; grades 1 and 2 autoimmune reactions in 28% of patients.
Oral isotretinoin is unrivalled in efficacy and remission capability for treatment of acne. In addition to appropriate monitoring and continued vigilance for safety concerns, appropriate dosing to mitigate avoidable dose-dependent adverse effects is the responsibility of prescribers. Low-dose regimens are better tolerated and effective in inducing acne clearance. Although much progress has been made since the advent of isotretinoin, there remain many unanswered questions regarding optimization to maximize response while minimizing the potential for avoidable adverse events. The ongoing availability of isotretinoin is imperative to patients with acne, their caregivers, and physicians.
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The treatment of acne is based on local and systemic treatments. It must be adapted to the type of acne and take some prognostic factors into account. Because of the possibility of drug resistance, systemic and local antibiotics should be used for only limited periods and preferably as part of combined treatments. Prescription of isotretinoin to women must follow strict rules. Some new-generation contraceptive pills are an interesting alternative for acne treatment in women. Zinc, which basically targets inflammatory acne, is a possible option for pregnant women and during the summer. Cosmetic care is also a fundamental part of acne treatment.
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Ocular adverse effects (AEs) or purchases of ophthalmic medications within 1 year after the first dispensed isotretinoin prescription.
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We report the case of a patient treated with vemurafenib for papillary thyroid carcinoma who subsequently developed multiple SCCs and AK of the skin. The lesions were deemed related to the medication and treated with excision. In addition, subsequent development of SCCs and AK was successfully prevented with a combination of isotretinoin and 5-fluorouracil in this patient. We discuss postulated mechanisms for these findings, as well as potential preventive therapy with the aforementioned combination regimen in patients undergoing treatment with vemurafenib.
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The clinicopathologic and molecular features of the newly characterized Ki-1 lymphoma, although well studied in Western countries, are less well described in Asia.
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Isotretinoin had not resulted in any untoward effects in patients who underwent the procedures. Atypical scarring, delayed wound healing, keloids, or hypertrophic scars were not observed in any patient.
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The recent interest in treating acne with one of the retinoid drugs has been accompanied by a wide variety of ocular side effects involving the eyelids, cornea, lens, optic nerve and retina. In one group of patients being evaluated for possible efficacy of a retinoic acid analogue in treating psoriasis, several patients complained of difficulty driving at night due to decreased dark adaptation which we were able to document. Fortunately, most of the above side effects tend to disappear within months after the drug is discontinued. However, we have recently seen two cases of dry eye syndrome associated with Accutane therapy that have persisted for more than two years. In addition, scattered reports have appeared regarding cataracts in young patients (teens to early 40's) which developed during, and/or after Accutane treatment. We have examined lens matter derived from two such patients who had extracapsular cataract extractions. Their lens proteins showed an elevation in UV absorptivity (between 330-390 nm) compared with matched control material (derived from Eye Bank specimens) and HPLC analyses demonstrated an abnormal peak in their profiles which was similar to one present in control samples incubated with retinoic acid and was not present in lens protein samples derived from cataracts not associated with Accutance therapy. These observations demonstrate that some of the Accutane induced ocular side affects are not reversible when the drug is stopped, and patients on such therapy should be carefully monitored.
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Three family members, at initial evaluation, had generalized comedonal lesions with histologic changes of acantholysis and dyskeratosis. A total of nine cases of this entity, termed familial dyskeratotic comedones, have been documented in the literature. It appears to have autosomal dominant inheritance and onset in childhood or adolescence. Lesions are asymptomatic except for occasional pruritus or inflammation, and general health is undisturbed. A history of acne vulgaris is seen in four of nine patients and is the only associated skin disease. Treatment with oral isotretinoin produced no improvement in two patients. Electron microscopy revealed changes similar to those seen in Darier's disease.
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The objective of our study was to characterize drug-induced PAs.
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In 2010, the British Association of Dermatologists (BAD) published clinical guidelines for the safe introduction and continued use of isotretinoin in patients with acne in the UK. The BAD provides UK dermatologists with a facility for national audit, and it undertook an audit on compliance with these guidelines in 2012.
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National Cancer Institute Intergroup Trial NCI #I91-0001 examined the effectiveness of isotretinoin A for chemoprevention of second primary tumors, the primary endpoint in that trial. Prospective data from patients randomly assigned to the placebo arm were analyzed.
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Abnormalities of the secondary palate were studied in an animal model in which features of Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) and Nager or Miller syndromes (both of which are facially similar to Treacher Collins, but include limb malformations) were induced by acute maternal exposure to 13-cis-retinoic acid (13-cis-RA, isotretinoin, Accutane). Previous work in our laboratory has illustrated that excessive cell death in the proximal aspect of the maxillary and mandibular prominences of the first visceral arch and in the apical ectodermal ridge of the limb bud probably accounts for the characteristic craniofacial and limb abnormalities observed (Sulik et al, 1987; Sulik and Dehart, 1988). The current study shows that maternal treatment with 400 mg per kilogram 13-cis-RA at 8 days 14 hours (8d14hr) or 9d6hr post fertilization results in abnormalities of the secondary palate that vary in incidence and severity. Following the earlier treatment time, 82 percent (68 of 74) of the 18d fetuses were affected, with, severely hypoplastic, unfused palatal shelves present in 34 percent (25 of 74). The less severely affected fetuses had malformations that involved primarily the posterior aspect of the palatal shelves. This malformation (foreshortening of the posterior portion of the palate) constituted the major developmental alteration that resulted from treatment at the later time, at which time a 52 percent (26 of 50) malformation incidence was seen. The change in pattern of malformations with treatment time is consistent with the changing pattern of programmed cell death, which was observed to occur in the first visceral arch.
The introduction of 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin, Accutane) represents a major advance in the treatment of severe, disfiguring, cystic acne. This article addresses the course of treatment, teratogenicity, laboratory evaluation, side effects, and management of complications.
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Within the experimental design of this study, it could be concluded that patients with reduced or increased salivary flow do not present alterations in masticatory efficiency.
From 1990 to 2002 there were significant declines (p<0.01) in the likelihood of use of several drug classes that are reliant on antimicrobial mechanisms for acne including the following: benzoyl peroxide, topical clindamycin, oral erythromycin and tetracycline group antibiotics. There were significant increases in likelihood of utilization for agents not reliant on antimicrobial mechanisms including topical retinoids and oral isotretinoin during this period. These changes in utilization were not affected by controlling for demographic factors in multivariate analysis.
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Consecutive cases of DDA of the breast were retrospectively reviewed including patient demographic variables, diagnostic criteria and type of therapies. A successful outcome was defined as complete healing of chronic open breast wounds and absence of disease recurrence after cessation of therapy.
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Serum UA levels increased linearly with increasing serum retinol levels, whereas serum UA levels decreased with increasing serum β-carotene levels. After adjusting for age, sex, dietary factors, and other potential confounders, the serum UA level differences from the bottom (referent) to the top quintiles of serum retinol levels were 0, 0.16, 0.32, 0.43, and 0.71 mg/dl (P for trend <0.001), and for β-carotene were 0, -0.15, -0.29, -0.27, and -0.40 mg/dl (P for trend <0.001), respectively. Similarly, the multivariate odds ratios of hyperuricemia from the bottom (referent) to top quintiles of serum retinol levels were 1.00, 1.30, 1.83, 2.09, and 3.22 (P for trend <0.001) and for β-carotene were 1.00, 0.85, 0.68, 0.73, and 0.54 (P for trend <0.001), respectively. The graded associations persisted across subgroups according to cross-classification by both serum retinol and β-carotene levels.
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Because of the potential hepatotoxicity of retinoids, prescription of isotretinoin is always very carefully made in healthy subjects, and prohibited in case of concomitant hepatopathy. Gilbert's syndrome consists of chronic, mild, unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. In this syndrome, isotretinoin has been reported twice to be perfectly tolerated, and once even beneficial. We report here a new case of good tolerance and even improvement of a Gilbert's syndrome during isotretinoin therapy.
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Alternative dosing schedules of temozolomide may improve survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM) by increasing the therapeutic index, overcoming common mechanisms of temozolomide resistance, or both. The goal of this randomized phase II study was to evaluate two different temozolomide regimens in the adjuvant treatment of newly diagnosed GBM.
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All-trans retinoic acid deficiency resulting from ethanol's interference with the synthesis of all-trans retinoic acid from retinol was recently suggested to cause the malformations of the fetal alcohol syndrome. Phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate, might be teratogenic because they lower the concentration of all-trans retinoic acid in serum, by inducing the enzyme systems in the liver responsible for the metabolism of the all-trans retinoic acid, or by other mechanisms. Here we show, that in patients given therapeutic doses of phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate, serum all-trans and 13-cis retinoic acid concentrations are indeed significantly lowered. We propose that drugs with this ability should be considered as potential teratogens.
A review of the literature finds only very few cases of hepatic injuries caused by isotretinoin, contrary to etretinate. Safety of isotretinoin in Gilbert's syndrome was first observed in 1984, but its beneficial effects have only recently been described by Wang et al., and we report here a similar case. Pharmacological mechanisms remain hypothetic. However, considering the prevalence of Gilbert's syndrome and its usual first expression during postpubertal period, it seems to us interesting for therapeutic practice to know that isotretinoin is not less safe in these patients.
To investigate the superiority of mobile teledermatology in the care of patients with high-need facial acne in comparison to outpatient services with particular attention to treatment efficacy, safety, and patient compliance. Further, patient satisfaction with remote care was evaluated.
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A retrospective review was conducted examining visits in 2008-2012 by adolescents aged 14 to 25 years in which a known teratogen (US Food and Drug Administration pregnancy risk category D or X) was prescribed. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, evidence of contraceptive provision, and menstrual and sexual histories. The data were analyzed using standard statistical methods.